What is Knowledge Representation?

What is Knowledge Representation?

12 Pages · 2004 · 22 KB · English

3 1 KR as a surrogate • Agents “reason” about models of the world to – Deduce properties without having to directly gather information from the world

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1 What is Knowledge Representation? Davis, Shrobe and Szolovitz AI Magazine, 1993 2 Five roles that KR plays 1 A surrogate for some part of the real world 2 A set of ontological commitments 3 A fragmentary theory of intelligent reasoning 4 A medium for pragmatically efficient computation 5 A medium of human expression 3 1 KR as a surrogate •Agents “reason” about models of the world to – Deduce properties without having to directly gather information from the world – Predict consequences of potential actions rather than performing the actions directly •Given a KR, there are two questions to ask: – Semantics --For whatis it a surrogate? – Fidelity -- How accurate is it? •When modeling the natural world, KRs are always imperfect – Consequently, even with a sound reasoning system, incorrect conclusions are inevitable! 4 2 Ontological commitments • A KR is a set of ontological commitments • An ontology is a theory of what existsin the world – Classes, objects, relations, attributes, properties, constraints, special individuals, etc. – We could also view this as providing a vocabulary. • A KR makes a commitment to a particular ontology – i.e., to describing the world with particular terms. • “The commitments are in effect a strong pair of glasses that determine what we can see, bringing some part of the world into sharp focus, at the expense of blurring other parts.” 5 Example of ontological commitments Problem: representing electronic circuits • In a “lumped element model” – a circuit consists of • Components with terminals that have certain I/O behaviors • Connections between terminals – signals flow instantaneously along the connections. • Another model may represent the electrodynamics of the situation – Signals propagate with finite speed 6 Note • Every representation ignores somethingabout the world • A KR is not just a data structure. “ Part of what makes a language representational is that it carries meaning, i.e., there is a correspondence between its constructs and things in the external world”. 7 3 KR as a theory of reasoning • Many knowledge representations offer fragmentary theories of intelligent reasoning. •

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