The principal navigations, voyages, traffiques and discoveries of the English nation

The principal navigations, voyages, traffiques and discoveries of the English nation

289 Pages · 2010 · 14.97 MB · English

letters concerning the voyage of M. lohn Newbery and M. Ralph. Fitch, made by the way of the I^uant Sea to minde hath prepared himselfe for his destinated voyage vnto vs well liked of. For by this meanes .. had escaped with our liues, yet we had had long imprisonment. Alter 14 dayesimprisonment 

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charts, etc, may be filmed at different reduction ratios Those too large to be entirely included in one exposure are filmed beginning in the upper left hand corner, left to right end top to bottom, as many frames as required The following diagrams illustrate the method: Lea cartea planchea tableaux, etc peuvent Atre filmAs k dea taux de rMuction diff Arents Lorsque le document eat trop grand pour Atre reproduit en un aaul dich* il eat fHmA i partir de Tangle aupMeur gauche, de gauche k droite, et de haut en baa en pranant la nombra d'imagea nAcaaaaire Lae diagrammea auivanta illustrent la mMioda 1 Cbe l^rincipal Jl^atiigations, aopage?, CcafBqiues, AND OiscoDcrtcs of t{)C €nglisb JlSation V I, THE PRINCIPAL AND Disco\3eiieG OK THE ENGLISH NATION ffollrrtrli bg RICHARD llAKLUV I rkiAciiiu AND CbittH bg EDMUND GOLDSMID, FRHS Vol X ASIA I»AKT III Ehinbuigt): K ;^ I i;>I;iMlU 1889 i)i^on their heads, their s|>cares charged, and at the end of their staflTc hard by y' head of the spiarc, a horse taile died in a bloody colour, which is their ensigne : they he the chalengers (or the Turkes owne jierson After them came seuen jjpges of honour in cloih of siluer, v|)on seuen white horses, which horses werecoucred with cloth of siluer, all embrodercd and garnished with ]>rccious stones, cmeraiids diamonds, and rubies most richly After them also came sixe more pages of hono'i, clothed in cloth of gold, cuery one hauing his bowe in his hand, and his fawchine of the Turkes fashion by his side Immediately after them came the great Turke himselfe with great pompe and magnificence, vsing in his countenance and gesture a wonderfull maiestie, hauing onely on each side of his person one j)age clothed with cloth of gold : he himselfe was mounted vpon a goodly white horse, adorned with a robe of cloth of gold, embrodered most richly with the most precious stones, and vpon his head a goodly white tucke, containing in length by estimation fifteene yards, which was of silke and linnen wouen together, resembling something Callicut cloth, but is much more fine and rich, and in the top of his crowne, a litle pinnach of white Ostrich feathers, and his horse most richly apparelled in all points correspondent to the same After him folowed sixe goodly yong ladies, mounted vpon fine white hackneis, clothed in cloth of siluer, which were of the Iragltfuti, and Discoutria faihion of nienit garments, uinhnHkrcil vir\ ruhl)' with |)enrlc and precious st(>nelc, Alexandria in ^nypt, and of all other townes and cities vndcrour dominion and iurisdiction ; W'c will and command you, that when you shall see Anthony lenkinson, bearer of these present letters, merchant of (ondon in Kngland, or his factor, or any other bearing the sayd letter for him, arriue in our ports and hauens, with his ship or ships, or other vessels whatsoeucr, that you suffer him to lade or vnlade his merchandise where soeucr it shall seeme good vntc him, traffiking fur himelfc in all our countrcys and dominions, without hindering or any way disturbing of him, his ship, his people or merchandise, and with out enforcing him to pay any other custome or toll whatsoeuer, in any sort, or to any persons whatsoeuer they be, saue onely our ordinarle duties contained in our custome houses, which when he hath paicd, we will that he be franke and free, as well for himselfc as for his people, merchandise, ship or ships, and all other vessels whatsoeuer : and in so doing that he may traffike, bargainc, sell and buy, lade and vnlade, in all our foresayd Countreys, lands and dominions, in like sort, and with the like liberties and priuiledges as the Frenchmen and Venetians vsc, and enioy, and more if it bee possible, without the hinderance or impeachment of any man And furthermore, wee charge and commaund all Viceroyes, and Consuls of the French nation, and of the Venetians, and all other Consuls resident in our Countreys, in what port or prouince soeuer they be, not to constraine, or cause Trnjfii/u^s, aiiti tUutmenei |) (o constrainc, by ihcin, (ir the %\y<\ Ministers and Offii era what Hdcucr they l)c, thu Hayd Anthony Icnkinson, or his factor, or his Bay in nil our ('ountreys, any other then our ordinarie custome And m oue any man hinder and impeach him, ahoue, and besides these our present letters, wee cliarf;e you most ex|)ressly to defend and assist him ngaynst the sayd Consuls, and if they will not obey our |)resent lonunandement, that you aducrtise vs thereof, that we may take such order for the same, that others may lake example thereby Moreouer we commaunil all our Captaines of our (iallies, and their Lieutenints, be they Foistcr or other Vessels, that when they shall tinde the sayd lenkinson, or his factor, his ship or ships, wiih his seriiaunts and merchandise, iliat they hurt him not neither in body nor ^oods, but that rather ihey assist and defend liim n;;aynst all such as seeke to doe him wrung, and that they ayde and helpc him with vitailes, according to his want, and that whosoeuer shall see these |)resents, obey the same, as they will auoyd the |)enaltie in doing the contrary Made in Aleppo of Syria, the yeere 96 1 of our holy prophet Mahomet, and in the yeere of lesus, 1553 signed with the scepter and signet of the grand Signior, with his ownc pro|>er hand letters concerning the voyage of M lohn Newbery and M Ralph Fitch, made by the way of the I^uant Sea to Syria, and ouerland to Balsara, and thence into the East Indies, and beyond In the yeere 1583 A letter written from the Queenes Maiestie, to Zelabdin Echebar, King of Cambaia, and sent by lohn Newbery In February Anno 1583 ELizabeth by the grace of God &c To the most inuincible, and most mightie prince, lord Zelabdim Echebar king of Cambaya Inuincible Emperor, &c The great aflection which our Subjects haue, to visit the most distant |)laces of the world, not without good will and intention to introduce the trade of marchandize of al nations whatsoeuer they can, by which meanes the mutual and friendly trafique of marchandize on both sides may come, is the VOL X a » I lO Nauigatiotts, Voyages, I 'I •' P '^ K4 "> cause that the iKarer ot'tliis Iciier lohn N<;wberj', ioyntly with those that be in his company, with a curteous and honest boldnesse, doe repaire to the borders and countreys of your Empire, we doubt not but that your imperiall Maiestie through your royal grace, will fauourably and friendly accept him And that you would doe it the rather for our sake, to make vs greatly beholding to your Maiestie; wee should more earnestly, and with more wordes require it, if wee did think it needful But by the singular report that is of your imperial Maiesties humanitie in these vitermost parts of the world, we are greatly eased of that burden, and there fore we vse the fewer ar^A lesse words : onelv we request that because they are our subiects, they may be honestly intreated and receiued And that in respect of the hard iourney which they haue vndertaken to places so far distant, it would please your Maiestie with some libertie and securitie of voiage to gratifie it, with such priuileges as to you shall seeme good : which curtesie if your Imperial! maiestie shal to our subiects at our requests performe, wee according to our royall honour, wil recom pence the same with as many deserts us we can And herewith we bid your Imperial Maiestie to fareweL A letter written by her Maiestie to the King of China, in Februarie 1583 ELizabeth by the grace of God Queene of England, &c Most Imperial and inuincible prince, our honest subiect lohn Newbcry the bringer hereof, who with our fauour hath ; iken in hand the voyage which now hee pursueth to the parts and countreys of your Empire, not trusting vpon any other ground then vpon the fauour of your Imj^eriall clemencie and humanitie, is moued to vndertake a thing of so much difficultie, being perswaded that hee hauing entered into so many perils, your Maiestie will not dislike the same, esjiecially if it may appeare that it be not damageable vnto your royall Maiestie, and that to your people it will bring some profile : of both which things he not doubting, with more willing minde hath prepared himselfe for his destinated voyage vnto vs well liked of For by this meanes we perceiue, that the profit w hich hy the mutual trade on both sides, al the princes our neighbors in y= West do receiue, your Imperial maiestie and those that be subiect vnder your dominion, to their great ioy and benefit shal haue ihe same, which consisteth in the transporting outward Traffiifues, and Discouenes of such things whereof we haue plenty, and in bringing in such things as we stand in need of It cannot othei ise be, but that seeing that we are borne and made to haue need one of another, and that wee are bound to aide one another, but that your ini[)erial Maiestie wil wcl Uke of it, and by your subiects w' like indeuor wil be accepted For the increase whereof, if jour imperial Maiestie shall adde the securitie of passage, with other priuileges most necessary to vse the trade with your men, your maiestie shall doe that which belongeth \o a most honorable "jd liberal prince, and deserue so much of vs, as by no continuance or length of time shalbe forgotten Which request of ours we do most instantly desire to be taken in good part of your maiestie, and so great a benefit towards vs and our men, wc shall endcuor by diligence to requite when time shal serue thereunto The God Almighty long preserue your Imperial maiestie A letter of M lohn Newbery, written from Alcpo, to M Richard Hakluyt of Oxford, the 28 of May, Anno 1583 Right wellbeloued, and my assured good friend, I heartily commend me vnto you, hoping of your good health, &c After we set saile from Grauesend, which was the 13 day of February last, wee remained vpon our coast vntill the 11 day of March, and that day we set saile from Falmouth, and neuer ankered till wee arriued in the road of Tripolie in Syria, which was the last day of Aprill last past, where wee stayed 14 dayes : and the twentie of this present we came hither to Alepo, and with Gods helpe, within fiue or sixe dayes goe from hence towards the Indies Since my comming to Tripolis I haue made very earnest inquirieboth there and here, for the booke of Cosmographie of Abilfada wj^j Ismael, but by no nieanes can heare of it Some say ismaei his that possibly it may be had in Pei:ia, but nolwith Cosmo standing I will not faile to make inqi;' good profile of this voiage hither, and to Balsara, and so by Gods helpe there will be reasonable profite made of the voiage But with halfe money and halfe commoditie may be bought here the best sort of spices, and other commodities that ^ spufcs'at' ^^^ brought from the Indies, and without money there Babylon, is here at this instant small good to be done With Gods helpe two days hence, I minde to goe from hence to Balsara, and from thence of force I must goe to Ormus for want of a man that speaketh the Indian tongue At my being in Aleppo I hired two Nazaranies, and one of them hath bene twise in the Indies, and ha'i the language very well, but he is a very lewde fellow, and therefore I will not take him w'th me Balsara Ormus Here follow the prices of waics as they are worth here at this instant Cloues and Maces, the bateman, 5 duckats Cynamon 6 duckats, and few to be gotten Traffiquts, and Dis,:oueries »5 Nutmegs, the bateman, 45 medins, and 40 medins maketh a duckat Ginger, 40 medins Pepper, 75 medins Turbetta, the batemin, 50 medins Neel the churle, 70 duckats, and a churle is 27 rottils and a balfe of Aleppo Silke, much better then that which commeth from Persia, 11 duckats and a halfe the bateman, and euery bateman here maketh 7 pound and 5 ounces English waight From Babylon the 20 day of luly, 1583 Yours, lohn Newberie :; Master Newberie his letter from Ormus, to M John Eldred and William Shals at Balsara Right welbeloued and my assured good friends, I heartily commend me vnto you, hoping of your good healths, &c To certifie you of my voiage, after I departed from you, time wil not permit : but the 4 of this present we arriued here, and the 10 day I with the rest were committed to prison, and about the middle of the next moneth, the Captaine wil send vs all in his ship for Goa The cause why we are taken, as they say, is, for that I brought letters from Don Antonio But the trueth is Michael Stropene was the onely cause, vpon letters that his brotner wrote him from Aleppo God knoweth how we shall be delt withall in Goa, and therefore if you can procure our masters to send the king of Spaine his letters for our rcleasement, you should doe vs great good : for they cannot with iustice put vs to death It may be that they will cut our throtes, or keepe vs long in prison: Gods will be done All those commodities that I brought hither, had beene very well sold, if this trouble had not chanced You shall do well to send with all peed a messenger by land from Ralsara to Aleppo, for to certifie of this mischance, although it cost thirtie or fortie crownes, for that we may be the sooner released, and I shalbe the better able to recouer this againe which is now like to be lost : I pray you make my heartie commendations, &c, from out of the prison in Ormuz, this 21 of September, 1583 Nauigahom, Voyages, His second Letter t» the foresaid Master lolin Eldred and William Shales THe barke of the Icwes is arriued here two dales past, by whom I know you did write, hut your letters are not like to come to my handes This bringer hath shewed me here very great rourtosie, wherefore I pray you s!iew him what fauor you may About the middle of the next nioneth I thinke we shall depart from hence, God be our guide I thinke Andrew vill goe by land to Aleppo, wherein I pray you further him what you may : but if he sh;nild nat goe, then I i)ray you disi)atch away a messenger with as much speede as possible you may I can say no more, but do for me as you would I should do for you in the like cause, and so with my very hearty commendations, &c From out of the prison in Orniuz, this 24 diy of September, 1583 \'ours, lohn Newberic His third Letter to Maister Leonard Poore, written from Goa MY last I sent you was from Ormuz, whereby I certified you what had happened there vnto me, and the rest of my company, which was, that foure dayes after our arriuall there, we were all committed to prison, except one Italian which came "'pgj,efn'°'with me from Aleppo, whom the Captaine never Italian examined, onely dcmaunded what countryman he """n^be' ^''^' ''"' ^ ""''^ account Michael Stropene, who spies, accused vs, had informed the Captaine of liim The first day we arriued there, this Stropene accused vs that we were spies sent from Don Antonio, besides diuers other lies : nothwithstanding if we had beene of any other countrey then of England, we might freely haue traded with them And although we be Englishmen, I know no reason to the contrary, but that we may trade hither and thither as well as other nations, for all nations doe, and may come freely to Ormuz, as Frenchmen, Flemmings, Almains, Hungarians, Italians, Greekes, Armenians, Nazaranies, Turkes and Moores, lewes and Gentiles, Persians, Moscouiies, and there is no nation that they seekc for to trouble, except ours: wherefore it were contrary to all iustice and reason that they should suffer all nations to trade with them, and to forbid vs But now I haue as great liberty as any other nation, except it be to go JVaffiifues, and Discoueriet 17 out of the countrey, which thing as yet I desire not But I thinke hereafter, and before it be long, if I shall be desirious to go from hence, that they wil not deny me licence Before we might be suffered to come out of prison, I was forced to put in suerties for 2000 pardaus, not to depart from hence without licence of the viceroy : otherwise except this, we haue as much libertie as any other nation, for I haue our goods againe, and haue taken an house in the chiefest streete in the towne, called the Rue dreete, where we sell our goods There were two causes which moued the captaine of Ormus to imprison vs, and afterwards to send vs hither The first was, because Michael Stropene had ncoused vs of many matters, wiiich were most false And the second was T*" *^"'"* r ^^ %m r^ % •••• m **' ***'' mens for that M Drake at his bemg at Maluco, caused two impiison pieccs of his ordina"ce to be shot at a gallion of the ™*"' " kings of Portugall, a they say But of these things 1 did not know at Ormus : and in the ship that we were sent in came the chiefest iustice in Ormus, who was called Aueador generall of that place, he had been there three yeeres, so that now his time was expired : which Aueador is a great friend to the captaine of Ormus, who, certaine dayes after our comming Yom thence, sent for mee into his chamber, and there beganne to demaund of me many things, to the which I answered : and amongst the rest, he said, that Master Drake was sent out of England with many ships, and came to Maluco, and there laded cloues, and finding a gallion there of the kings of Tortugall, hee caused two pieces of his greatest ordinance to be shot at the same : and so perr^eiuing that :his did greatly grieue them, I ask':ci, if they would be reuenged of me for that which M Drake had done: To the which he answered No : although his meaning was to the contrary He said moreouer, that the cause why the captaine of Ormus did send me for Goa, was, for that the Viceroy would vnderstand of mee, what newes there was of Don Antonio, and whether he were in England, yes or no, and that it might be all for the best that I was sent hither, the which I trust in God wil so fall out, although contrary to his expectation : for had it not pleased God to put into the minds of the archbishop and other two Padres or lesuits of S, Pauls college to stand our friends, we might haue rotted in prison The archbishop is a very good man, who hath two yong men to his seruantes, the one of them was borne at Hamborough, and is vou X c fR NauigatioHS, Voyagti, called Bernard Borgers : and the other was borne at Enchuysen' whose name is lohn Linscot, who did vs great pleasure; Theauihorol for by them the archbishop was many times put in ihcbook mindeofvs* And the two good fathers of S Paul, EoM Indies, who trauelled very much for vs, the one of them is called Fadre Marke, who was borne in Bruges in Flanders, and the other was borne in Wiltshire in England, and is called t Padre Thomas Steuans Also I chaunced to finde here a young man, who v i ome in Antwer|)e, but the most part of his bringing vp hath beene in London, his name is Francis de Rea, and with him it was my hap to be acquainted in Aleppo, who also hath done me great pleasure here Ill the prison at Ormus we remained many dayes, also we lay a long time at sea comming hither, and forthwith at ourarriual here were caried to prison, and the next day after were sent for before the Aueador, who is the chiefest iustice, to be examined : and when we were examined, he presently sent vs backe againe to prison And after our being here in prison 13 dayes, lames lames Storie gj j ^^^^ j^jq j|,g monastery of S Paul, where he their painter ' remameth, and is made one of the company, which life he liketh very well, at Goa the 20 And vpon S Thomas day (which was 23 dayes after of Nouemlier our arriuall here) I came out of prison, and the next '* •' day after came out Ralph Fitch, and William Bets, if these troubles had not chanced, I had beene in possibility to haue made as good a voyage as euer any man made with so much money Many of our things I haue solde very well, both here and at Ormus in prison, notwithstanding the captaine willed me (if I would) to sell what I could before we imbarked : and so with officers I went diuers times out of the castle in the morning, *He was really born at Haarlem about 1563, and left the Texel in 1579 to go to Seville Thence he went to Lisbon, where he entered the service of Vicenzo Fonseca, archbishop of Goa, where he arrived in 1583 He returned to Europe in 1589, having visited most of Southern Asia His principal work b his *' Relation," published first in Dutch at the Hague in 1591 Curiously enough, the place erroneously named as his birth place in the text, is where he died in 161 1 ^MargintU nolt — This is he whose letters to his father from Goa are before put downe, and he was sometimes of New colledge in Oxford % Jl_^ lyafKi/ues, and Discouenes •• and solde things, and at night returned againe to the prison, and all things that I solde they did write, and at our imharking from thence, the captain gaue order that I should deliuer all my mony with the goods into the hands of the scriuano, or purser of the ship, which I did, and the scriuano made a remembrance, which he left there with the captaine, that my selfe and the rest with money and goods he should deliuer into the hands of the Aucador generall of India : but at our arriuall here, the Aueador would neither meddle with goods nor money, for that he could not proue any thing against vs : wherefore the goods remained in the ship 9 or 10 daies after our arriual, and then, for that the ship was to saile from thence, the scriuano sent the goods on shore, and here they remained a day and a night, and no body to receiue them In the ond they suffered this bringer to receiue them, who came with me from Ormus, and put them into an house which he had hired for me, where they remained foure or fine daies But afterward when they should deliuer the money, it was concluded by the iustice, that both the money and goods should be deliuered into the positors hands, where they remained fourteene dayes after my comming out prison At my being in Aleppo, I bought a fountaine of siluer and gilt, sixe kniues, sixe spoones, and oue forke trimmed with corall for fiue and twentie chekins, which the captaine of Ormus did take, and payed for the same twentie pardaos, which is one nundred larines, and was worth there or here one hundred chekins Also he had fiue emrauds set in golde, which were woorth fiue hundred or sixe hundred crownes, and payed for the same an hundred pardaos Also he had nine teene and a halfe pikes of cloth, which cost in London twenty shillings the pike, and was worth 9 or lo crownes the pike, and he payed for the same twelue larines a pike Also he had two pieces of greene Kersies, which were worth foure and twentie pardaos the piece, and payd for them sixteene jwrd^ios a i)iece : besides diuers other trifles, that the officers and others had in the like order, and some for nothing at all But the cause of all this was Michael Stropenc, which came to Ormus not woorth a penie, and now hath thirtie or fortie thousand crownes, and he grieueth that any other stranger should trade thither but himselfe But that shall not skill, for I trust in God to goe both thither and hither, and to buy and sell as freely as he or any other Here is very great good to be done in diuers of our commodities, and in like manner there is great profile to be made with commodities of this countrey, to he carried to Aleppo Nttuigations, Voyages^ It were long for me to write, and tedious for you to read of all things that haue passed since my parting from you But of all the troubles that haue chanced since mine arriual in Ormus, this bringer is able to certifie )ou I mind to stay here : wherefore if you will write vnto me, you may send your letters to some friend at Lisbonc, and from thence by the ships they may be conueyed hither Let the direction of your letters be either in Portuguise or Spanish, whereby they may come the better to my hands From Goa this 20 day of lanuarie 1584 A Letter written from (ioa by Master Ralph Fitch to Master I^onard Poore abouesaid LOuing friend Master Poore, &a Since my departure fiom Aleppo, I haue not written vnto you any letters, by reason that at Babylon I was sicke of the fluxe, and being sicke, I went from thence for Balsara, which was twelue dayes Journey downe the riuer Tygris, where we had extreame hot weather, which was good for my disease, ill fare, and worse lodging, by reason our boat was jiesiered with people In eight daies, that which I did eate was very small, so that if we had stayed two dayes longer vpon the water, I thinke I had died : but comming to Balsara, presently I mended, I thanke God There we stayed 14 dayes, and then we imbarked our selues for Ormuz, where wc arriued the fifth of September, and were put in prison the ninth of the same moneth, where we continued vntill the 1 1 of October, and then were shipt for this citie of Goa in the captaines ship, with an 1 14 horses, and about aoo men : and passing by Diu and Chaul, where we went on land to water the 30 of Nouember, we arriued at Goa the 29 of the said moneth, where for our better intertainment we were presently put into a faire strong frison, where we continued vntill the 22 of December It was the will of God that we found there 2 Padres, the one an Englishman, the other a Flemming The English mans name is Padre Thomas Steuens, the others Padre Marco, of the order of S Paul These did sue for vs vnto the Viceroy and other officers, and stood vs in as much stead, as our liues and goods were woorth : for if they had not stucke to vs, if we had escaped with our liues, yet we had had long imprisonment Alter 14 dayes imprisonment they offered vs, if we could put in sureties for 2000 duckats, we should goe abroad in the towne : Diu Chaul % r^afiqutt and Ditcoutrui M which when wc could not doe, the said Padres found sureties for v«, that we should not depart the counrrey without the licence of the Viceroy It doth spite the Italians to our great ee vs abroad : and many maruell at our deliuery enemieii r»r The painter is in the cloister of S Paul, and is of "JheEwi!" their order, and liketh there very well While we were in prison, both at Ormuz and here, there was a great deale of our goods pilfered and lost, and we haue beene at great charges in gifts and otherwise, so that a great deale of our goods is consumed There is much of our things which wil ell very well and some we shall get nothing for I hope in God that at the returne of the Viceroy, which is gone to Chaul and to Diu, they say, to winne a castle of the Moores, whose returne, is thought will be about Easter, then we shall get our libertie, and our sureties dif^charged Then I thinke it will be our best way, either one or both to returne, because our troubles haue bene so great, and so much of our goods s|x)yled and lost But if it please God that I come into England, by Gods heipe, I will returne hither againe It is a braue and pleasant countrey, and very fruitfuU The summer is almost all the yeere long, but the chiefest at Christmas The day and the night are all of one length, very litle difference, and marueilous great store of fruits For all our great troubles, l«t are we fat and well liking, for victuals are here plentie and good cheape And here I will passe ouer to certifie you of strange things, vntill our meeting, for it would be too long to write thereof And thus I commit you to God, who euer preserue you and vs all From Goa in the East Indies the 25 of lanuarie 1584 Yours to command, Ralph Fitch The voyage of M Ralph Fitch marchant of London by the way of Tripolis in Syria, to Ormus, and so to Goa in the East India, to Cambaia, and all the kingdome of Zelabdim Echebar the great Mogor, to the mighty riuer Ganges, and downe to Bengala, to Bacola, and Chonderi, to Pegu, to Imahay in the kingdome of Siam, and backe to Pegu, and from thence to Malacca, Ze'an, Cochin, and all the coast of the East India: begunne in the yeere of our Lord 1583, and ended 1591, wherin the strange rites, maners, and customes of those people, and the exceeding rich trade r,itmm^ mmHtm* NauigatioHS, Voyagis, and commodities of tiiose countrieit are faithfully let downe niul diligjiuly described, by the aforesaid M Knlpl) I'itch IN the yeere of our Lord 1583, I Ralph Fitch of London nurchant being dcnirous to see the countrcys of the East India, in the company of M lohn Newberie inarchant (which had beene at Orniui once before) of William Leedes leweller, and lames Story IVin'er, being chiefly set foorth by ti>e right worshipful Sir Edward f^ borne knight, and M Richard Stapcr citizens and marchants of London, did ship my selfe in a ship of London called the I'yger, wherein we went for TriiJolis in Syria : and from thence we tooke the way for Alepjio, which we went in seuen dayes with the Carouan lieing in Aleppo, and finding good company, we went from thence to Hirra, which is two dayes and an halfe trauailc with Camels Birra is a little towne, but very plentifull of victuals : and neere to the wall of the towne runneth the riuer of Euphrates Here we bought a boate and agreed with a master and bargemen, for to go to Babylon The boats be but for one voiagc : for the streame doth runne so fast downewardes that they cannot returne They carie you to a towne which they call Felugia, and there you sell the boate for a litle money, for that which cost you fiftie at liirra you sell there for seuen or eight From Birra to Felugia is sixteene dayes iourney, it is not good that one boate goe alone, for if it should chance to breake, you should haue much a doe to saue your goods from the Arabians, which be alwayes there abouts robbing : and in the night when your boates be made fast, it is necessarie that you keepe good watch For the Arabians that bee theeues, will come swimming and steale your goods and flee away, against which a gunne is very good, for they doe feare it very much In the riuer of Euphrates from Birra to Felugia there be certaine places where you pay custome, so many Medines for a some or Camels lading, and certaine raysons and sope, which is for the sonnes of Aborise, which is Lord of the Arabians and all that great desert, and hath some villages vpon the riuer Felugia where you vnlade your goods which come from Birra is a little village : irom whence you goe to Babylon in a day Babylon is a towne not very great but very populous, and of great traffike of strangers, for that it is the way to Persia, Turkia and Arabia : and from thence doe goe Carouans for these and 'lyaffiiiHts, ami l'*iscciitnts other placed Here are great itore of victuals, which come from Armenia downc the riiur of 'ry:4'''"'' Ihey arc brought v|xm rafles made of goitcs skinncs hlowne full of winde and bordos laydc vjion tlicm ; and thereupon they lade their goods which are brought downc to Babylon, which being discharged they o|H'n their skinncs and carry them backe by Camels, to scnic another time Babylon in times past did belong to the kingdome of Persia, but nowe is lubiccte to thcTurke Oucr against BabylDti there is a very faire village from whence you passe to Babylon vpon a long bridge made of boats, and tycd to a great chainc of yron, which is made fast on either side of the riucr \V hen any boaics are to passe vp or downe the riuer, ihcy take away certaine boates vntill they l)e past The tower of Babel is built on this side the riucr Tygris, towardes Arabia from the towno aI)out seucn or eight miles, which tower is ruinated on all sides, and with of'i|"i"" the fall thereof hath made as it were a litle mountaine, 8Q that it hath no shape at all : it was made of brickes dried in the Sonne, and certain canes and leaues of the palmc tree layed betwixt the brickes There is no entrance to be scene to goe into it It doth stand vpon a great plaine betwixt the riuers of Euphrates and Tygris By the riuer Euphrates two dayes iourney from Babylon at a place called Ait, in a fielde necrc vnto it, is a strange thing to see: a mouth that doth continually throwe pJIch" foorth against the ayre boyling pitch with a fdthy continually smoke : which pitch doth runne abroad into a great '»»"'"8 ""t fielde which is alwayes full thereof The Moores say that it is the mouth of hell By reason of the great quantitie of it, the men of that countrey doe pitch their boates two or three inches thicke on the outside, so that no water doth enter into them Their boates ^ e called Danec When there is great store of water in Tigris you may goe from Babylon to Basora in 8 or 9 dayes : if there be small store it will cost you the more dayes basora in times past was vnder the Arabians, but now is subiecte to the Turke But some of them the Turke cannot subdue, (or that they holde certaine Ilandes in the riuer Euphrates which the Turke cannot winne of them They be theeues all and haue no setled dwelling, but remoue from place to place with their Camels, goates, and horses, wiues and children and all They haue large blew gownes, their wiues eares and noses are ringed very full of m NauigatioHs, Voyages, lij i rings of copper an»i siluer, and they weare rings of copper about their legs Basora sundeth neere the gulfe of Persia, and is a towne of great trade of spices and drugges which come from Ormus Also there is great sto: e of wheate, ryce,and dates growing thereabout, wherewith they serue Babylon and all the countrey, Ormus, and all the partes of India I went from Basora to Ormus downe the gulfe of Persia in a certaine shippe made of boordes, and sowed together with cayro, which is threede made of the huske of Cocoes, and certaine canes or strawe leaues sowed vpon the seames of the hordes which is the cause that they leake very much And so bauing Persia alwjyes on the left hande, and the coast of Arabia on the right hande we passed many Unndes, and among others the famous llande fiaharim from whence come the best pearles which be lound and Orient Ormus is an Island in circuit about fiue and twentie or thinie miles, and is the driest Island in the world : for there is nothing growing in it but onelysalte; for their water, wood, or victuals, and all things necessary came out of Persia, which is about twelue miles from thence All the Illands thereabout be very fru'tful, from whe::ce all kinde of victuals are sent vnto Ormus The Portugales haue a castle here which standeth neere vnto the sea, wherein there is a Captaine for the king of Portugale hauing vnder him a conuenient number of souldiers, whereof some part remaine in the castle, and some in the towne In this towne are marchants of all Nations, and many Moores and Gentiles Here is very great trade of all sortes of spices, drugs, silke, cloth of silke, fine tapestrie of Persia, great store of pearles which come from the Isle of Baharim, and are the best pearles of all others, and many horses of Persia, which serue all India They haue a Moore to their king, which is chosen and gouemed by the Portugales Their women are very strangely attyred, wearing on their noses, eares, neckes, armes and l^;ges many rings, set with iewels, and lockes of siluer and golde in their eares, and a long barre of golde vpon the side of their noses Their cares with the weight of theie iewels be wome so wide, that a man may thrust three of his fingers into them Here very shortly after our arriuall wee were put in prison, and had part of our goods taken from vs by the Capuine of the castle, whose name was Don Mathias de Albuquerque; and from hence the eleuenth of October he shipped vs and sent vs for Goa vnto the Viceroy, :<» '* il Traffiques, and Discoueries *i which at that time was Don Francisco de Mascarenhas The shippe wherein we were imbarked for Goa belonged to the Captaine, and carried one hundred twentie and foure horses in it All marchandise carried to Goa in a shippe wherein are horses pay no custome in Goa The horses pay custome, the goods pay nothing ; but if you come in a ship which bringeth no horses, you are then to jiay eight in the hundred for your goods The first citie of India that we arriued at vpon the fift of Noueinber, aitcr we had passed the coast of Zindi, is called Diu, which standeth in an Hand in the kingdome of Cambaia, and is the strongest towne that the Portugales haue in those partes It is but litle, but well stored with marchandise j for here they lade many great shippes with diuerse commodities for the streits of Mecca, for Ormus, and other places, and these be shippes of the Moores and of Christains But the Moores cannot passe, except they haue a passeport from the Portugales Cambaietta is the chiefs citie of that pruuince, which is great and very populous, and fairely builded for a towne of the Gentiles : but if there happen any famine, the people will sell their children for very little The last king of Cambaia was Sultan Badu, which was killed at the seige of Diu, and shortly after his citie was taken by the great Mogor, which is the king of Agra and of Delli, 'vhi^h are fortie dayes iourney from the country of Cambaia Here the women weare vpon their armes infinite numbers of rings made of Elephants teeth, wherein they take so much delight, that they had rather be without their meate then without their bracelets Going from Diu we come to Daman the second towne of the Portugales in the countrey of CamL'\ia which is distant from Diu fortie leagues Here is no trade but of come and rice They haue many villages vnder them which they quietly possesse in time of peace, but in time of warre the enemie is maister of them From thence we passed by Basaim, and from Basaim to Tana, at both which places is small trade but only of corn and rice The tenth of N'^uember we arriued at Clu^ul which standeth in the firm land There be two townes, :he one belonging to the Portu gales, and the other to the Moores That of the Portugales is neerest to the sea, and commaiindeth the bay, and is walled round about A little aboue hat is the towne of the Moores which is gouemed by a Moore king called XaMaluco Here is great traffike for all sortes of spices and drugges, silke, and cloth of silke, sandales, Elephants teeth, and much China worke, and VOL X D ifl Natii^ations, Voyajits, 11 much sugar which is made of the nutre called Gagara : the tree is called the palmer : which is the profitablest tree in the worlde : it doth ahvayes beare fruit, and doth yeeld wine, oyle, sugar, vineger, cordes, coles, of the leaues are made thatch for the houses, sayles for shippes, mats to sit or lie on : of the branches they make their houses, and broomes to sweei)e, of the tree wood for shippes The wine doeth issue out of the toppe of the tree They cut a branch of a bowe and binde it hard, and hange an earthen pot vpon it, which they emplie cuery morning and euery euening, and still it and put in certaine dried raysins, and it becomnieth very strong wine in short time Hither many shippes come from all partes of India, Ormus, and many froni Mecca : heere be manic Moores and Gentiles They haue a very strange order among them, they worshippe a cowe, and esteeme much of the cowes doung to paint the walles of their houses They will kill nothing not so much as a louse; for they holde ii x sinne to kill any thing They eate no flesh, but liue by root'^s, and ryce, and milke And when the husbrndc dieth his wife is burned with him, if shce be aliue: if shee will not, her head is shauen, and then is neuer any account made of her after They say if they should be buried, it were a great sinne, for of their bodies there would come many wormes and other vermine, and when their bodies were consumed, those wormes would lacke sustenance, which were a sinne, therefore they will be burned In Cambaia they will kill nothing, nor haue any thing killed : in the towne they haue hospitals to keepe lame dogs and cats, ind for birds They will giue meat to the Ants Goa |is the most principal citie which the Portugals haue in India, wherein the Viceroy remaineth with his court It standeth in an Hand, which may be 25 or 30 miles about It is a fine citie, and for an Indian towne very faire The Hand i: very faire, full of orchards and gardens, and many jjalmer trees, and hath some villages Here bee many marchants of all nations And the Fleete which commeth euery yeere ''om Portugal, which be foure, fine, or sixe great shippes, commeth first hither And they come for the most jiart in September, and remaine tliere fortie or fiftie dayes; and thengoe to Cochin, where they lade their Pepper for Portugal! Oftentimes they lade one in Goa, the rest goe to Cochin which is from Goa an hundred leagues southward Goa standeth in the countrey of Hidalcan, who lieth in the countrey sixe or seuen dayes iourney His chiefe citie is called Bisapor 1 'f A »i I Traffiques, and Discoutries «7 At our comming we were cast into prison, and examined before the Justice and demanded foi letters, and were charged to be spies, but they could prooue nothing by vs We "^^^^ *"' ^^^ continued in prison vntill the two and tw^ntie of Dec Nouember ember, and then we were set at libertie, putting in sureties for two thousand duckets not to depart the towne ; whif h sureties father Steuens an English lesuite which we found there, and another religious man a friend of his procured for vs Our sureties name was Andreas Taborer, to whom we paid 2150 duckats, and still he demaunded more : whereupon we made sute to the Viceroy and Justice to haue our money againe, considering that they had had it in their hands neere fiue moneths and could prooue nothing against vs The Viceroy made vs a very sharpe answere,and sayd we should he better sifted before it were long, and that they had further ntattcr a iinst vs Whereui)on we presently determined rather to seeke our liberties, then to bee in danger for "i^x to be slaues in the countrcy, for it was told vs we should haue Y strapado Wh'^upon presently, the fift day of \pril 15S5 in the morning we ranne from thence And being set ouer the riuer, we went two dayes en foote not without feare, not knowing the way nor hauing any guide, for we durst trust none One of the first townes which we came vnto, is called Beller gan, where there is a great uii;rket kejit of Diamants, ,o"^g" " Rubies, Saphires, and many other soft stones From Bellergan we went to Bisapor which is a very great towne wheie the king doeth keepe his court Hee hath many Gentiles in his court and they be great idolaters And they haue their idols standing in the Wood'', which they call Pagodes Some bee like a Cowe, some like a Monkie, some like Buffles, some like peacockes, and some like the deuill Here be very many elephants which they goe to warre withall Here they haue good store of gold and siluer: their houses are of stone very faire and high From hence we went for Gul conda, the king whereof is called Cutup de lashach Here and in the kingdome of Hidalcan, and in the countrey of the king of Decan, bee the Diamanis found in the olde water It is a very faire towne, pleasant, with faire houses of bricke and timber, it aboundeth with great store of fruites and frjsh water Here the men and the women do go with a cloth bound about their middles without any more apparell We found it here very bote towne ]'istpor Gulconda 38 Nauigations, Voyages, Bellapore The winter beginneth here about the last of May In these partes is a porte or hauen called Masulipatan, which ipia j,jgjjjj^j|^ gjgjjj jayes ioumey from hence toward the gulfc cf Bengala, whether come many shippes out of India, Pegu, and Sumatra, very richly laden with Pepper, spices, and other commodities The countrie is very good and fruitfull From , thence I went to Seruidore which is a fine countrey, and the king is called, the king of Bread The houses here bee all thatched and made of lome Here be many Moores and Gentiles, but there is small religion among them From thence I went to Bellapore, and so to Barram pore, which is in the country of Zelabdim Echebar In this place their money is made of a kind of siluer round and thicke, to the value of twcntie p^nce, which is verj' good siluer V IS marueilous great and a jjopulous countrey In their winter which is in lune, luly, and August, there is no passing in the streetes but with horses, the waters be so high The houses are made of lome and thatched Here is great store of cotton cloth made, and painted clothes of cotton wooll : here groweth great store of corne and Rice We found niariager great store both in townes and villages in many places where wee passed, of boyes of eight or ten yeeres, ana girles of fiue or six yeeres old They both do ride vpon one horse very trimly deckeo, and are caried through the towne with great piping and playing, an Strong towne It was besieged twelue yeeres town jjy Zelabdim Echebar before he could winne it It standeth vpc a very great high rocke as the most part of their castles doc, and was of a very great circuite From hence wee Vgini *^"' '° ^S'"' *"*^ Serringe, where we ouertooke the Strange mariages ambassadour of Zelabdim Echebar with a marueilous great company of men, elephants, and camels Here is great A 4 Traffiques, and Dtscoueries »•) trade of cotton and cloth made of cotton, and great store of drugs From thence we went to Agra passing many riuers, which by reason of the raiue were so swollen, that vee waded and swamnie oftentimes for our hues Agra '''cifjj''**' is a very great citie and populous, built with stone, hauing fairc ind large streetes, with a faire riuer running by it, which falleth into the gulfe of Bengala It hath a faire castle and a strong with a very faire ditch Here bee many Moores and Gentiles, the king is called Zelabdim Echebar : the people for the most part call him The great Mf3^^ Mogor From thence we went for Fatepore, which is the place where the king kept his court The towne is greater then Agra, but the houses and streetes be not so faire Here dwell many people both Moores and Gei'iles The king hath in Agra and Fatepore as they doe credibly report looo elephants, thirtie thousand horses, 1400 tame Deere, 800 concubines : such store of Ounces, Tigers, Buffles, Cocks and Haukes, that is very strange to see He keepeth a great court, which they call Dericcan Agra and Fatepore are two very great cities, either of them much greater then London and very populous Betweene Agra and Fatepore are 1 2 miles, and all the way is a _, , market of victuals and other things, as full as though reporieJ of a man were still in a towne, and so many peop'e as if '*'^"''^* °' a man were in a market They haue many fine cartes, and many of them carued and gilded with gold, with two wheeles which be drawen with two 'itle Buls about the bignesse of our great dogs in England, and they will runne with any horse, and carie two or three men in one of these cartes: they are couered with silke or very fine cioth, and be vsed here as our Coches be in England Hither is great resort of marchants from Persia and out of India, and very much marchandise of silke and cloth, and of precious stones, both Rubies, Diamants, and Pcarles The king is apparelled in a white Cable made like a shirt tied with strings on the one side, and a litle cloth on his head coloured oftentimes with red or yeaiow None come into his house but his eunuchs which keepe his women Here in Fatepore we staled all three vntill the 28 of September 1585 and then master lohn Newberie tooke his iourney toward the citie of I>ahor, determining from thence to goe for Persia and then for Aleppo or Constan tinople, whether hee could get soonest passage vnto, and directed me to goe for Bengala and for Pegu, and did promise me, if it 3© Nauigations, Voyages, pleased God, to meele me in Bengala within two yeeres ^Miue^thr with a shippe out of England 1 left William Leades king o( the ieweller in seruice with the king Zclabdim Echebar Cnmbaia ^ Fatepore, who did entertaine him very well, and gaue him an house and fiue slaues, an horse, and euery day sixe S S in money I went from Agra to Satagam in Uengala, in the companie of one hundred and fourescore boates laden with Salt, Opium, Hinge, Lead, Carpets, and diuers other commodities downe the riuer lemena The chiefe marchants are Moores and Gentiles In these c&untries they haue many strange siitious'cere ceremonies The Bramanes which are their priests, monies of ihc come to the water and hauc a string abcut iheir necks ramanes ^^^^ ^jjj^ great ceremonies, and lade vp water with both their hands, and turne the string first witii Ijoth their hands within, and then one arme after the other out Though it be neuer so cold, they will \vash themselues in cold water or in warme These Gentiles will eate no flesh nor kill any thing They liue with rice, butler, milke, and fruits They pray in the water naked, and dresse their meat and eate it naked, and for their penance they lie flat vpon the earth, and rise vp and turne themselues about 30 or 40 times, and vse to heaue vp their hands to the sunne, and to kisse the earth, with their armes and legs stretched along out, and their right leg alwayes before the left Euery time they lie downe, they make a score on the ground with their finger to know when their stint is finished The Bramanes marke themselues in t^^e foreheads, eares and throates with a kind of yellow geare which they grind, and euery morning they doe it And they haue some old men which go in the streetes with a boxe of yellow poudre, and marke men on their heads and neckes as they meet them And their wiues do come by 10 20 and 30 together to the water side singing, and there do wash themselues, and then vse their ceremonies, and marke themselues in their foreheds and faces, and cary iome with them, and so depart singing Their daughters be maried, at, or before the age of 10 yeres The men may haue 7 wiues They be a kind of craftie people, worce then the lewes When they salute one another, they heaue vp their hands to their heads, and say Rame, Rame From Agra I came to Prage, where the riuer lemena entreth into the mightie river Ganges, and lemena looseth his name Ganges commeth out of the Northwest, and runneth East into the gulfe of Bengala In Ganges 1I ;* Traffii/ues, and Discouerits s» those parts there fc many Tigers and many [lartriges and lurtle doues, and much other foule Here be many heggers in these countries which oe naked, and the people make {;reat account of them : they call them Schesche Here I sawe one which was a monster among the rest He would haue nothing vpon him, his beard was very long, and with the haireof his head he coucred his priuilics The nailes of some of his fingers were two inches long, for he would cut nothing from him, neither would he speake He was accompanied with eight or tonne, and they spake for him When any man spake to him, he would lay his hand vpon his brest and bowe himsclfe, but would not speake Hee would not speake to the king We went from Prage downe Ganges, the which is here very broad Here is great store of fish of sundry sorts, and of wild foule, as of swannes, geese, cranes, and many other things The country is very fruitfull and populous The men for the most jiart haue their faces shauen, and their heads very long, exce|)t some which bee all shauen saue the crowne : and some of them are as though a man should set a dish on their heads, and shaue them round, all but the crowne In tiiis riuer of Canges are many Hands His water is very sweete and pleasant, and the countrcy adioyning very fruitfull From thence wee went to Bannaras which is a great towne, and great store ol cloth is made there of cotton, and Shashes for the Moores In this place they be all Gentiles, and be the greatest idolaters that euer I sawe To this towne come the Gentiles on pilgrimage out of farre countreys Here alongst the ^ I'llsrimage waters side bee very many faire houses, and in all of Gentiles, them, or for the most part they haue their images standing, which be euill fauoured, made of stone and wood, some like lions, leopards, and monkeis, some like men a id women, and jjecocks, and some like the deuil with foure amies and 4 hands They sit crosse legged, some with one thing in their hands, and some another, and by breake of day and before, there arc men and women which come out of the towne and wash themselues in Ganges And there are diucrs old men which vpon places of earth made for the purpose, sit praying, and they giue the people three or foure strawes, which they take and hold them betweene their fingers when they wash themselues : and some sit to marke them in the foreheads, and they haue in a cloth a litle Rice, Barlie, or money, which, when they haue washed themselues, they giue to the old men which sit there [iraying Afterwards 3» Nauigations, Voyages, »>' 1' they go to diuers of their images, and giue them of their sacrifices And when they giue, the old men say certaine prayers, and then is all holy And in diuers places there standcth a kind of image which in their language they call Ada And they haue diuers great stones carued, whereon they poure water, and throw there upon some rice, v ' eate, barly, and some other things This \da hath foure hands with clawes Moreouer, they haue a great place made of stone like to a well with steppes to goe downe ; wherein the water standeth very foule and stinketh : for the great quantitie of flowers, which continually they throwe into it, doe mfike it stinke There be alwayes many i)eople in it : for they say when they wash themselues in it, that their sinnes be forgiuen them, because God, as they say, did wash himselfe in that place 'I'hey gather vp the sand in the bottome of it, and say it is holy They neuer pray but in the water, and they wash them selues ouerhead, and lade vp water with both their handes, and turne themselues about, and then they drinke a litle of the water three times, and so goe to their gods which stand in those houses Some of them will wash a place which is their length, and then will pray vpon the earth with their armes and legs at length out, and will rise vp and lie downe, and kisse the ground twentie or thirtie times, but they will not stirre their right toote And some of them will make their ceremonies with fifteene or sixteene pots litle and great, and ring a litle bel when they make their mixtures tenne or twelue times : and they make a circle of water round about their pots and pray, and diuers sit by them, and one that reacheth them their pots : and they say diuers things ouer their pots many times, and when they haue done, they goe to tlieirgods, and strowe their sacrifices which they thinke are very holy, and marke many of them which oit by, in the foreheads, which they take as a great gift There come fiftie and sometime an hundred together, to wash them in this well, and to offer to these idols They haue in some of these houses their idoles standing, and one sitteth by them in warme weather with a fanne to blowe winde vpon them And when they see any company comming, they ring a litle bell which hangeth by them, and many giue them their almes, but especially those which come out of the countrey Many of them are blarke and haue clawes of brasse with long nayles, and some ride vpon peacocks and other foules which be euill {auoured, with long haukes bils, and some like one thing and some another, but none with a good face Among the rest there is one i Traffiques, and Diseouertes which they make great account of: (or they say hee giueth them all things both foude and apparcll, and one sitteth alwaycs by him with a fanne to make wind towards him Here some bee burned to ashes, some scorched in the fire and throwen into the water, and dogges and foxes doe presently eate them The wiues here doe burne with their husbands when they die, if they will not their heads be shaucn, and ncuer any account is made of them afterward The jjcople goe all naked saue a litle cloth bound about their middle Their women haue their necks, amies and eares decked with rings of siluer, coi)per, tinne, and with round hoopes made of luoric, adorned with amber stones, and with many agats, and they are marked with a great spot of red m their fore heads, and a stroke of red vp to the crowne, and so it runneth three maner of wayes In their Winter, which is our May, the men weare quilted gownes of cotton like to our mattraces and quilted ca|)S like to our great (Jiocers morters, with a slit to looke out at, and so tied downc beneath their eares If a man or woman be sicke and hke to die, they will lay him before their idols all night, and that shall helpe him or make an ende of him And if he do not mend that night, his friends will come and sit with him a litle and cry, and afterwards will cary him to the waters side and set him vpon a litle raft made of reeds, and so let him goe downe the riuer When they be maried the man and the woman come to the water side, and there is an olde man which they call a Bramane, that is a priest, a cowe and a calfe, or a cowe with calfe Then the man and the woman, cowe and calfe, and the olde man goe into the water together, and they giue the olde man a white cloth of foure yards long, and a basket crosse bound with diuers things in it : the cloth he laieth vpon the backe of the cowe, and then he taketh the cowe by the ende of the taile, and saieth cer taine wordes : and she hath a copper or a brasse pot full of water, and the man doeth hold his hand by the olde mans hand, and the wiues hand by her husbands, and all haue the cowe by the taile, and they poure water out of the pot vpon the cowes taile, and it runneth through all their hands, and they lade vp water with their handes, and then the olde man doeth tie him and her together by their 'clothes Which done, they goe round about the cowe and calfe, and then they giue somewhat to the poore which be alwayes *MargiHal w/r— This tying of new maried folks together by the clothes, was vsed by the Mexicans in old time YOU X E ^«* 34 Nauixalions l^oyagts n ' t\ ' I I there, and to the Bramane or priest they giue the cowe and calfe, and afterward goe to diuers of their idoles and ofler money, and lie downe flat v|)on the ground and k ise it diuers times, and then goe their way Their cliiefe idoles aee blacke and euill fauoured, their inouthes monstrous, their cares gilded, and full of iewels, their teeth and eye i of gold, siluer, and glasse, some hauing one thing in their handes, and some another You may not come into the houses where they stand, with your shooes on They htue continually lampes burning before them From Bannaras I went to Tatcnaw downe the riuer of Ganges : where in the way we passed many faire townes, and a countrey very fruitfull : and many very great riuers doe enter into Ganges, and some of them as great as Ganges, which cause Ganges to bee of a great breadth, and so broad that in the time of rain, you cannot see from one side to the other 1'hese Indians when they bee scorched and throwen into the water, the men swimmc with their faces downe wards, the women with their faces vpwards, I thought they tied something to them to cause them to do so : but they say no There be very many thieues in this countrey, which be like to the Arabians : for they haue no certaine abode, but are sometime in one place and sometime in another Here the women bee so decked with siluer and copper, that it is strange to see, they use no shooes by reason of the rings of siluer and copper, which they weare on their toes Here at Patanaw they finde gold in this mancr They digge deepe pits in the earth, and wash the earth in great holies, and therein they finde the gold, and they make the pits round about with bricke, that the earth fall not in Patcnaw is a very long and a great towne In times past it was a kingdom, but now it is vnder Zelabdim Echebar, the great Mogor The men are tall and slender, and haue many old folks among them : the houses are simple, made of earth and couered with strpwe, the streetes are very large In this towne there is a trade of cotton, and cloth of cotton, much sugar, which they cary from hence to Bengala and India, very much Opium and other commodities He that is chiefe here vnder the king is called Tipperdas, :nd is of great account among the people Here in Patenau I saw a dissembling prophet which sate vpon an horse in the market place, ai\d made as though he slept, and many of the people came and touched his feete with their hands, and then kissed their hands They tooke him for a great man, but sure he was a lasie lubber I left him there sleeping The il I^B TraffigMts, and Discoutrhs 35 I)«ople of these countries be much giuen to such prating and dissembling hypocrites From Patanaw I went to Tanda wliich is in the land of Gourcn It hath in times |)ast bene a kingdom, l)ut now is subdued by Zelabdim Echcbar Great trade and tratlique is here of cotton, and of cloth of cotton The people goe naked with a litle cloth bound about their waste It stnndeth in the countrey of Uengala Here be many Tigers, wild Huts, and great store of wilde foule : they ate very great idolaters Tanda standeth from the riuer Ganges a league, because in times past the riuer flowing ouer the bankes, in time of raine did drrvne the countrey and many villages, and so they do remaine And the old way which the riuer Ganges was woont to run, remaineih drie, which is the occasion that the citie doeth stand so farre from the water From Agra downe the riuer lemena, and downc the riuer (ianges, I was fiue moneths comming to Uengala, but it may be sailed in much shorter time I went from Bengala into the countrey of Couche," which litth as daies iourny Northwards from Tanda The king is a (Jcntile, his name is Suckel Counse : his countrey is great, and lieth not far from Cochin China : for they say they haue pepper from thence The port is called Cacchegate All the countrie is set with Bambos or Canes made sharpe at both the endes and driuen into the earth, and they can let in the water and drowne the ground abouc knee deepe, so that men nor horses can passe They ix)ison all the waters if any wars be Here they haue much silke and muske, and cloth made of cotton The people haue eares which be marueilous great of a span long, which they draw out in length by deuises when they be yong Here they be all Gentiles, and they will kil nothing They haue hospitals for sheepe, goates, dogs, cats, birds, and for all other liuing creatures When they be old and lame, they keepe them vntil they die If a man cttch or buy any quicke thing in other places and bring it thither, they wil giue him mony for it or other victuals, and keepe it in thtir hospitals or let it go They wil giue meat to the Ants Their smal mony is almonds,'*' which oftentimes they vse to eat From thence I returned to Hugeli, which is the place where the * Marginal nolt — Couche : this seemeth to be Quicheu, accounted by soire amonK the prcuinces of China i Marginal noU — In Mexico they vse likewise for small mcoey the fruit Cacao which are like !\lmonds J» Nam'sntioHS, Voyagtt, I'lirtii Anncli Afterwards nfighliour, PijrtunnlH ktf|) in the country of HenKoln which itnndcth in jj dciirccs of Northerly latitude, nnd standeth o lea^ue from Satagnn: they cal it I'orti) I'iqueno \Vc went through the wildernes, because the right way was full of thieues, where we passed the ( ountrey of (Jouren, where we found but few vilbges, but almoat all wildernes and saw many buffcs, swine and decre, grnsse longer then a man, and ucry many 'I'igcrs Not far from I'orlo I'iqueno southwcstward, standeth an hauen which is called Angeli, in the countrey of Orixa It was a kingdom of it selfc, and the king was a great friend to strangers it was taken hy the king ot I'atan which was their )Ut he did not inioy it Ion?, hut was taken hy Zclabdim Fxhebar, which is king of Agra, Uelli, nnd Cambaia Orixi standeth 6 daies iourncy from Satngan, southwestward In this place is very much Rice, and cloth made of cotton, and great store of cloth which is made of grasse, which they call clodnn'aybe ^ ••''''•'> '' ''* '''^•" ^ silke 'I'h • make good cloth out mnile of the of it which thart of India, are very litle, and couercd with strawe, and haue a fewe mats round about the wals, and the doore to keepe out the Tygers and the Foxes Many of the people are very rich Here they will eate no flesh, nor kill no beast : they liue of Rice, milke, and fruits They goe with a title cloth before them, and all the rest of their bodies is naked Great store of Cotton cloth goeth from hence, and much Rice, wherewith they serue all India, Ceilon, Pegu, Malacca, Sumatra, and many other places I went from Serrepore the 28 of Nouember 1586 for Pegu in a small ship or foist of one Albert Carauallos, and so passing downe Ganges, and passing by the Island of Sundiua, porto Grande, or the countrie of Tipiiera, the kingdom of Recon and Mogen, leauing them on our left side with a faire wind at North, west : our course was South and by East, which brought vs to the barre of Negrais in Pegu : if any contrary wind had come, we had throwen many of our things ouerboord : for we were so pestered with people and goods, that there was scant place to lie in From Bengala to Pegu is 90 le^ues We entred the barre oi Negrais, which is a braue barre and bath 4 fadomes water where it hath least Three dayes after we came to Cosmin, which is a very pretie towne, and standeth very pleasantly, very well furnished with all things The people be very tall and well disposed ; the women white, round faced, with little eies : the houses '^totuoyd'* "^ ^*&^ •""•'' set vpon great high postes, and they go the danger vp to them with long ladders for feare of the Tygers ^'j'^ which be very many The countrey is very fruitful of all things Here are very great Figs, Orenges, Cocoes, and other fruits The land is very high that we fall withall, but after we be entred the barre, it is very lowe and full of ^"tellt"^'" ""*"• '°' ^^^y 8°^ °^^ *°° *"^ ^ '" boates, which they call paroes and keepe their houses with wife and children in them i, m ;'* a Trajffiquts, and Discouerits »9 From the barre of Nigrais to the citie of Pegu is ten dayes iouroey by the riuers Wee went from Cosmin to Pegu in Paroes or boates, and passing vp the riuers wee came to Medon, which is a prety towne, where there be a wonderful! number of Paroes, for they keepe their houses and their markets in them all vpon the water They rowe too and tro, and haue all their marchandizes in their boates with a great Sombrero or shadow ouer their heads to keepe the sunne from them, which is as broad as a great cart wheele made of the leaues of the Coco trees and fig trees, and is very light From Medon we went to Dela, which is a very faire towne, and hath a faire port into the sea, from whence go many ships to Malacca, Mecca, and many othey places Here are i8 or 20 very great and long houses, where they tame and keep many elephants of the kings : for thereabout in the wildernesse they catch the wilde elephants It is a very fruitful! countrey From Dela we went to Cirion, which is a good towne, and hath a faire porte into the sea, whither come many ships from Mecca, Malacca, Sumatra, and from diuers other places And there the ships staie and discharge, and send vp their goods in Paroes to Pegu From Cirion we went to Macao, which is a prettie towne, where we left our boates or Paroes, and in the morning taking Delingeges, which are a kind of Coches made of cords and cloth quilted, and caried vpon a stang belweene 3 or 4 men : we Coches caried „, , _, on mens came to Pegu the same day Pegu is a citie very shoulders great, strong, and very faire, with walles of stone, and great ditches round about it There are two townes, the old towne and the newe In the olde towne are all the marchants strangers, and very many marchants of the countrey All the goods are sold in the olde towne which is very great, and hath many suburbes round about it, and all the houses are made of Canes which they call Bambos, and bee couered with srawe In your house you haue a Warehouse which they call Godon, which is made of bricke to put your goods in, for oftentimes they take fire and burne in an houre foure or fiue hundred houses : so that if the Gordon were not, you should bee in danger to haue all burned, if any winde should rise, at a trice In the newe towne is the king, and all his Nobilitie and Gentrie It is a citie very great and ix>pul ous, and is made square and with very faire walles, and a great ditch round about it full of water, with many crocodiles in it : it hath twenty gates, and they bee made of stone, for euery square fiue gate* m Nauiga/ions, Voyages, i, ' HS There are also many Turrets for Centinels to watch, made of wood, and gilded with golde very faire The streets are the fairest that euer I saw, as straight as a line from one gate to the other, and so broad that tenne or twelue men may ride a front thorow them On both sides of them at euery mans doore is set a palmer tree which is the nut tree : which make a very faire shew and a verj' commodious shadow, so that a man may walke in the shade all day The houses be made of wood, and couered with tiles The kings house is in the middle of the city, and is walled and ditched round about : and the buildings within are made of wood very sumptuously gilded, and great workmanship is vpon the forefront, which is likewise very costly gilded And the house wherein his Pagode or idole standeth is couered with tiles of siluer, and all the walles are gilded with golde Within the first gate of the kings house is a great large roonie, on both sides whereof are houses maHe for the kings elephants, which be marvellous great and faire, and are brought vp to warres and in seruice of the king d among the rest he hath ei"|)h*i'?s!^ foure white elephants, which are very strange and rare: for there is none other king which hath them but he : if any other king hath one, hee will send vnto him for it When any of these white elephants is brought vnto the king, all the merchants in the city are commanded to see them, and to giue him a present of halfe a ducat, which doth come to a great summe: for that there are many merchants in the city, '^fter that you haue giuen your present you may come and see them at your pleasure, although they stand in the kings houRe This king in his title is called the king of the white elephants, ^the whfte'^ If any other king haue one, and will not send it him, elephants, he will make warre with him for it : for he had rather lose a great part of his kingdome, then not to conquere him They do very great seruice vnto these white elephants : euery one of them standeth in an house gilded with golde, and they doe feede in vessels of siluer and gilt One of them when he doth go to the riuer to be washed, as euery day they do, goeth vnder a canopy of cloth of golde, or of silke carried ouer him by sixe or eight men, and eight or ten men goe before him playing on drummes, shawmes, or other instruments ; and when he is washed and commeth out of the riuer, there is a gentleman which doth wash his feet in a siluer basin : which is his office giuen him by the king There is no such account made of any blacke ele TVafftques, and Dtseouerus 4« phant, be he neuer so great And surely there be woonderfull faire and great, and some be nine cubites in height And they do report that the king hath aboue fiue thousand elephants of warre, besides many other which be not taught to fight This king hath a very large place wherein he taketh tlie wilde elephants It standeth about a mile from Pegu, builded with a faire court within, and is in a great groue or wood: and there be many huntsmen, which go into the wildernesse with she elephants : for without the she they are not to be taken And they be taught for that purpose : and euery hunter hath fiue or sixe of them : and they say that they annoint the she elephants with a certaine ointment, which when the wild elephant doth smell, ne will not leaue her When they haue brought the wilde elejhant neere vnto the place, they send word vnto the towne, and many horse men and footmen come out and cause the she elephant to enter into a strait way which doeth go to the palace, and the she and the he do runne in : for it is like a wood : and when they be in, the gate doth shut Afterward they get out the female : and when the mJe seeth that he is left alone, he weepeth and cricih, and runneth against the walles, which be made of so strong trees, that some of them doe breake their teeth with running against them Then they pricke him with sharpe canes, and cause him to go into a strait house, and there they put a rope about his middle and about his feet, and let him stand there three or foure dayes, without eating or drinking : and then they bring a female to him, with meat and drinke, and within a few dayes he becom meth tame The chiefe force of the king is in these elephants And when they goe into the warres they set a frame of wood vpon their backes, bound with great cordes, wherein sit foure or sixe men, which fight with gunnes, bowes and arrowes, darts and other weapons And they say that their skinnes are so thicke that a pellet of an harquebu&h will scarse pearce them, except it be in some tender place Their weapons be very badde They haue gunnes, but shoot very badly in them, darts and swords short without points The king keepeth a very great state : when he sitteth abroad as he doth euery day twise, all his noblemen which they call Shemines si^ on ech side, a good distance off, and a great guard without them The Court yard is very great If any man will speake with the king, he is to kneele downe, to heaue vp his hands to his head, and to put his head to the ground three times, when he entreth, in the middle way, and when VOL X F 4» Nautgations, Voyages, he commeth neere to the king : and then he sitteth downe nnd talketh with the king : if the king like well of him, he sitteth neere him within three or foure paces : if he thinke not well of him, he sitteth further off When he goeth to warre, he goeth very strong At my being there he went to Odia in the countrey of *^in'siam"^ Siam with three hundred thousand men, and fiue thousand elephants Thirty thousand men were his guard I'liese people do eate roots, herbs, leaues, dogs, cats, rats, serpents, and snakes ; they refuse almost nothing When the king rideth abroad, he rideth with a great guard, and many noblemen, oftentimes vpon an elephant with a fine castle vpon him very fairely gilded with gold ; and sometimes vpon a great frame like an horsliter, which hath a little house vpon it couered ouer head, but open on the sides, which is all gilded with golde, and set with many rubies and saphires, whereof he hath infinite store in his Thisnianer country, and iscaried vponsixteeneor eighteene mens of cariage on shoulders This coach in their language is called mens shoul ders is vsed Serrion Very great feasting and triumphing is many in Peru, and times before the king both of men and women This in Florida ]jj„g j^^j, \\i\\q force by sea, because he hath but very few ships He hath houses full of golde and siluer, and bringeth in often, but spendeth very little, and hath the mines of rubies and sa])hires, and spinelles Neere vnto the palace of the king, there is a treasure woonderfull rich ; the which because it is so neere, he doth not account of it : and it standeth open for all men to see in a great walled court with two gates, which be alwayes open There are foure houses gilded very richly, and couered with lead : in riuery one of them are Pagodes or Images of huge stature and great value In the first is the picture of a king in golde with a crovvne of golde on his head full of great rubies and saphires, and about him there stand foure children of golde In the second house is the picture of a man in siluer, woonderfull great, and high as an house ; his foot is as long as a man, and he is made sitting, with a crowne on his head very rich with stones In the third house is the picture of a man greater then the other, made of brasse, with a rich crowne on his head In the fourth and last house doth stand another, made of brasse, greater then the other, wiih a c wne also on his head very rich with stones In another court not re from this stand foure other Pagodes or idoles, maruellous great, f copper, made in the same place where they do stand; for they »e so great that they be not to be Traffiques, and Discouertes 43 remoued : they stand in foure houses gilded very faire, and are themselues gilded all ouer saue their hej"'j, and they shew like a blacke Morian Their expences in gilding of their images are wonderfull The king hath one wife and aboue three hundred concubines, by which ihey say he hath fourescore or fourescore and ten children He sitteth in iudgement almost euery day They vse no speech, but giue vp their supplications paperofthe written in the leaues of a tree with the point of an Icanes of a yron bigger then a bodkin These leaues are an elle """ long, and about two inches broad ; they are also double He which giueth in his supplication, doth stand in a place a little distance off with a present If his matter be liked of, the king accepteth of his present, and granteth his request : if his sute he not liked of, he returneth with his present ; for the king will not take it In India there are few commodities which serue for Pegu, except Opium of Cambaia, painted cloth of S Thome, or of Masulipatan, and white cloth of Bengala, which is spent there in great quantity They bring thither also much cotton, ^^ ^^ yarne red coloured with a root which they call Saia, colour «ith which will neuer lose his colour : it is very wel solde a 'o"' called here, and very much of it commeth yerely to Pegu By your money you lose much The ships which come from Bengala, S Thome, and Masulipatam, come to the bar of Nigrais and to Cosmin To Martauan a port of the sea in the kingdome of Pegu come many ships from Malacca laden with Sandall, Porcelanes, and other wares of China, and with Camphora of Borneo, and Pepper from Achen in Sumatra To ,,, „ , i, , , , , \>oollen Cirion a po't of Pegu come ships from Mecca with cloth and woollen cloth Scarlets, Veluets, Opium, and such scarlets solde like There are in Pegu eight Brokers, wnom they '" ^^"' call Tareghe, which are bound to sell your goods at the price which they be woorth, and you giue them fo" their labour two in the hundred: and they be bound to make your debt good, because you sell your marchandises vpon their word If the Broker pay you not at his day, you may take him home, and keepe him in your house : which is a great shame for him And if he pay you not presently, you may take his wife and children and his slaues, and binde them at your dnore, and set them in the Sunne; for that is the law of the countrey Their current money in these partes is a kinde of brasse ^^^^^ which they call Gansa, wherewith you may buy golde, i 44 Nauigattons, Voyages, siluer, rubies, muske, and all other things The golde and siluer is marchandise, and is worth sometimes more, and sometimes lesse, as other wares be This brazen money doeth goe by a weight which they call a biza ; and commonly this biza after our account is worth about halfe a crowne or somewhat lesse The _ marchandise which be in Pegu, are golde, siluer, «euerall mar rubies, saphires, spinelles, muske, beniamin or frank chamlises of jncense, long pepper, tinne, leade, copper, lacca ^"" whereof they make hard waxe, rice, and wine made of rice, and some sugar The elephants doe eate the sugar canes, or els they would make very much And they consume many canes likewise in making of _ , their Varellaes or Idole Temples, which are in great of their number both great and small They be made round Temples or like a sugar loafe, some are as high as a Church, very broad beneath, some a quarter of a mile in compasse : within they be all earth done about with stone They consume in these Varellaes great quantity of golde ; for that they be all gilded aloft : and many of them from the top to the bottome : and euery ten or twelue yeeres they must be new gilded, because the raine consumeth off the golde : for they stand open abroad If they did not consume their golde in these vanities, it would be very plentifuU and good cheape in Pegu About two dayes iourney from Pegu there is a Varelle or Pagode, which is the pilgrimage of the Pegues: it is called Dogonne, and is of a woonderfull l ignesse, and all gilded from the foot to the toppe Th T ir ^"'^ ^^^^^ is an house by it wherein the Tallipoies poies or which are their priests doe preach This house is fiue Priests of and fifty paces in length, and hath three pawnes or *^" walks in it, and forty great jiillars gilded, which stand betweene the walks ; and it is open on all sides with a number of small pillars, which be likewise gilded : it is gilded with golde within and without There are houses very faire round about for the pilgrims to lie in : and many goodly houses for the Tallipoies to preach in, which are full of images both of men and women which are all gilded ouer with golde It is the fairest place as I suppose, that is in the world : it standeth very high, and there are foure wayes to it, which all along are set with trees of fruits, in such wise that a man may goe in the shade aboue two miles in length And when their feast day is, a man can hardly passe by water or by land for the great presse of people ; for they come i i # Traffiquex and Discoueries 45 from all jjlaces of the kingdome of Pegu thither at their feast In Pegu they haue many Tani|X)ics or priests, which preach against atl abuses Many men resort vnto them When they enter into their kiack, that is to say, their holy place or temple, at the doore their is a great iarre of water with a cocke or a ladle in it, and there they wash their feet ; and then they enter in, and lift vp their hands to their heads, first to their preacher, and then to the Sunne, and so sit downe The Tallipoies go very jj,g appareii slrangly apparelled with one cambaline or thinne cloth of their next to their body of a browne colour, another of P"'"* yellow doubled many times vpon their shoulder : and those two be girded to them with a broad girdle : and they haue a skinne of leather hanging on a siring about their necks, whereupon they sit, bare headed and barefooted : for none of them weareth shoes ; with their right amies bare and a great broad sombrero or shadow in their hands to defend them in the Summer from the Sunnc, and in the Winter from the raine When the Tallipoies or priests take their Orders, first they go to schoole vntill they be twenty yeres olde or more, and then they come before a Tallipoie appointed for that purpose, whom they call Rowli : he is of the chiefest or most learned, and he opposeth them, and afterward examineth them many times, whether they will leaue their friends, and the com pany of all women, and take vpon them the habit of a Tallipoie If any be content, then he rideth vpon an horse about the streets very richly apparelled, with drummes and pipes, to shew ihat he leaueth the riches of the world to be a Tallipoie In few dayes after, he is caried vpon a thing like an horsliter, which they call a serion, vpon ten or twelue mens shoulders in the appareii of a Tallipoie, with pipes and drummes, and many Tallipoies with him, and al his friends, and so they go with him to his house which standeth without the towne, and there they leaue him Euery one of them hath his house, which is very little, set vpon six or eight posts, and they go vn to them with a ladder of twelue or foureteene staues Their houses be for the most part by the hie wayes side, and among the trees, and in the woods And they go with a great pot made of wood or fine earth, and couered, tied with a broad girdle vpon their shoulder, which cometh vndcr their arme, wherewith they go to begge their victuals which they eate, which is rice, fish, and herbs They demand nothing but come to the doore, and the people presently doe giue them, some one thing, and some another : and they put all together in their ^i M \ 46 Nauigations, Voyagei, potte : for ihey say they must eate of their almes, and therewith Olueruaiio '^<^"'^"' themselues They keepe their feasts by the of new Moone : and when it is new Moone they keepe their moones greatest feast : and then the people send rice and other things to that kiack or church of which ihcy be; and there all the Tallipoies doe meete which be of that Church, and eate the victuals which are sent them When the Tallipoies do preach, many of the people cary them gifts into the pulpit where they sit and preach And there is one which sitteth by them to take that which the people bring It is diuided among ihem They haue none other ceremonies nor seruice that I could see, but onely preaching I went from Pegu to Inmahey* which is in the counlrey of the Langcianncs, whom we call langomes ; it is fiue and twenty dayes journey Northeast from Pegu In which iourney I passed many fruitfull and pleasant countreys The countrey is very lowe, and hath many faire riiicrs The houses are very bad, made of canes, and couered with straw Heere are many wilde buffes and elephants lamahey is a very faire and great towne, with faire houses of stone, well peopled, the streets are very large, the men very well set and strong, with a cloth about them, bare headed and bare footed : for in all these countreys they weare no shoes The women be much fairer then those of Pegu Heere in all these countreys they haue no wheat They make some cakes of rice Hither to lamahey come many marchants out of China, and bring great store of muske, golde, siluer, and many other things of China worke Here is great store of victuals : they haue such plenty that they will not milke the buffles, as they doe in all other places Here is great store of copper and beniamin In these countreys when the people be sicke they make a vow to offer meat vnto the diuell, if they escape : and when they be recouered they make a banket with many pipes and drummes and other instruments, and dansing all the night, and their friends come and bring gifts, cocos, figges, arrecaes, and other fruits, and with great dauncing and reioycing they offer to the diuell, and say, they giue the diuel to eat, and driue him out When they be dancing and playing they will cry and hallow very loud; and in 'A I 1 Marginal note from Pegu Imnahey fiue and twenty dayes iourney Northeaslwird m Trciffiques, and Disco tier its 47 this sort they say they driue him away And when they be ' ii ke a Talhpoy or two euery night doth sit by them and sing, to p ease the dfuell that he should not hurt them And if any die ne is caried vpon a great frame made like a tower, with a couer ng all gilded with golde made of canes caried with foureteenc or six teene men, with drummes and pipes and other instruments playing before him to a place out of the towne and there is burned He is accompanied with all his friends and ^^^ deaii'' neighbours, all men : and thev ^iue to the tnllipoies or priests many mats and cloth : and then they relume to the house and there make a feast for two dayes : and then the wife with all the neighbours wiues and her friends go to the place where he was burned, and there they sit a cerlaine time and cry and gather the pieces of bones which uc left vnburned and bur/ them, and then returne to their houses and make an end of all mourning And the men and women which be ncere of kin do shaue their heads, which they do not vse except it be for the death of a friend: for they much esteeme of their haire Caplan * ii the place where they finde the rubies, saphires, and spinelles: it standeth sixe dayes iourney from Aua in the kingdonie of Pegu There are many great high hilles out of which they digge them None may go to the pits but onely those which digge them In Pegu, and in all the countreys of Aua, Langeiannes, Siani, and the Rramas, the men weare bunches or little round balles in their priuy members ; some of them ware two and some three They cut the skin and so put them in, one into one side nnd another into the other side ; which they do when they be 25 or 30 yeeres olde, and at their pleasure they take one or more of them as they thinke good When they be niaried the husband is for euery child which his wife hath, to put in one vntill he come to three and then no more : for they say the women doe desire them They were inuented because they should not abuse the male sexe For in times past all those countries were so giuen to that villany, that they were very scarse of people It was also ordained that the women should not haue past three cubits of cloth in their nether clothes, which they binde about them ; which are so strait, that when they go in the streets, they shew one side Marginal note — Caplan is the place the rubies and other piecions stones are found h 48 NauigatioHS, Voyagts, i^ I i ' f Tj Anthuny Unluano writeih uf these lials, of the leg bare aboue the knee The bunches afore sityd be of diuers sorts: the least be as big as a litle walnut, and very round : the greatest are as big as a litle hennes egge : some are of brasse and some of •iluer : but those of silucr be for the king and his noble men These arc gilded and made with great cunning, and ring like a litle bell There are some made of Icade, which they call Sclwy because they ring but litle : and these be of lesser price for the poorer sort The king sometimes taketh his out, and giucih them to his noblemen as a great gift : and because he hath vsed them, they esteenie them greatly They will put one in, and heale vp the place in seuen or eight dayes The Bramas which be of t!ie kings countrey (for the king is a Brama) haue their legs or bellies, or some part of their body, iis they thinke good themselues, made black with ccrtaine things which they haue: they vse to pricke the skinne, and to put on it a kinde of anile or blacking, which doth continue alwayes And this is counted an honour among them : but none may haue it but the Dramas which are of the kings kinred These people weare no beards : they jjull out the haire on their faces with little pinsons made for that pur|)ose Some of them will let i6 or 20 haires grow together, some in of Tcgu one place of his face and some in another, and pulleth weire no out all the rest : for he carieth his pinsons alwayes with him to pull the haires out assoone as they appeare If they see a man with a beard they wonder at him They haue their teeth blacked both men and women, for they say a dogge hath his teeth white, therefore they will blacke theirs The Pegues if they haue a suite in the law which is so doubtfuU that they cannot well determine it, put two long canes into the water where it is very deepe : and both the parties go into the water by the poles, and there sit men to iudge, and they both do diue vnder the water, and he which remaineth longest vnder the water doth winne the sute The 10 of January I went from Pegu to Malacca, passing by many of the ports of Pegu, as Martauan, the Hand of Taui, from whence commeth great store of tinne, which serueth all India, the Hands of Tanaseri, lunsalaon, and many others ; and so came to Malacca the S of February, where the Portugals haue a castle which standeth nere the sea And the countrey fast without the towne belongeth to the Malayos, which is a kinde of proud 'i%\ Traffi(/ues, an J Dluoucria 49 people They go nikcd with a cloth about thtir miildlf, and a lille roll of rloih about their heails Hither come many ships from China and from the Malucos, llanda, Timor, and from many other Hands of the lauas, which bring great store of sijices and drugs, and diainants and other ieivels The voyages into many of these Hands belong vnto the captainc of Malacca: so tiiil none may goe thither without his lieence : which yeeld him great summes of money euery ycere The Portugals lieere haue often times warres witli the king of Achem which stmdeth in the Hand of Sumatra: from whence commeth great store of pepper and other spices euery yeere to IVgu and Mecca within the Red sea, and other places When the Portugals go from Macao in China to Fajjan, they carry much white silke, golde, muske, and porcelanes; and they bring from thence nothing but siluer They y^^\"y^^^ haue a great earacke which goctli thither euery yere, and she l)ringeth from thence euery yere aboue sixe hundred thousand crusadoes : and all this siluer of Iipan, and two hundred thousand crusadoes* more in siluer which thuy bring yeerely out of India, they imploy to their great aduantage in China: and they bring from thence golde, muske, silke, copjier, porcelanes, and many other things very costly and gilded When the Portugales come to Canton in cnina to trafhke, they must remaine there but certainc daycs : and when they come in at the gate of the city, they must enter their names in a booke, and when they goe out at night they must • ut out their names They may not lie in the towne all night, b t must lie in their boats withuut the towne And their dayes being expired, if any man remaine there, they are euill vsed and imprisoned The Chiniatis ;ire very suspitiius, and doe not trust strangers It is thought that the king doth not know that any strangers come into his countrey And further it is credibly reported that the common people see their king very seldome or not at all, nor may not looke vp to that place where he sitteth And when he rideth abroad he is caried vpon a great chaire or serrion gilded very faire, wherein there is made a little house with a latice to looke out at ; so that he may see them, but they may not looke vp at him : and all the time that he i)asseth by them, they heaue vp their hands to their heads, and lay their I * Marginal nott — Eight hundred thousand criisadu ycrely liy the Portugals in China, vol X ill siluer imployed «f» NauigalioHi, Voyagts, heads on the ground, and lookc not vp vntill he be passed The urdcr of China is when they iitDurne, that they wearc white thread shoes, and hats of straw The man doth mournc for his wile two yeeres, tlie wife for lier husband three yecres : the sonnc for his father a yeero, and for his mother two yeres And all the time wliich they mourno they keepc the dead in the house, the bowels being lakcn out and filled with chownam or lime, and coffined : and when the time is expired they ( arry them out playing and piping, and biirne them And when they rcturnc they pull ofT their mourning weeds, and marry at their pleasure A man may kcepc as many concubines as ho will, but one wife T lie wri'iiiiT ofihenii)|)ii: "T'ly All the Cliineans, laponians, and Cauchin cifChiim Cliineans do write right downwards, and they do write with a fme pensill made of dogs or cats haire Inban is a Hand among the lauas from whence come the dia mants of the New witer And they finde them in the riuers : for the kini^ will not suffer them to digge the rocke lamba is an Hand among the lauas also, from whence come diamants And the king hath a masse of earth which is golde ; it growth in the middle of a riuer : and when the king doth lacke gold, tliey cut part of the earth and melt it, whereof commeth golde This masse of earth doth appeare but once in a yere ; which is when the water is low: and this is in the moneth of April nima is another Hand among the lauas, where the women traucll and labour as our men do in England, and the men keepe house and go where they will The 29 of March 1588, I returned from Malacca to Martauan, and so to Pegu, where I remained the second time vntill the 17 of September, and then I went to Cosmin, and there tooke shipping; and passing many dangers by reason of contrary windes, it pleased God that we arriued in Bengala in Nouember following: where I stayed for want of passage vntill the third of February 1589, and then I shipped my selfe for Cochin In which voyage we endured great extremity for lacke of fresh water : for the weather was extreme bote, and we were many marchants and passengers, and we had very many calmes, and hole weather Vet it pleased God that we arriued in Ceylon the sixth of March, where we stayed fiue dayes to water, and to furnish our selues with other necessary prouision This Ceylon is a braue Hand, very fruitfull and faire; but by reason of continuall warres with the king thereof, all things are very deare : for he will not svjg^r 4' Traffii/ueSf an J Dis outries f> nny thing to be liroujtht to the castle where the I'driiinaU he : wherefore often times they haue ^^eat want of victuals Their prouis'on of victuals couimcth out of Kengala euery ycre The kip^ is called Raia, and is of j;rcat force : for he toninieth to L'olumbo, which is the place where the I'ortugals haue their fort, with an hundred thousand men, and many elephants, llul they ben;i!iil jjcople all of them; yet many of them be good with their jjieces which he muskets When the king talkcth with any man, he standelh vpon one legge, and sctteth the other foot vpon his knee with his sword in his hand : it is not their order for the king to sit but to stand Mis apparell is a fine painted cloth made of cotton wooll about his middle : his haire is long and bound vp with a little fine cloth about his head : all the rest of his body is naked His guard are a thousand men, which stand round about him, and he in the middle ; and when he marchelh, many of them goe before him, and the rest come after hiin They are of the race of the Chiiijjalaycs, which they say are the best kinde of all the Malabars Their eares arc very large ; for the greater they are, the more honoi rable they are accounted Some of them are a spanne long The wood which they burnc is Cinamom wood, and it smelleth very swi'ct There is great store of rubies, sai)hires, and spinelles in this Hand : the best kinde of all be here ; but the king will not suffer the inhabitants to digge for them, lest his enemies should know of them, and make warres against him, and so driue him out of his countrey for them They haue no horses in all the countrey The elephants be not so great as those of Pegu, which be monstrous hu^c : but they say all other elephants do feare them, and none dare fight with them, though they be very small Their women haue a cloth bound about them from their middle to their knee : and all the rest is bare All of them be blacke and but little, both men and women Their houses aro very little, made of the branches of the palmer or cocotree, and couered with the Icaues of the same tree The eleuenth of March we sailed from Ceylon, and so doubled the cape of Comori Not far from thence, betweene Ceylon and the maine land of Negapatan, they fish for pearles And there is fished euery yere very much; which doth seruc all India, Cambaia, and Bengala, it is not so orient as the pearle oi Baharim in the gulfe of Persia From cai)e de Comori we passed by Coulam, which is a fort of the Portugals ; from whence cotimeth great Sa Nauigaiions, Voyages, I store of pepper, which comnicth for Ponugall : for oftentimes there ladeth one of the caracks of Portugall Thus passing the coast we arriued in Cochin the 22 of March, where we found the weather warme, l)ut Sfarsity of victuals : for here groweth neither come nor rice : and the greatest jMrt commeth from Bengala They haue here very bad water, for the riuer is farre off This I'eople « iih ^^^ water causeth many of the people to be like lei)crs, sHollen and many of them haue their legs swollen as bigge as legges men ^^ j^ ^vaste, and many of them are scant able tiuned also ' ' liy to go These people here be Malabars, and of the loh Huygcn ,jgj ^f ^^ Naires of Calicut : and they differ much from the other Malabars These haue their heads very full of haire, and bound vp with a string : and there doth appeare a bush without the band wherewith it is bound The men be tall and strong, and good archers with a long bow and a long arrow, which is their best weapon : yet there be some caliuers among them, but they handle them badly Heere groweth the pepper; and it springeth vp by a urmvcUi " ^^^'^ °'' '' l'^'*^' ^""^ '^ ''''® °"'' '"y berry, but something lon^^er like the wheat care : and at the first the bunches are grecne, and as they waxe ripe they cut themoff and dry them The leafe is much lesser then the iuy leafc and thinner \]1 the inhabitants here haue very little houses couered with the leaues of the cocotrees The men be of a reasonable stature ; the women little ; all blacke, with a cloth bound about their middle hanging downe to their hammes ; all the rest of their bodies be naked : they haue horrible great eares with many rings set with pearles and stones in them The king goeth incached, as they do all j he doth not remaine in a place aboue fiue or sixe dayes : he hath many houses, but they be but litle : his guard is but small : he remooueth from one house to another according to their order \11 the pepper of Calicut and course cinamom groweth here in this countrey The best linamom doth come from Ceylon, and is pilled from fine yoong trees Here are very many palmer or coco trees, which is their chiefe food : for it is their meat and drinke : and yeeldcth many other necessary things, as I haue declared before The Naires which be vnder the king of Samorin, o?Cananor ^'''^^ ^'^ xMalabars, haue alwayes wars with the Portu gals The king hath alwayes peace with them ; but his people goe to the sea to robbe and steale Their chiefe w Traffiques, and Discouaries u captainc is caikd Cogi Alii ; he hath three castles vnder him When the Portugals complaine to the king, he sayth he doth not send them out : but he consenteth that they go They ranse all the coast from Ceylon to Goa, and go by foure or fiue parowes or boats together : and haue in euery one of them fifty or threescore men, and boord presently They do much harme on that coast, and take euery yere many foists and boats of the Portugals Many of these jieople be Moores This kings countroy bcginneth twelue leagues from Cochin, and reacheth neere vnto (ioa I remained in Cochin vntill the second of Noueniber, which was eight monclhs ; for that there was no passage that went away in all that time : if I had come two dayes sooner I had found a passage presently From Cochin I went to Goa, where I remained three dayes From Cochin to Goa is an hundred leagues From Goa I went to Chaul, which is threescore leagues, where I remained three and twenty dayes: and there making my prouision of things necessary for the shijipe, from thence I dcprirtod to Ormus ; where I stayed for a passage to Balsara fifty dayes From Goa to Ormus is (oure hundred leagues Here I thought i;ood, before I make an end of this my booke, to declare some things which India and the countrey farther Eastward do bring forth The pepper groweth in many parts of India, especially about Cochin : and much of it doeth grow in the fields among the bushes without any labour: and when it is ripe they go and gather it The shrubbe is like vnto our iuy tree: and if it did not run about some tree or pole, it would fall down and rot When they first gather it, it is greene ; and then they lay it in the Sun, and it becommeth blacke The ginger groweth like vnto our garlick, and the root is the ginger : it' is to be found in many parts of India The cloues doe come from the lies of the Moluccoes, which be diners Hands : their tree is like to our bay tree The nutmegs and maces grow together, and come from the He of Banda : the tree is like to our walnut tree, but somewhat lesser The white sandol is wood very sweet and in great request among the Indians ; for they grinde it with a litle water, and anoynt their bodies therewith : it commeth from the Isle of Timor Caniphora is a precious thing among the Indians, and is solde dearer than golde I thinke none of it commeth for Christendome That whiih is compounded commeth from China : but that which 54 Nauigalions, in V I groweth in canes and is the best, commeth from the great Isle of Borneo Lignum Aloes commeth from Cauchinchina The beniamin commeth out of the countreys of Siam and langomes The long pepper groweth in Bengala, in Pegu, and in the Hands of the lauas The muske commeth out of Tartarie, and is made after this order, by report of the marchants which bring it to Pegu to sell ; In Tartarie there is a little beast like vnto a yong roe, which they take in snares, and beat him to death with the blood : after that they cut out the bones, and beat the flesh with the blood very small, and fill the skin with it: and hereof commeth the muske Of the amber they holde diuers opinions ; but most men say it commeth out of the sea, and that ihey finde it vpon the shores side The rubies, saphires, and spinnelles are found in Pegu The diamants are found in diuers places, as in Bisnagar, in Agra, in Delli, and in the Hands of the lauas The best pearles come from the Hand of Baharim in the Persian sea, the woorser from the Piscaria neere the Isle of Ceylon, and from Aynam a great Hand on the Southermost coast of China Spodium and many other kindes of drugs come from Cambaia Now to returne to my voyage ; from Ormus I went to Balsara or Basora, and from Basora to Babylon : and we passed the most part of the way by the strength of men by hailing the boat vp the riuer with a long cord From Babylon I came by land to Mosul, which standeth nere to Niniue, which is all ruinated and destroyed: it standeth fast by the riuer of Tigris From Mosul I went to Merdin, which is in the countrey of the Armenians; but now there dwell in that place a people which they call Cordies or Curdi From Merdin I went to Orfa, which is a very faire towne, and it hath a goodly fo"ntaine full of fish, where the Moores hold many great ceremonies and opinions concerning Abraham : for they say he did once dwell there From thence I went to Bir, and so passed the riuer of Euphrates From Bir I went to Aleppo, where I stayed certainc moneths for company ; and then I went to Tripolis ; where findinj; English shipping, I came with a prosper ous voyage to London, where by Gods assistance I safely arriued the 29 of April 1591, hauing bene eight yeeres out of my natiue countrey Trajiquei and Discouerits 55 The report of lohn Huighen van Linchoten concerning M New beries and M Fitches imiirisonment, and of their escape, which happened while he was in Goa IN the moneth of December, Anno 1583, there arriucd in the towne and I'and of Ormus, foure English men, which came from Aleppo in the countrey of Syria, hauing sailed out of England, and passed tliorow the straights of Gibralter to Tripoli a towne and hauen lying on the coast of Syria, where all the ships dis charge their wares and marchandiscs, and from thence are caried by land vnto Aleppo, which is nine dayes iourney In Aleppo theie are resident diuers marchants and factours of all nations, as Italians, French men, English men, Armenians, Turks and Moores, euery man hauing his religion apart, paying tribute vnto the great Turke In that towne there is great tralfique, for that from thence euery yeere twise, there trauell two CafTyls, that is, companies of people and camels, which trauell vnto India, Persia, Arabia, and all the countreys bordering on the same, and deale in all sorts of marchandise, both to and from those countreys, as I in another place haue already declared Three of the sayd English men aforesayd, were sent by a company of English men that are resi dent in Aleppo, to see if in Ormus they might keepe any factours, and so traffique in that place, like as also the Italians do, that is to say, the Venetians which in Ormus, Goa, and Malacca haue their factours, and traffique there, aswell for stones and pearles, as for other wares and spices of those countreyes, which from thence are caried ouer land into Venice One of these English men had bene once before in the sayd towne of Ormus, and there had taken good information of the trade, and vpon his aduise and aducrtisement, the other were as then come jj^^^^y^j^j thither with him, bringing great store of marchandises beene in with them, as Clothes, Saffron, all kindes of drinking^J^^^^ •'j^J°J<" glasses, and Haberdashers wares, as looking glasses, kniues, and such like stuffe : and to conclude, brought with them all kinde of small wares that may be deuised And although those wares amounted vnto great summes of money, notwithstanding it was but onely a shadow or colour, thereby to giue no occassion to be mistrusted, or seen into : for that their principall intent was to buy great quantities of precious stones, as Diamants, Pearles, Rubies, &c to the which end they brought with them a great summe of money and golde, and that very secretly, not to be S6 Nauigatiom, Voyages, :!)S deceiued or robbed thereof, or to runne into any danger for the same They being thus arriued in Ormus, hired a shoppe, and beganne to sell their wares : which the Italians pcrceiuing, whose factours continue ihcre (as I sayd before) and fearing that those English men finding good vent for their commodities in that place, would be resident therin, and so dayly increase, which would be no mall losse and hinderance vnto them, did presently inuent all the subtile meanes they could to hinder them : and to that end they went vnto the Captaine of Ormus, as then called Don Gonsalo de Menescs, telling him that there were certaine English men come into Oimiis, that were sent onely to spie the countrey ; and sayd further, that they were heretikes : and therefore they sayd it was conuenicnt they should not be suffered so to depart, without being examined, and punished as enemies, to the example of others The Captaine being a friend vnto the English men, by reason that one of them which had bene there before, had giuen him certaine presents, would not be perswaded to trouble them, but shipped them with all their wares in a shippe that was tosaile for Cloa, nrd sent them to the Viceroy, that he might examine and trie them, as he thought good : where when they *ere arriued, they were cast into prison, and first examined whether they were good Christians or no : and because they could speake but badde Portugall, onely two of them spake good Dutch, as hauing bene certaine yeres in the Low countreyes, and there traffiked, there was a Dutch Icsuite born in the towne of Bruges in Flanders, that had bene resident in the Indies for the space of thirty yers, sent vnto them, to vndermine and examine them: wherein they behaued themselues so well, that they were holden and esteemed for good Catholicke Christians : yet still suspected, because they were strangers, and specially English men The lesuites still tolde them that they should be sent prisoners into Portugall, wishing them to leaue off their trade of marchandise, and to become lesuites, pro mising them thereby to defend them from all trouble The cause why they sayd so, and perswaded them in that earnest manor, was, for that the Dutch lesuile had secretly bene aduertisecl of great sunmics of money which they had ibout them, and sought to get the same into their fingers, for that the first vowe and promise they make at their entrance into their Order, is to procure the welfare of their sayd Order, by what meanes soeuer it be But although the English men denied them, and refused the Order, siiying, that they were vnfit for Fuch places, neuerthelesse iliey f »*!^'' Traffiques, and Dueouttiei 57 proceeded so farre, that one of them, being a Painter that came with the other three for company, to see the countreys, and to seeke his fortune, and was not sent thither by the English mar chants) partly for feare, and partly for want of meanes to relieue himselfe, promised them to become a lesuite : and although they knew and well perceiued he was not any of those that had the treasure, yet because he was a Painter, whereof there are but few in India, and that they had great need of him to |)aint their Church, which otherwise would cost them great charges, to bring one from Portugall, they were very glad theieof, hoping in time to get the rest of them with all their money into their fellowship : so that to conclude, they made this Painter a lesuite, where he reriained certaine dayes, giuing him good store of worke to doe, and entertaining him vith all the fauour and friendship they could deuise, and all to winne the rest, to be a pray for them : but the other three continued still in prison, being in great feare, because they vnderstood no man that came to them, nor any man almost knew what they sayd : till in the end it was tolde them that certaine Dutch men dwelt in the Archbishops house, and counsell giuen them to send vnto them, whereat they much reioyced, and sent to me and an other Dutch man, desiring vs at once to come and speake with them, which we presently did, and they with tcares in their eyes made complaint vnto vs of their hard vsage, shewing vs from point to point (as it is sayd before) why they were come into the countrey, withall desiring vs for Gods cause, if we might by any meanps, to helpe them, that they might be set at liberty vpon sureties, being ready to endure what iustice should ordaine for them, saying, that if it were found contrary, and that ihey were other then trauelling marchants, and sought to finde out further benefit by their wares, they would be content to be punished With that we departed from them, promising them to do our best : and in the end we obtained so much of the archbishop, that he went vnto the Viceroy to deliuer our petition, and perswaded him so well, that he was content to set them at libertie, and that their goods should be deliuered vnto them againe, vpon condition they should put in sureties for two thousand pardawes, not to depart the countrey before other order should be taken with them T'lercioon they presently found a Citizen of the towne tnat was their sui°ty for two thousand pardawes, to whom they payed in hand one thousand and three hundred pardawes, and because they sayd they had no more VOL X H S8 Nauigations, Voyages, , ^!i ready money, he gaue them credit, seeing what store of ina r chandise they had, whereby at all times if need were, he might Im satisfied : and by that meanes tliey were deliuered out of prison, and hired themselues an house, and beganne to set ofien snoppe: so that they vttered much ware, and were presently well knowen among all the marchants, because they alwayes respected iientle men, specially such as bought their wares, shewing great courtesie and honour vnto them, whereby they woon much credit, and were beloued of all men, so that euery man fauoured them, and was willing to doe them pleasure To vs they shewed great friendship, for whose sake the Archbishoj) fauoured tliem much, and shewed them very good countenance, which they knew well how to increase, by offering him many presents, althougti he would not rcceiue them, neither would euer take gift or present at any mans hands Likewise they behaued themselues so discreetly that no man caried an euill eye, no, nor an euill thought towards them Which liked not the lesuites, because it hindred them from that they hoped for, so that they ceased not still by this Dutch lesuite to put them in feare, that they should be sent into Portugal! to the King, counselling them to yeeld themselues Jesuits into their Cloister, which if they did, he sayd they would defend them from all troubles, saying further, that he counselled them therein as a friend, and one that knew for certaine that it was so determined by the Viceroyes Priuy counceil: which to effect he sayd they stayed but for shipping that should saile for Portugal!, with diuers other perswasions, to put them in some feare, and so to effect their purpose The English men to the contrary, durst not say any thing to them, but answered, that as yet they would stay a while, and consider ^hereof, thereby putting the lesuites in comfort, as one among them, being the principal! of them (called lohn Newbery) complained vnto me often times, saying that he knew not what to say or thinke therein, or which way he might be ridde of those troubles : but in the end they determined with themselues to depait from thence, and secretly by meanes of other friendes they imployed their money in precious stones; which the better to effect, one of them was a leweller, and for the same purpose came with them Which l)eing concluded among them, they durst not make knowen to any man, neither did they credite vs so much, as to shew vs their mindes therein, although they tolde vs all whatsoeuer they knew But on a Whitsunday they went TVafiques, and Discouenes, 59 abroad to sport thetnselues nW^vt three miles from Goa, in the mouth of the riuer in a countrcy called Bardes, hauing with them good store of meate and drinke And because they should not be suspected, they left their house and shoppe, with some wares therein vnsolde, in custody of a Dutch boy, by vs prouided for them, that looked vnto it This hoy was in the house not knowing their intent, and being in Bardes, they had with them a Patamar, which is one of the Indian postes, which in the Winter times carieth letters from one place to the other, whom they had hired to guide them : and because that betweene Bardes and the firme land there is but a little riuer, in a maner halfc drie, they passed ouer it on foot, and so trauelled by land, being neuer heard of againe : but it is thought they arriued in Aleppo, as some say, but they know not certainely Their greatest hope was that lohn Newbery could speake the Arabian _, , , J • „ L 1 The Arabian tongue, which is vsed m all those countreys, or at the loinjue least vnderstood : for it is very common in all places Renerall in there abouts, as French with vs Newes being come to Goa, there was a great siirre and murmuring among the people, and we much woondered at it : for many were of opinion that we had giuen them counsell so to do : and presently their surety seised vpou the goods remaining, which might amount vnto aboue two hundred pardawes ; and with that and the money he had received of the English men, he went vnto the Viceroy, and deliuered it vnto him : which the Viceroy hauing receiued forgaue him the rest This flight of the English men grieued the lesuites most, because they had lost such a praye, which they made sure account of: whereupon the Dutch lesuite came to vs to aske vs if we knew thereof, saying, that if he had suspected so much, he would haue dealt otherwise, for that he sayd, he once had in liis hands of theirs a bagge wherein was forty thousand venesear ders (ech veneseander being two pardawes) which was when they were in prison And that they had alwayes put him in comfort to Accomplish his desire ; vpon the which promise he gaue them iheir money againe, which otherwise they should not so lightly haue come by, or peraducnture neuer, as he openly sayd : and in the ende he called them hereticks, and spies, with a thousand other railing speeches, which he vttered against them The English man that »vas become a lesuite, hearing that his companions were gone, and perceiuing that the lesuites shewed Ciiin not so great fauour, neither vsed him so well as they did at 1 TVaffiques, and Discouerttt H before this towne from the seaward is a banke of mouing sand, which gathereth and increaseth with the Western winds, in such sort, that, according to an olde prophesie among them, this banke is like to swallow vp and ouerwhehne the towne: for euery yere it increaseth and eateth vp many gardens, although they vse all policy to diminish the same, and to make it firme ground The city is about the bignesse of Bristow, and walled about, though the walles be of no great force The chiefe strength of the place is in a Citadell, which siandeth on the South side within the walles, and ouerlouketh the whole towne, and is strongly kept with two hundred lanisaries and good artillery A riuer passeth thorow the midst of the city, wherewith they water their gardens and mulbery trees, on which there grow abundance of silke wormes, wherewith they make great quantity of very white silke, which is the chiefest naturall commodity ^|Ji!°"i^'^ to be found in and about this place This rode is more frequented with Christian marchants, to wit, Venetians, Genouois, Florentines, Marsilians, Sicilians, Raguses, and lately with English men, then any other ])ort of the Turks dominions From Tripolis I departed the 14 of May with a carauan, passing three dayes ouer the ridge of mount Libanus, at the end whereof we arriued in a city called Hammah, which standeth on a goodly plaine replenished with come and cotton j^j'^i^i^gj,"' wooll On these mountaines which we passed grow great quantity of gall trees, which are somewhat like our okes, but lesser and more crooked : on the best tree a man shall not finde aboue a pound of galles This towne of Hammah is fallen and falleth more and more to decay, and at this day there is scarse one halfe of the wall standing, which hath bene very strong and (aire : but because it cost many mens Hues to win it, the Turke will not haue it repaired ; and hath written in the Arabian tongue ouer the castle gate, which standeth in the midst of the towne, these words : Cursed be the father and the sonne that shall lay their hands to the repairing hereof Refreshing our selues one day here, we passed forward with camels three dayes more vntill we came to Aleppo, where we arriued the 31 of May This is the greatest place of traifique for a dry towne that is in all those parts: for hither resort lewes, Tartarians, Persians, Armenians, Egyptians, Indians, and many sorts of Christians, and enioy freedome of their consciences, and bring thither many kinds of rich mar chandises In the middest of this towne also standeth a goodly 6a NauigatioHS, Voyages, 'ill Mi 'r>l I castle raised on high, vith a garrison of foure or fiue hundred lanisaries Within four miles round about are goodly gardens and vineyards and trees, which beare goodly fruit neere vnto the riuers side, which is but small ; the wallcs are about three English miles In compasse, but the suburbs are almost as much more The towne is greatly peopled We departed from thence with our camels the last day of May with M lohn Newbery and his company, and came to Birrah in three dayes, being a small towne situated vpon the riuer Euphrates, where it beginneth first to take his name, being here gathered into one chanell, whereas before it comnieth downe in manifolde branches, and therefore is called by the people of the countrey by a name which signifieth a th >usand heads Here is plenty of victuals, whereof we all furnished our selues for a long iourney downe the aforesayd riuer And according to the maner of those that trauell downe by water, we prepared a small barke for the conueyance of our selues and of our goods These boates are flat bottomed, because the riuer is shallow in many places : and when men trauell in Shallow*" ^^^ moneth of luly, August, and September, the water being then at the lowest, they are constrained to cary with them a spare boat or two to lighten their owne boates, if they chance to fall on the sholds We were eight „ and twenty dayes vpon the water betwcene Birrah twenty dayes and Felugia, where we disimbarked our se'ues and iourney by our goods Euery night after the Sun setteth, we tie our barke to a stake, go on land to gather sticks, and set on our pot with rice or brused wheat, and hauing supped, the marchants lie aboord the barke, and the mariners vpon the shores side as nere as they can vnto the same In many places vpon the riuers side we met with troops of Arabians, of whom vpon the riuer we bought milke, butter, egges, and lambs, and gaue of them in barter, (for they care not for money) glasses, up rates, pgnjijes, corall, amber, to hang about their armes and necks, and for churned milke we gauc them bread and pomgranat peeles, wheiewith they vse to tanne their goats skinnes which they churne withall Their haire, apparell, and colour are alto gether like to those vagabond Egyptians, which heretofore haue The Arabian g°"^ about in England Their women all without women exception weare a great round ring in one of their rTncsln'^t'hefr "osirels, of golde, siluer, or yron, according to their ability, and about their armes and smalles of their rings nostrels Ttaffiquti and Diteouinei, s are vsually from forty to threescore tunnes, hauing their planks sowed together with corde made of the barke of Date trees, and in stead of Occam thty vse the shiuerings of the barke of the sayd trees, and of the same they also make their tackling They hauc no kind of yron worke belonijing to these vessels, saue ''"* "" only their ankers with'uit yron From this place six dayes sailing in the downe the gulfe, they goe to a plice called Uahareiii ''e's"»" in the mid way to Ormus : there tliey fish for pearles foure moneths in the yeere, to wit, in lune, luiy, August, and September My abode in IJalsara was iiisi sixe inuiieths, during which time I receiued diuers letieis from M lohi4 Newberry from Ormus, who as he passed ttiat way with her ,,,, Maiesties letters to Zelabdmi Lchebar kmg ol icheljar Cambaia, and vnto the mighty emperour of China, '<'"f! v' was traiterously there arrested, and all his company, by the Portugals, and afterward sent prisoner to (ioa ; where after a long and cruell imprisonment, he and his companions were deliuered vpon sureties, not to depart the towne without leaue, at the sute of one father Thonias Steuens, an English religious man which they found there : but shortly after three of them escaped, whereof one, to wit, M Ralph Iitch, is since come into England The fourth, which was a ])ainter called lohn Story, became religious in the college of S Paul in Goa, as we vnderstood by their letters I and my companion William Shales hauinj^ dispatched our businesse at Balsara, nereiurneth imharked our se es in company of seuenty batks all from Ualsara laden with marchandise, hauing euery barke 14 men '° '^'PP" to draw them, like our Westerne bargemen on the Thames, and we were forty foure dayes coniming vp against the streame to VOL X I %\ 66 Namgaticns, Voyages, Babylon, where arriuing and paying our custome, we with all other sorts of marchants bought vs camels, hired vs men to lade Their ^"^ driue them, furnished our selucs with nee, butter, prouision of biskct, hony made of dates, onions and dates: and victuals, gugjy marchant tiought a proportion of hue muttons, and hired certaine shepheards to driue them with vs : we also bought vs tents to lie in, and to put our goods vnder : of foure snd in this our carauan were foure thousand camels thousand laden with spices, and other rich marchandises These camels will Hue very well two or three dayes without water: their feeding is on thistles, wormewood, niag dalene, and other strong weeds which they finde vpon the way The gouernment and deciding of all quarels and dueties to be payed, the whole carauan commiteth to one speciall rich mar chant of the company, of whose honesty they conceiue best In passing from Babylon to Alej^po, we spent forty dayes, trauelling twenty, or foure and twenty miles a day, resting ourselues commonly from two of the clocke in the afternoone, vntill three in the morning, at which time we begin to take our iourney Eight dayes iourney from Babylon toward Aleppo, neere vnto a towne called Heit, as we crosse the riuer Euphrates by boates, about 3 miles from the town there is a valley wherein are many springs throwing out abundantly at great mouths, a kinde of blacke substance like vnto tarre, which serueth all the countrey to make stanch their barkes and boates : euery one of these springs maketh a noise like vnto a Smiths forge in the blowing and puffing out of this matter, which neucr ceaseth night nor day, and the noise may be heard a mile off continually This vale swalloweth vp all heauie things that come vpon it The people of the countrey call it in their language Babil gehenham, that is to say Hell doore As we passed through these deserts, we saw certaine wild beasts, as wild asses all white Roebucks, wolfes, leopards, foxes, and many hares, whereof we chased and killed many Aborise the king of the wandring Arabians in these deserts hath a dutie of 40S sterling, vpon euery Camels lode, which he sendeth his officers to receiue of the Carauans, and in consideration hereof, he taketh vpon him to conduct the sayd Carauans if they need his helpe, and to defend them against certaine prowling thieues I and my companion William Shales came to Aleppo with the Carauan the eleuenth of lune, 1584 Trafflques, and Discouenes 67 If I 'i! William Barret Consul it> Aleppo where we were ioyfully receiued 20 miles distant from the towne by M William Barret our Consul!, accom panied with his people and Janissaries, who fell sicke immediately and departed this life within 8 dayes after, and elected before his death M Anthonie Bate Consul of our English nation in his place, who laudably supplied the same roome 3 yeeres In which meane time I made two t,^^ ^oy^ges voyages more vnto Babylon, and returned by the way more iiiaile aforesayd, ouer the deserts of Arabia And after '° 'Babylon wards, as one desirous to see other parts ol the countrey, I went from Aleppo to Antioch, which is thence 60 English miles, and from thence went downe to Tripolis, where going aboord a small vessell, I arriued at loppe, and trauelled to Rama, Lycia, Gaza, Jerusalem, Bethleem, to the riuer of Jordan, and the sea or lake of Zodome, and returned backe to loppe, and from thence by sea to Tripolis, of which places because many others haue published large discourses, I surcease to write Within few dayes after imbarking my selfe at Tripolis the 22 of December, I arriued (God be thanked) in safety here in the riuer of Thames with diuers English niarchants, the 26 of March, 1588, in the liercules of London, which was the richest ship of English niarchants goods that euer was knowen to come into this realme The second letters Patents graunted by the Queenes Maiestie to the Right worshipfuU companie of the English Marchants for the Leuant, the seuenthof lanuarie 1592 ELizabeth by the grace of God Queene of England, I'rance, and Irelande, defender of the faith &c To all our Ofificers, ministers and subiects, and to all other people aswell within this our Realme of England, as else where vnder our obeysance and iurisdiction or otherwise vnto whom these our letters shal be seene, shewed, or read greeting Where our well beloued subiects Edward Osborne knight Alder mnn of ourcitieof London, William Hareborne Esquire, and Richard Staper of our saide citie Marchant, haue by great aduenture and Industrie with their great cost and charges by the space of sundry late yeeres trauelled, and caused trauell to be taken aswell by secrete and good meanes, as by daungerous wayes and passages both by lande and sea to finde out and set open a trade of mar chandize and traflfike into the la'ides, Ilande Dominions, and ,ii| '^\\ |!Ui 111 ^r 68 Nau\iattons, Voyages, territories of the great Turke, commonly called the Grand Signior, not before that time in the memorie of any man now liuing knowen to be commonly vsed and frequented by way of mar chandize bj any the marchantes or other subiects of vs or our ])rogenitors : And also haue by their like good meanes and Industrie and great charges procured of the sayde Grand Signior in our name, amitie, safetie and freedonie for trade and traffike of marchandize to be vsed and continued by our subiects within his sayd dominions, whereby we perceiue and finde that both many good actions haue beene done and performed, and hereafter are h'kely continually to be done and performed for the peace of Christendome : Namely by the reliefe and discharge of many Christians which haue beene, and which hereafter may happen to be in thraldome and bondage vnder the sayde Grand Signior and his vassals or subiects And also good and jjfofitable vent and vtterance of the commodities of our Realme, and sundrie other great benefites to the aduancement of our honour and dignilie Royall, the maintenance of our Nauie, the encrease of our customes, and the reuenucs of our Crowne, and generally the great wealth of our whole Realme And whereas we are enformed of the sayd Edward Osborne knight, William Hareborne, and Richard Staper, that George Harne, Richard Martine, lohn Harte knights, and other marchants of our sayd Citie of London haue by the space of eight or nine yeeres past ioyned themselues in companie, trade and traffike with them the sayd Edward Osborne knight, William Hareborne and Richard Staper, into the sayde dominions of the sayd great Turke, to the furtherance thereof and the good of the Realme And whereas further it is made kiviven vnto vs, that within fewe yteres now past our louing and good subiects Thomas Cordall, Edward Holmeden, William Oarraway and Paul Banning, and sundry other n erchants of our said Citie of London, haue likewise at their great costes and charges, builded and furnished diucrse good and seruiceable shippes and therewith to their like costs and charges haue traded and frequented, and from time to time doe trade and frequent and trciffike by sea with the commodities of our Realme to Venice, Zante, Candie, and Zephalonia and other the dominions of the Segniorie and State of Venice, and thereby haue made and mainteyned, and doe make and continually maintaine diuers good shippcs with mariners skilfuU and fitte and necessarie for our seruice : and doe vent out of our Realme into IL •il Traffiques, and Dtscouerus 69 those partes diuerse commodities of our Realme, and returne hither into our sayde Realme many good and necessarie com modities for the common wealth thereof : All which tratfike, as well inward as outward vntill it hath becne otherwise brought to passe by the sayde endeuours, costs, and charges of our sayde subiects, was in effect by our subiectes wholy discontinued Knowe yee, that hereupon we greatly tendring the wealth of our people and the encouragement of them and other our louing subiects in their good enterprises for the aduancement of lawful! traffike to the benefite of our common wealth, haue of our speciall grace, certaine knowledge, and meere motion giuen and graunted, and by these presents for vs, our heyres, and successours, doe giue and graunt vnto our sayd trustie and welbeloued subiectes Edwarde Orborne Knight, George Barne Knight, George Bonde knight, Richard Marline knight, lohn Harte knight, lohn Hawkins knight, William Massam, lohn Spencer, Richard Saltonstall, Nicholas Mosley Alderman of our sayde Citie of London, William Hareborne, Edwarde Barton, William Borrough Esquires, Richard Staper, Thomas Cordall, Henrie Paruis, Thomas Laurence, Edwarde Holmeden, William Garraway, Robert Dowe, Paul Banning, Roger Clarke, Henrie Anderson, Robert Offley, Philip Grimes, Andrewe Banning, Limes Staper, Robert Sadler, Leonarde Power, George Salter, Nicholas Leate, lohn Eldred, William Shales, Richard May, William Wilkes, Andrewe Fones, Arthur Lackson, Edmund Ansell, Ralph Ashley, Thomas Farring ton, Roberte Sandie, Thomas Garraway, Edwarde Lethlande, Thomas Dalkins, Thomas Norden, Robert Bate, Edward Sadler, Richard Darsall, Richard Martine lunior, Ralph Fitch, Nicholas Pearde, Thomas Simons, and Francis Dorrington,* that they and euery of them by the na' le of Gouernour and company of Marchants of the Leuant shall from hence fuorth for the terme of twclue yeeres next ensuing the date hereof bee one bodie, fellowshippe and companie of themselues, both in deede and in name : And them by the name of Gouernour and companie of mar chantes of the Leuant wee doe ordayne, incorporate, name, and declare by these presentes, and that the same fellow shippe and companie from hence foorth shall and may * Marginal tiott, — The marchants aboue named lie made a fellowship and companie for 12 yeeres by ihe name of the Gonernor and companie of the marchants of the Leuant 1:! i 70 Nauigahotts, Voyages, haue one Gouernour And in consideration that the sayde Edwarde Osborne Knight hath beene of the chiefe setters foorth and actors in the opening and putting in practise of the sayde trade to the don/Inions of the sayde Grand Signor: Wee doe therefore specially make, ordaine, and constitute the Osborne sayde Edwarde Osborne Knight, to bee nowe Gouer ajpointed nour during the time of one whole yeere nowe next Gouernour following, if hce so long shall Hue : and after the expiration of the sayde j'eere, or decease of the sayde Edward Osborne the choyse of the next Gouernour, and so of euery Go^rnour from time to time during the sayde terme of twelue yeeres to be at the election of the sayde fellowshijipe or companie of marchantes of the Leuant or the more part of them yeerely to be chosen, and that they the sayde Sir Edward Osborne, and all the residue of the sayde fellowshippe or companie of Marchantes of the I^uant and euerie of them, and all the sonnes of them and of euery of them, and all such their apprentises and seruants of them and of euery of them, which haue bene or here after shall be iinployed in the sayde trade by the space of foure yeeres or vpwardes by themselues, their seruantes, factors or deputies, shall and may by the space of twelue yeeres from the day of the date of these our letters Patents freely traflfike, and vse the trade of Marchandize as well by sea as by lande into and from the dominions of the sayde Grand Siguor, and into and from Venice, Zante, Candie and Zephalonia, and other the dominions of the Signiorie and State of Venice, and also by lande through the Countries of the sayde Grand Signor into and from the East India, lately discouered by lohn Newberie, Ralph Fitch, William Leech, and lames Storie, sent with our letters to that purpose at the proper costs and charge of the sayde Marchants or some of them : and into and from euer<° of them in such order, manner, forme, libertie and condition to all intentes and purooses as shall be betweene them of the sayde 'ellowshippe or companie of Marchantes of the Leuant or the more part of them for the time being limited and agreed, and not otherwise, without any molestation, impeachment, or disturbance ; any lawe, statute, vsage, or diuersitie of Religion or faith, or any other cause or matter whatsoeuer to the contrarie notwithstanding And that the sayde Govcrnour and companie of Marchantes of the Leuant, or the greater part of them for the better gouernement A priuiledge for the East Indies K Traffiques, and Discouenes 71 of the sayde fellowshippc ^nd companie, shall and may within fortie dayes next and imm>diatly following after the date hereof, and so from hence foorth yeerely during the continuance of this oui graunt, assemble themselues in some conuenient place, and that they or the greater parte of them being so assembled, shall and may elect, ordaine, nominate, and appoint twelue discreete and honest persons of the sayde companie to be assistants to the sayde Gouernour, and to continue in the sayde office of assistants, vntill they shall die or bee remoued by the sayde Gouernour and com ])anie or the greater part of them And if it happen the sayde assistantes or any of them to die, or be remooued from their sayde office at anie time during the continuance of this ourgrauni: that then and so often it shall and may bee lawfuU to and for the sayde Gouernour and companie of marchantes of the Leuant, or the greater part of them to elect and chuse one or more other persons of the sayd companie into the place or places of euery such person or persons so dying or luippening to be remooued, as is aforesayde And wi'c will and ordaine that the same person or l)ersons so as is aforesaide to be elected shall be of the sayd num ber of assistants of the sayde com|)anie And this to be done so often as the case shall so require And that it shall and may be lawfuU to and for the sayde Edwarde Orborne Knight, George Barne Knight, George Bonde knight, Richard Martine knight, John Hart knight, lohn Hawkins knight, William Massam, lohn Spencer, Richard Saltonstall, Nicholas Mosley, William Hareborne, Edwarde Barton, William Borrough, Richard Staper, Thomas Cordall, Henrie Paruis, Thomas Laurence, Edwarde Holmeden, William Garraway, Robert Dowe, Paul Banning, Roger Clarke, Henrie Andersen, Robert Offley, Philip Grimes, Andrewe Banning, lames Staper, Robert Sadler, Leonarde Power, George Salter, Nicholas Ieate, John Eldred, William Shales, Richard May, William Wilkes, Andrewe Fones, Arthur lackson, Edmund sell, Raliih Ashley, Thomas Farrington, Robert Sandie, Thomas Garraway, Edwarde Lrthlande, Thomas Dalkins, Thomas Norden, Robert Bate, Edward Sadler, Richard narsall, Richard Martine lunior, Ralph Fitch, Nicholas Pearde, Thomas Simons, and Francis Dorrington aforesayde, or any of them to assemble themselues for or about any the matters, causes or affaires or businesses of the sayde trade in any place or places for the same conuenient from time to time during the sayde terme of twelue yeeres within our dom inions or else where And that also it shall and may be lawfull w I l^ 't [i I 7» Nauigations, Voyagts, for iheiv, or the more part of them to make, ordaine and constitute reasonable lawej and orders (or the good (jouernment of the saydc coni')anie, and for the better aduancement and continuance of the saydc trade and traffike : the same lawes and ordinances not being contrarie or repugnant to the lawes, statutes or customes of our Realme : And the same lawes and ordinances so made to put in vse, ind execute accordingly, and at their pleasures to reuoke and alter the same la'\es and ordinances or any of them as occasion shall require And we doe also for vs, our heyres and successors of our speciuU grace, certaine knowledge, and meere motion graunt to and with the sayd Gouernour and companie of marchantes of the Leuant, that when and as often at any time during the sayde terme and space of twelue yeeres as any custome, pondage, subsidie or other duetie shall be due and payable vnto vs, our heires, or successors for any goods or marchandize whatsoeuer, to be carried or transported out of this our port of London into any the dominions aforesayde, or out of or from any the sayde dominions vnto our sayde port of London, that our Customers, and all other our officers for receites of custome, pondng^, subsidie or other duetie vnto whom it shall appertaine, shall vpon the request of the sayde Gouernour for the lime being, giue vnto the sayde companie three monetiies time for the payment of the one halfe, and other three monelhes for the payment of the other halfe of their sayde cuslcmc, pondage, or other subsidie or duetie for the same, receiuing good and suffiricnt bonde and securtie to our vse for the payment of the same accordingly And vpon receipt of the sayde bonde to giue them out their cockets or other warrants to lade out and receiue in the same their goods by vertue hereof wi'nout any disturbance And that also as often as at any time during the sayde torme of twelue yeeres any goods or mar chandize of any of the sayde companie laden from this our port of London in any the* dominions beforesayde shall happen to miscarie before their safe discharge in the partes for and to the which they be sent : That then and so often so much custome, pondage, and other subsidie as they ansvered vs for the same, shall after due proofe made before the Treasurour of England for the time being of the sayde losse, and the iust quantitie thereof, be by the vertue hereof allowtid vnto them, by warrant of the sayde Treasurour to the sayde Customers in the next marchandize that they shall or may shippe for those partes, according to the true rates of the Traffiques, and Dtscoueries 73 custoines, pondage, or subsidies heretofore payde for the goods so lost or any part or parcell thereof And for that the sayde compaiiie are like continually to bring into this our Realme a much greater quantitie of forren com modities from the forren Countreyes, places, or territories aforesaide, then here can be spent for the necessarie vse of the same, which of necessitie must be transported into other countreyes, and there vented, we for vs, our heires and suc cessors of our speciall grace, certaine knowledge, and meere motion doe graunt to and with the sayd Goucrnour and companie that at all times from time to time during the space of thirteene moneths next after the discharge of any the sayde goods so brought in, and the subsidies, pondage, customes and other duties for the same being before hande payde or compounded for as aforesayd, it shall be lawfull for them or any of them or any other person or persons whatsoeuer being naturall subiects of the Realme which may or shall buy the same of them or any of them to transport the same in English botlomes freely out of this Realme without payment of any further custome, pondage, or other subsidie to vs, our heires or successors for the same, whereof the sayde subsidies, pondage, or customes or other duties shall he so formerly payde and compounded for, as aforesayd, and so proued And the sayd customer by vertue hereof shall vpon due and sufficient proofe thereof made in the custome house giue them sufficient cocket or certificate for the safe passing out thereof accordingly And to the ende no deceipt be vsed herein to vs our heires, and successors, certificate shall be brought from our collector of custome inwardes to our customer outwardes that the sayd marchandizes haue within the time limited answered their due custome, subsidie, pondage and other duties for the same inwards And furthermore we of our ample and aboundant grace, meere motion, and certaine knowledge haue graunted, and by these presents for vs our heyres and successours doe graunt vnto the said Gouernours and companie of marchantes of the Leuant, that they and such onely as be and shall be of that companie, shall for the sayd terme of twelue jeeres haue, vse, and enioy the whole and onely trade and tratfike, and the whole entire and onely libertie, vse, and priuilege of trading and traflfiking, and vsing feate of marchandise by and t!jrough the Leuant seas otherwise called the Mediterran seas into and from the sayd VOL X K J It' ^,1 74 Nauigattons, i' dominions of the Grand Signor, and dominions of the state of Venice ; and by and through the sayd Grand Signors dominions to and from such other places in the East Indies Hiscouered as aforesayd And that they th' sayd Gouernour and companie of marchants of the Leuant and eueiy particular and seuerall person of that companie heir and ei ery one of their seruants, factors, and deputies shall haue full a id free authoritie, libertie, facultie, licence, and power to trade an>i trafficke by and through the sayde Leuant seas into and from all and euery the sayd dominions of the sayde Grand Signor, and the dominions of the state of Venice, and the sayde Indies, and into and from all places where by occasion of the sayd trade they shall happen to arriue or come, whither they be Christians, Turkes, Gentiles, or others : And by and through the sayd Leuant seas into and from all other seas, riuers, portes, regions, territories, dominions, coastes and places with their ships, barkes, pinases and other vessels, and with such mariners and men as they will leade or haue with them, or sende for the sayde trade as they shall thinke good at their cwne costes and expenses And for that the shippes sayling into the sayde Countreyes must take their due and proper times to proceede in these voyages, which otherwise as we well perceiue cannot be performed in the rest of the yeere following : Therefore we of our speciall grace, certaine knowledge, and meere motion for vs, our heyres and successors doe graunt to and with the sayd Gouernour and companie of Marchantes of the Leuant, that foure good shippes well furnished with ordinance and other munition for their defence, and two hundred mariners English men to guide and sayle in the same four shippes at all times during the sayde twelue yecres shall quietly bee permitted and suffered to depart and goe in the sayde voyages, according to the purport of these presents, without any stay or contradiction by vs, our heyres and successors, or by the Lords hij^h Admirall or any other officer or subiect of vs, our heires or successours in any wise : Any restraint, lawe, statute, vsage or matter whatsoeuer to the contrarie notwithstanding Prouided neuerthelesse, that if wee shall at any time within the sayde twelue yeeres haue iust cause to arme our Nauie in warrelike manner in defence of our Realme, or for offence of our enemies : and that it shall be founde needefull and conuenient for vs to ioyne to our Nauie the shippes of our subiects to be also i! Traffiquts, and Disfouenes 75 ' if the ue is armed for warres to such number as cannot bee r iicf sayd foure shippes should be |>erniitted to depar* is mentioned ; then vpon knowledge giuen by vs ' our lirall to the sayde Gouernour or companie about th n entt (U'y of the moneth of March, or three moneths before aii ' 3 'onipanic shall beginne to make readie the same foure shipp haf we may not spare the sayd foure ships and tlic ma'rinerb requisite for them to be out of our Realme during the ^ \y\\ our Nauie shal be vpon the seas, that then the sayde coi ^i e shall forbeare to send such foure shippes for their trade of marchandise vntill that we shall retake our sayd Nauie from the sayd seruice And further our will and pleasure is, and wee doe by these presentes graunt that it shall be lawfuU to and for the sayd Gouernour and companie of Marchantes of the Leunnt to haue and vse in and about the affaires of the sayde companie a common seale for matters concerning the sayde companie and trade And that also it shall be lawfull for the Marchants, Mariners, and Sea men, which shall be vsed and imployed in the sayde trade and voyage to set and place in the toppes of their ships or other vessels the Armes of England with the reddecrosse in white ouer the same as heretofore they haue vsed And we of our further Royall fauour and of our especiall grace, certaine knowledge, and mecre motion haue graunted and by these presents for vs, our heyres and successors doe graunt to the sayd Gouernour and companie of Marchants of the Leuant, that the sayde landes, territories, and dominions of the sayde Grand Signor, or the dominions of the Signiorie of Venice, or any of them within the sa'de Leuant or Mediterran seas shall not be visited, frequented, or haunted by the sayde Leuant sea by way of marchandize by any other our subiects during the saide terme of iwelue yeeres contrarie to the true meaning of these presentes And by vertue of our prerogatiue Royall, which wee will not in that behalfe haue argued or brought in question, wee straightly charge, commaunde and prohibite for vs, our heyres and successours all our subiects of what degree or qualitie soeuer they bee, that none of them directly or indirectly doe visite, haunt, frequent, trade, traffike or aduenture by way of marchandise into or from any of the sayd dominions of the sayd Grand Signor, or the dominions of the saide Segniorie of Venice, by or through the sayde Leuant sea other then the sayd Gouernour and companie of marchants of the Leuant, and such particular n f 76 Nauisatwns, Voyages, V !l I f (I; persons as be or shall be of that companie, their factors, agents, seruants and assignes And further for that wee plainely vnder stande that the States and Gouernours of the citie and Segniorie of Venice haue of late time set and raysed a newe impost and charge ouer and besides their auncient impost, custome, and charge of and vpon all manner of raarchandize of our Realme brought into their dominions, and also of and vpon all mar chandise caried or laden from their sayd Countrey or dominions by our subiects or in the ships or bottoms of any of our subiectes to the great and intolerable charge and hinderance of our sayd subiects trading thither, wee therefore minding the redresse thereof, doe also by these presents for vs, our heires and successors further straightly prohibite and forbid not onely the subiects of the sayde State and Segniorie of Venice, but also of all other Nations or Countries whatsoeuer other then the sayd Gouemour and companie of marchants oi the Leuant, and such onely as be or shall be of that companie, their factors, agents, seruantes, and rssignes : That they or any of them during the sayde terme of twelue yeeres, shall bring or cause to be brought into this our Kealme of Rnglande, or any part thereof anie manner of small fruites called corrants, being the raysins of Corinth, or wine of Candie, vnlesse it be by and with the licence, consent, and agreement ot the sayde Gouernour and companie in writing vnder their sayd common seale first had and obteyned vpon paine vnto cuery such person and persons that shall trade and traffike into any the sayde dominions of the State and Segniorie of Venice by sea, or that shall bring or cause to be brought into our saide Realme any of the said corrants being the raysins of Corinth, or wines of Candia, other then the sayd companie in paine of our indignation, and of forfeiture and losse as well of the shippe and ships with the furniture thereof, as also of the goods, mar chandize, and thinges whatsoeuer they be of those which shall attempt or presume to commit or doe any matter or thing con trarie to the prohibition aforesayd The one halfe of all the saide forfeitures to be to vs, our heires and successours, and the other halfe of all and euery the sayde forfeitures we doe by these presents, of our speciall grace, certaine knowledge, and meere motion clearely and wholie for vs, our heires and successors, giue and graunt vnto the saide Gouernour and companie of marchantes of the Leuant And further all and euery the sayde ofTendours for their sayde Traffiqua, ana Dis,'cutnts, 77 contempt to suffer imprisonment during our pleasures, and such other punishment as to vs for so high a contempt sliall seemu meete and conuenient, and not to be in any "ise deliuered vntill they and euery of them shall i)c come bounde vnto the sayd (louernour for the time being in the summe of one thousand poundcs or lesse at nc tune, then after to sayle or traftike by sea into any the dominions aforesaide, or to bring or cause to be brought from any the places aforesayde any corrants, raysins of Corinth, or wines of Candia rontrarie to our cxpresse com maundement in that behalfe herein set downc and published Prouided alwayes, and our cxpresse will is notwithstanding the premisses that if our sayde subiects shall at any time hereafter be recompensed of and for all ruch ncwe impostes and charges as they and euery of them shall pay, and likewise be freely discharged of and from the payment of all manner of newe imposte or taxe for any of their marchandise which they hereafter shall bring into or from any the dominions of the sayde State or Scgniorie ot Venice, and from all bondes and other assurances by them or any of them to be made for or in that behalfe, that then imme diatly from and after such recompence and discharge made as aforesayde our sayde prohibition and restraint in these presentes mentioned, shall not be of any strength or force against the sayde Citie or State of Venice, or any the subiects thereof, but for and during such time onely and in such case when hereafter the sayde State of Venice shall againe beginne to taxe or leuie any manner of newe imposte within the sayde dominions vpon any the goods or marchandizes of our sayde subiects heereafter to be brought into any the dominions of the said State or Segniorie of Venice Any thing in these our letters Patents contayned to the contrarie thereof in any wise notwithstanding And further wee straightly charge and commaunde, and by these presentes |)rohibite all and singular Customers and Collectors of our Customes, pondage, and subsidies, and all other Officers within our ])orte and Citie of London and else where, to whom it shall appertaine and euery of them That they or any of them by themselues, their clarkes, or substitutes shall not receiue or take, or suffer to be receiued or taken for vs in our name, or to our vse, or in the name, or vnto the vse of our heires or suc cessors of any person or persons, any summe or summes of money, or other consideration during the sayde terme of twelue yeeres for any custome, pondage, taxe or suhsidie of any 8 Traffiqutt, and Ihscoutmt, 79 our will and pleasure is, and we doe iicrcby expresscly coinmaund and charge that if it happen at any time witliin two moncths next following after the date hereof, the sayd Henry {'arrin^tun and Henry Hewet or either of them, do suhinit tiiemsclues to be of the sayd companie, and doe giue such assurance as the sayd Goucrnour and companie, or the more part of them shall allow of, to beare, pay, and performe such orders, constitutions, paiments and contributions, as other of the sayd coini)aiiy shall be ordered to beare, pay, and performe, that then euery of the sayd Henry Farrington and Henry Hewet so doing and submitting himselfe, shall vpon his or their request vnto the sayd (loucrnour bee admitted into the sayd companie and corporation of Gouernour and companie of marchants of Leuant, and haue and enioy the same, and as great liberties, priuileges, and preheminences, as the rest of the sayde corporation or companie may, or ought to haue by vertue of this our graunt Any thing in these presents con tained to the contrary notwithstanding And our will and pleasure is, and hereby wee doe also ordaine that it shall and may bee lawfull, to, and for the sayde Gouernour and company of marchants of Leuant or the more part of them, to admit into, and tci be of the sayd companie, any such as haue bene or shall bee employed as seruants, factors, or agents in the trade of marchandise by the sayd Leuant seas, into any the countreys, dominions or territories of the sayd Grand Signior or Signiorie or State of Venice, according as they or the most part of them shall thinke requisite And where Anthony RalclifTe, Steuen Some, and Robert Brooke Aldermen of the saide Citie of London, Simon Laurence, lohn Wattes, lohn Newton, Thomas Middlelon, Robert Coxe, lohn Blunt, Charles Faith, Thomas Barnes, Alexander Dansey, Richard Aldworth, Henry Cowlthirste, Ctesar Dolfie, Martiiic Bonde, Oliuer Sti'e and Nicholas Stile Marchants of London for thci abilities and sufficiencies haue bene thought fit to be also of the sayd Company of the saide goucrnour and Company of Marchants of Leuant : Our will and pleasure and exprcssc conuuai'ndenicnt is, and wee doe hereby establish and ordeine, that inicr;' such of the same Anthony Radcliffe, Steuen Some, Robert Ii;oke, Simon Laurence, lohn Wattes, lohn Newton, Thomas Mid'ton, Robert Coxe, lohn Blunt, Charles Faith, Thomas Barnes, Alexander Dansey, Richard Aldworth, Henry Cowlthirste, Ca;sar Doflfiei Martine Bonde, Oliuer Style, and Nicholas Style, as shall pay vnto 1 m II H^ m Traffi(/ues, and Discfluerus 8i or the value thereof into this Rcahiie, without vsing any traffique there, but immediately from thence hither, paying, bearing, answering, and performing all such charges, ducties, and summes of money ratably as other of the same corporation or company doe or shall pay, beare, answere, or jjerforine fur the like Prouided also, that if any of the persons before by these presents named or incorporated to bee of the sayd fellowship of Goucrnour and Companie of the marchants of ieuant, or which hereafter shall bee admitted to bee of the sayde Coriioration or Companie, shall at any time or times hereafter refuse to be of the sayd Cv r poration or Companie, or to beare, pay or be contributorie to, or not beare and piy such ratable charges and allowances, or to obserue or performe such ordinances to bee made as is aforesayd, as other of the same company are, or shall bee ordered, to beare, paie, or performe, that then it shall and may bee lawfull for the rest of the sayd Gcuernour and companie of marchants of Lcuant, presently to expcll, remooue, and displace euery such person so refusing, or not bearing or paying out, of, and from the sayd Cor poration and companie, and from all iiriuilegc, libertie, and preheminence whi< ii any such person should, or might clainie, or haue by vertue of this our graunt, and in place of them to elect others exercising the lawfull trade of marchandise to bee of the sayd Company And that eueiy sucii person so expelled, remooued, or displaced by consent of the sayd (iouernour and companie of marchants of Lcuant, or the more part of them, shall bee from thenccfoorth vtteriy disabled to take any benefitc by vertue of this priuilege, or any time after to bee admitted or receiued againe into the same, any thing in thcoo presents con tained to the contrary notwithstanding Provided alwayes, that if it shall hereafter appeare to vs,our heires and successours, that this graunt or the continuance thereof in the whole or in any part thereof, shall not bee profitable to vs, our heires and successours, or to this our realme, that then and trom thencefoorth, vpop and after eighteene moneths warning to bee giuen to the sayd companie by vs, our heires aiii! successours, this present graunt shall cease, bee voyd, and determined to all intents, constructions and purposes And further of our speciall grace, certaine knowledge, and meere motion, we haue condescended and graunted, and by these presents for vs, our heires and successors, doe condescend and graunt to the sayde Gouernour and companie of marchants of VOL X L 111 ,Ji H Nauigations, Voyages, W^ 'v'5j Leuant, that if at the ende of the sayd terme of twelue yeeres it shall seenie nieete and conuenienc to the sayde Gouernour and Companie, or any the parties aforesayd, that this present graunt shall bee continued : And if that also it shall appear vnto vs, our heircs and successours, that the continuance thereof shall not bee preiudiciall or hurtfull to this our realme, but that wee shall finde the further continuance thereof profitable for vs, our heires and successours and for our realme with such conditions as are herein mentioned, or with some aheration or qualification thereof, that then wee, our heires and successours at the instance and humble petition of the sayde Gouernour and Companie, or any of them so suing for the same, and such other person and persons our subiectes as they shall nominate and appoint, or shall bee by vs, our heires and successours newly nominated, not ex ceeding in number iwelue, new letters patents vnder the great scale of England in due forme of lawe with like couenants, graunts, clauses, and articles, as in these presents are contained, or with addition of other necessarie articles or changing of these in some partes, for, and during the full terme of twelue yeeres then next following Willing now hereby, and straightly commannding and charging all and singular our Admirals, Viceadmirals, Justices, Maiors, Shiriffes, Escheators, Constables, Bailifles, and all and singular other our Officers, Ministej, Liegemen and subiects whatsoeuer, to bee aiding, fauouriiig, helping, and assisting vnto the sayd companie and their successours, and to their Deputies, Officers, Factors, seruants, assignes and ministers, and euery of them, in executing and enioying the premisses as well on land as on Sea, from time to time, and at all times when you or any of you shal theieto bee required, any Statute, Acte, ordinance, Prouiso, Proclamation or restraint here tofore bad, made, set foorth, ordained or prouided, or any other matter, cause or thing whatsoeuer to the contrary in any wise notwithstanding Although expresse mention of the true yeerely value o • certain tie of the premisses, or any of them, or of any other gifts fir graunts by vs, or any of our progenitours to the sayde Gouernour and Companie of the marchants of Leuant before this time made, in these presents is not made : Or any Statute, Acte, Ordinance, ])rouision, proclamation or restraint to the contrary thereof before this time had, m?de, done, or prouided, or any other matter, thing or cause whatsoeuer, in any wise notwithstanding In witnesse 1 1 Tra^qufS, and Discoueries 83 whereof we haue caused these our letters to be made patents Witnesse our seHe at Westminster the seuenth day of lanuarie in the foure and thirtieth yeere of our raigne Per breue de priuato Sigillo Bailie Voyage D'outtemer et Retour de Jerusalem en France par la voie de terre, pendant le cours des annees 1432 et 143? par Bertrandon de la Brocquifere, conseiller et premier ecuyer tranchant de Philippelebon, due de Bourgogne ; ouvrage extrait d'un Manuscript de la Biblioth^que Nationale, remis en Fran9ais Mouerne, et public par le citoyen Legrand d'Aussy Discours Preliniinaire LEs relations de voyages publiees par nos Fran9ais remontent fort haut Dfes les commsncemens du V'" siecle, Rutilius Claudius Numa tianus en avoitdonn^ une, qui ne nous est parvenue qu'incomplete, parce que apparemment la mort ne lui permit pas de I'achever L'objet ^toit son retour de Rome duns la Gaule, sa patrie Mais, comme il n'avoit voyage que par mer, il ne put voir et d&rire que des ports et des cotes ; et de la n^cessairement a resulte, pour son ouvrage, une monotonie, qu'un homme de genie auroit pu vaincre sans doute, mais qu'il ^toit au dessus de ses forces de surmonter D'ailleurs, il a voulu donner nn pofeme : ce qui I'oblige h prendre le ton podtique, et k faire des descriptions po^tiques, ou soidisant telles Enfin ce pofeme est en vers elegiaques Or qui ne sait que cette sorte de versification, dont le propre est de couper la pensee de deux en deux vers et d'assujettir ces vers au retour continuel d'une chute uniforme, est peut etre celle de toutes qui convieent le moins en genre descriptif ? Quand I'imagination a beaucoup 11 peindre ; quand sans cesse elle a besoin de tableaux brillans et varies, il lui faut, pour developper avantageusement toutes ses lichesses, une grande liberie ; et elle ne peut t consequent s'accommoder d'une double entrave, dontl'effet infaui ible seroit d'^teindre son feu Payen de religion, Rutilius a montre son aversion pour la religion % Nauigations, Voyages, chrdtienne dans des vers ou, confondant ensemble les Chretiens et les Juifs, il dit du mal des deux sectes C'est par une suite des memes sentimens qu'ayant vu, sur sa route, des moines dans lile Capraia, il fit centre le monachisme ces autres vers, (|ue je citerai pour donnerune idee de samanifere Processu pelagi jam se Capraria toUit ; Squalet lucifugis insula plena viris Ipsi se monachos, Graio cognomine, dicunt, Quod, soli, nullo vivere teste, volunt Munera fortunse metuunt, dum damna verentur : Quisquam sponte miser, ne miser esse queat Qun?nam perversi rabies tani crebra cerebri, Dum mala formides, nee bona posse pati* ? Son ouvrage contient des details precieux pour le geographe ; il y en a meme quelques uns pour I'anlicjuairc et rhistorien : tels par exem que sa description d'un marais salant, et I'anecdote des livres ' _ ^ns brulcsa Rome par I'ordre ae Stilimv ' Enfin on y remartiue quelques beaux vers, e^ particuli^ ::h:ni luici sur une ville ruinee Cernimus excmplis oppida posse mori Mais il p^che par la composition, Ses tableaux sent sees et * " lid afterwards," says Gibbon, " mentions a religious madman on the isle of Gorgona For such profane remarks, lUiiilius :ind his acceniplicej, are styled, by his coninientator, liarthius, rabiosi canes diaboli" T The verses relating to Siilicho are very spirited and elegant I will transcribe them Quo magis e>:l facinus diri Slilichonis acerbum, I'roditor arrani qui fiiit imperii Romano geneti dum nilitur esse superstes, Crudelis summis niiscuit iina furor Dumque timel, fjuictiuicl se fecerat ipse timeri, immisit Latin: liarbara tela neci Vii'eribus nudis armatum condidit hosteni, illata; cladis liiieriore dolo Ipsa satellitibus pellitis Ri ina pitebat, Et captiva pri's, quam :aperetur, ei'it Wee ta a, n Gelicis grass;tus proditor armis ! Ante :'ioyllina: fata cremavit opis Odimus Altha'aui cci^;miti funeie torris : xS'iseum crmem Here putantur aves : ' t Siilicho lettrni fatalia pignora regni; Traffiques, and Discoueries 8S froids ; sa maniere petite et mesquine Du reste, jraint de genie, point d'imagination, et par consequent, point d'invention ni de colons VoiK\ ce qu'il presente, on au nioins r que j'ai cru y voir ; et ce sont probahlement ces defauts qui otil fait donner 'i son podme le nom degradant d'ltinerairc, sous letjuel il est connu Nous en avons une traduction Fran9aise par le Franc de Pompignan* Vers 505, Arculfe, evcque Gaulois, etoit ailc en pclerinage k Jerusalem A son rctoui, il voulut en i)ublier la relation ; et il chargea de cette redaction un abhe ecossais, nomm^ Adanian, auijuel il donna des notes taut manuscrites cjue de vive voix La relation composee par Adaman, intitulee : De locls aanctis, est divisde en trois livrcs; a ele iinprimce par Grctser, puis, plus complete encore, par Mahillont Arculfe, a[)re3 avoir visite la Terre Sainte, s'etoit enibarque pour Alexandrie D'/Mexandrie, il avoit passe a I'ile de Cyprc, et de Cypre a Constantinoi)le, d'oii il etoit revenu en France Un pareil voyage promet assureiiient beaucou|); ctcertes I'liomme qui avoitudecrirc la Palestinel'l'^gyptcct lacapitalede I'Enipired'Orient pouvoit donner une relation interessante Mais pour I'execution d'un p' ijct aussi vaste il falloit une philosophic et des connoissance que son siecle etoit bien loin d'avoir C'est un peleritvige, et non un voyage, que publie le prelat II ne nous fait co litre ni les lois, ni les mcieurs, ni les usages des peuples, ni ct ai concerne les lieux et la contree qu'il jjarcourt, mais les relii|ii et lesobjets de devotion qu'on y revdroit Ainsi, dans son premier livre, (lui traite de jLiusalem, il vous jjarlera de la colonne oi'i Jesus fut flagelle, dc la lance qui lui per(;a le cote, de son suaire, d'une pierre sur laqucll' il pria ct (jui porte I'empreinte de ses genoux, d'une autre pierr hur lacjuelle il etoit quand il nionta au ciel, et (jni porte reiiipreinie de ses pieds, d'un linge tissu par la Vierge et qui le represente ; du figuier oil se Kt |)lt;nas vuluit prvcipilare cuius Omnia Tattarei ccsseiit lonnenli Neionis, Consumat Stygias trislior unilira faces Hie iiiiniorlalcMi, moitaloiii pcriilit ille ; Ilic nuindi niatrem pcrciilit, illo s\iam Claudian draws a very different portarit of Slilicfin 'iideed, as (libbon observes, " Stilichn, directly or indirectly, is the perpctu: lemeof C'landian" • Melanges de litter, ile piies et d'hist par rXcad, de Muntaidiaii p 81 t Acta ord S Bened sec 3, t 2 p 502 i r; I' 'I ' »l 'S\ \ il \ '1 J 86 Nauigations, Voyages, i^ pendit Judas ; enfin de la pierre sur laquelle expira saint Eticnne, etc etc Dans son second livre, cii il parcourt les divers lieux de la Palestine que visitoient les pclerins, il suit les memes erremens A Jdricho, il cite la nnaison de la courtisane Raab ; dans la vallee de Mambre, les tombeaux d'Adam, d'Abraham, d'Isaac, de Jacob de Sara, de Rebecca, de Lia ; h Nazareth, I'endroit oil I'ange vint annoncer a Iviarie qu'clle seroit mfere en restant vierge; h Bethl^em, la pierre sur laquelle J(^'sus fut lav6 h sa naissance ; les tombeaux de Rachel, de David, de saint Jer6me, de trois des bergers qui vinrent a I'adcration, etc Le iroisifeme li re enfin est consacr6 en grand partie h Con stantinople ; mais il n'y parle (jue de la vraie croix, de saint George, d'une ima^e J>? la Viorge, qui; jettde par un Juif dans les plus dtgofttantes ordures, avoit cte ramassee par un chretien et distilloit une huile miraculeuse Pendant bien des si^clcs, ies relations d'outre mer ne continrent que les pieuses et grosr ces fiibles qu'imaginoient journellement les Orientaux pour accr^diter certains lieux qu'ils tentoient d'eriger en pdlerinages, et pour soutirer ainsiil lenr profit I'argent des pclerins Ceuxci adoptoient aveugl^ment tous les contes qu'on leurdebitoit; et ils accomplissoient scrupuleusement toutes les stations (jui Icur eioient indiquees A leur retour en Europe, c'etoillk tout ce qu'ils avoient Jl raconter; mais c'etoitlk aussi tout ce qu'oR 1( Mr deiiandoit Cepencinnt n^tic JaJii (car h sa mort il a dte declare tel, ainsi que son r^dactv'ur Adama i) a, dans son second livre, quelques phrases historitjues iur 'I'yr ^t sur Damas II y parle egalement et avec plus de detail: cnro;c d'Alexandrie ; et je trouve meme sous ce dernier article deux fjits qui rn'oju paru dignes d'attention L'un concerne Ics crocodilub, qu'il represente comme si mul tiplies dans 11 partit inferieure du Nil, que dbs I'instant ou un boeuf, un rlieval, un a, e, s'avan9oient sur les bords du fleuve, ils etoient s/isis par eux, citrainds sous les eaux, et d^vor^s ; tandis qu'aujourd'hui, si Ton en croit le rapport unanime de nos yoyr urs modernes, il n'existe plus de crocodiles que dans la hault Egypte; que c'est un prodige d'en voir descendre un jusqu'au Caire, et que du Caire h la mer on n'en voit pas un seul L'autre a rapport ^ cet tie nomm^e Pharos, dans laquelle le Ptol^ni^ePliiladelphe fit construire une tour dont les feux servoient de signal aux navigateurs, et qui porta egalement le Traffiques, and Discouenes, 87 noni de I'hare On sait que, posterieurement \ Ptoldinee, I'lle fut jointe au continent par un mole ([ui, \ chacune de scs deux extremites, avoit un pont ; que Cleopatre acheva risthmc, en detruisant les ponts et en faisant la digue pleine ; enfin qu'au jourd'hui I'tle entiere tient \ la terre fernie Cependant notre prelat en parle comme si, de son temps, elle eilt etc ile encore : "in dextera parte portiks parva insula habetur, in qua maxima turris est quam, in commune, Graeci ac Iatini, ex ipsius rei usu, Pliarum vocitaverunt" II se trompe sans doute Mais, pro hahlement, il rejjoque ou 11 la vit, elle n'avoit que sa digue encore les alterrissemens immcnses ([ui en ont fait une tcrre, en la joignant au continent, sent posterieurs Ji lui ; et il n'aura pas cru qu'un mi>le fait de main d'liomme empechat une ile d'etre ce (lue I'avoit faite la nature Au neuvieme sieclc, nous eilmes une autre sorte de Voyage par Hetlon, moine et abbd de Richenou, puis eveque de Hale Cet homme, habile dans les affaires, et employe comme tel par Charlemagne, avoit ete en 811 envoyt^ par lui en ambassade h Constantino|)le I )e retour en France, il y publia, sur sa mission, une relation, que jusqu'ici Ton n'a i)as retrouvee, et que nous devons d'autant plus regretter iiu'infailliblement elle nous four niroit dcs details curieux sur un Pmpire dont les rapports avec notre France etoient alors si multiplies et si actifs I'eut etre au reste ne doit on pas la regarder comme toutJifait perdue ; et il scroit possible qu'apres etre restee pendant plusieurs siecles enscvelie dans un manuscrit ignore, le hasard ranien;U un jour sous les yeux de quelqu'un de nos savans, qui la donneroit au jjublic C'est ce qui est arrive pour celle d'un autre moine Franijais nonmie Bernard : laciuelle, publicc en R70, a ele retrouvee par Mabillon et misc par lui au* jour Ce n'est, comme celle d'Arculfe, qu'un voyage de Terre Sainte ii la virite beaucoup plus court que le sien, ccrit avec moins de pretention, mais (]ui, Jl lexcejition de qucl<|uts details personnels a I'auteur ne contient de meme qu'une seche enumeration des saints lieux ; ce qui Ta fait de meme intituler : De locis Sanctis Cependant la route des deux pelerins fut differente Arculfe 6toit all6 directment en Palestine, et de la il s'etoit emharque une seconde fois jwur voir Alexandrie liernaBBvau contraire, ' ' ' Ubi supra, p 523 '•anHclte, et, tvnvrsant le desert sur dcs chanieaux, il se rend i>ar (iaza en I'errc Sainte Lh, il fait, coniinc sairl Arc ii lie, dificrens ixikrinages, mais moins fine liii rcpcndaiit, soa qui' sa profession ne liii eilt [~oint pcrmis les nitiue defenses, soit (lu'il ait negligii de Its mentionner tous, Jc remarquerai seiilenient (juc ms ccrtainos dglises on avoit imagine, depuis reve(]iic, de nouveaux miracles, et qu'eiles en citoient dont 11 ne parle |)as, et dont certainnment il cut fait mention s'ils avoicnt eu lieu de sun teuii)s TcI etoil celui de I'eglise de SainteMarie, oil jamais il ne pleuvoit, diboiton, quoiqu'elle fut suns toit Tel relui aucjiiel Ics (Irecs ont donne tant de cclcbrite, et qui, tous les ans, la veiUe de Pacjues, s'opt^roil d'i s I'eglifx du SaintSepulcre, uu un ange uescendoit du ciel pout 'lUuiner les cierges ; ce qui fournissoit aux chretiens de lu viUe un feu nouveau, qui leur c'toit communiciue par le patriarche, et (ju'ils eniportoient nligicusement che/ eux Bernard rapiiorte, sur son |)assage du desert, une anecdote qui est a recueillir : c'col (juc, dans la traversee de celte immense mer de sable, des niarcliands ixiiens et chrdtiens nvoient forme deux hospices, nommes I'un Albara, I'autre Albacara, oii les voyageurs trou, oient a se pourvoii' de tous les objets dont ils pouvoient avoir besoin pour leur route Enfm 1 autcur nous fait connoitre un monument forme par Charlemagne dans Jerusalem en faveur de ceux cjui [larloient m langue Homaiie, et que les Fran^ais, et les gens du letlres specialement, n'apprendront pas, sans beaucoup de plaisir, avoir exists Ce prince, la j'loire de I'Occident, avoit, par ses con(|uetes et ses grandes qualites, attire I'attenlion d'un homme qui remplissoit egalement I'Orient de sa renommee : c'etoit le cdlebre calife HarounalRaschild Haroun, empresse de temoigner a Charles I'estime et la consideration (ju'il lui portoit, lui portoit, lui avoit envoye des ambassadeurs avec des presens iriagnifiques ; et ces ambassadeurs, disent nos historiens, ^toient meme charges de lui presenter, de la part de leur maitre, les elds de Jerusalem Probablement Charles avoit profile de cette faveur pour etablir dans la ville un hfipital ou hospice, destine aux pdlerins de ses dtats Fran9ais Tel etoit I'esprit du temps Ces sortes de voyages dtant reputes Taction la plus sainte que put imaginer la devotion Traffi(/ues, and Discoueria 89 un prince (jui les favorisoit croyoii bien incriter dc l,i religion Charlemagne d'aillcurs avoit lo gout (Ks pclorinagLS ; el son historien Eginliard* renianjue avec surprise ciue, nialyre la pre dilection qu'il portoita celui de SaintI'ierrede Rome, il no I'avoit (liit pourtant que quatre fois dans sa vie Mais souvent le grand hoiunio se niontre grand encore jusqu'au scin dcs prejuges cjui I'entourent Cliarles avoit ele en I'rance le restaurateur des lettres ; il y avoit r6tabli rorthograplie, ••^gdnere I'ecriture, forme de belles bibliotheques : il voulut (pie son hospice de Jerusalem eilt une bibliotheque aussi a I'usage des pdlerins L'etablissement la possedoit encore tout enliere, au temps de IJernard : "nobilissimani liaben'i bibliothecam, studio Imperatoris ;" et I'empereur y avoit mcme attache, tant pour I'entretien du dei)c)t et celui du lieu, (pie pour la nourriture des pelerins, douze uuinses situees dans la vallee de Josa[)iiat, avec des terres, des vignes et un jardin (^uoique notre historien dut etre rassasie de pelerinagcs, il fit neanmoins encore, a son retour par I'ltalie, celui de Rome ; puis quand il fut rentre en I'rance, celui du mont SaintMichael Sur ce dernier, il observe que re lieu, situe au milieu d'une grbve des cotes dc Normandie, c^t deux fois par jour, au temps du flux, baigne des eaux de la mcr Mais il ajoute t|ue, le jour de la fete du saint I'acccs du rocher ti de la ciiapeHe reste libre ; que I'Ocean y forme, comme fit la iMer rouge, au temps de Moise, deux grands niurs, entre lescjuels on peut passer a pied sec ; et que ce miracle, que n'a lieu que ce jourla, dure lout le jour Notre litt(5rature nationalc possedoit quatre voyages : un des cotes d'lsalie, un de Constantinople, deux de TerreSainte Au treiziLnne siecle, une cause fort etrange lui en procura deux de Tartaric Celie immense contrec dniit les habitans, en divers temps et sous differens nonis, ont pcuple, conquis, ou ravage la trl'sgrande partie de I'Europe et dc I'Asie, se trouvoit pour ainsi dire lout entiere en amies Fanatisds par les incroyables conquetes d'un de leurs chefs, le fameux CengisKan ; persuades que la terre entiere d^voit leur ob^ir, ces nomades belliqueux et feroces etoient venus, apres avoir soumis la Chine, se precipiter sur le nordesl de I'Europe Par tout 0(1 s'^toient port(!es leurs innombrables hordes, des Vil •Vila Carol Mag Cap 27 VOL X M W C( 9» Nauigattons, Voyaf^es, (I • royaumes avoient 6t6 ravages ; des nations entibres extermin^es ou traint'cs en esclavage ; In Hongrie, la Pologne, la liohbme, les frontifcres de I'Autriche, d^vast^es d'une manibre effroyable Rien n'avoit pu arriter ce dtSbordement qui, s'ii ^prouvoit, vers quelquc c6tc, line r<;sistance, se jetoit ailleurs avec plus de fureur encore Enfin la chr^tient^ fut frappde deterreur, et scion I'expression d'un de nos historiens, elle trembla jusqu'i I'Ocdan Dans cette consternation gdn^rale, Innocent IV voulut sc montrer le pfcre commun des fidtles Ce tendre pfere se trouvoit h Lyon, ou ii dtoit venu tenir un concile pour excommunier le redoutable Frederic II, qui trois fois d^ja I'avoit ^t^ vainement par d'autres papes lA, en accablant I'empereur de toutes scs foudres, Innocent forme un projet dont I'id^e seule annonce I'ivresse de la puissance ; celui d'envoyer aux Tartares des lettres apostoliques, afin de Ics engager h poser les amies et i embrasser la religion chrt^tienne : " ut ab hominum strage desisterent et fidei veritatem reciperent"* II charge de ses lettres un ambassadeur ; et I'am bassadeur est un Frfereniineur nomm^ Jean du Plan de Carpin (Joannes de Piano Carpini,)qui lejourde PAques, 1245, part avec un de ses caniarades, et qui en chemin se donne un troisi^me compagnon, Polonois et appel^ Benoit Soil que I'ordre do SaintDominique eflt tdmoign^ quelquc d^plaisir de voir un pareil honneur d6{6r6 exclusivement h I'ordre de Saint Fran9ois ; soit qu'Innocent craignit pour ses ambassadeurs les dangers d'un voyage aussi p^nible ; soit enfin par quslque rnotif que nous ignorons, il nomma une seconde ambassade, h laijuelle il fit prendre une autre route, et qui fut composde unique ment de Frbresprecheurs Ceuxci, au nombre de cinq, avoient pour chef un nonimd Ascelin, ct parmi eux dtoit un frfere Simon, de SaintQuentin, dont j'aurai bientot occasion de parler lis Violent, comme les Frercsmineurs, porteurs de lettres apostoli ques, et avoient aupres des Tartares la meme mission, celle de determiner ce peuple formidable a s'abstenir de toute guerre et i recevoir le bapteme De Carpin cependant avoit, avec la sienne, re9U I'ordre particu lier et secret d'examiner attentivement et de recueillir avec soin tout ce qui chez ce peuple lui paroitroit digne de remarque II le fit ; et i son retour il publia une relation, qui es composde dans cet esprit, et qu'en consequence il a intitulde Gesta Tartarorum Effectivement il n'y emploie, en details sur sa route et sur son » Vincent Bullovac Spec, histor lib xxxii cap 2 Tra(fii/M(s, and Discoutries, 9« voyage, qu'un seul chiipitrc Luh sept autres sont cunsacrt's ^ dtkrire tout ce qui conccrne les Tartares ; sol, tlimat, iiucurst usages, conquetes, manierc dc combat! re, etc Son ouvragc cs, imprim^ dans la collection d'llakluylt J'en ai troiive iiarini les manuscrits de la liibliothbquc natiunale (No 3477, a la page 66) un cxemplaire plus complet que celui de I'edition d Hakluyt, et qui contient une assez longuu preface de I'auteur, ({ue cctte edition n'a pas Enfin, il I'^poque oii parut ce Voyage, Vincent de licau vais I'avoit insert en grande partie dans son Speculum historiale Ce frere Vincent, religieux dominicain, lecteur et i)redicateur de saint Louis, avoit etc invite par ce prince a entreprcndre diflerens ouvrag&s, qu'en elTet il mit au jour, ct (jui aujourd'hui forment une collection considerable Ue ce itomhre est une longue et lourde compilation historique, sous le titre de Speculum historiale, dans laquellc il a fait entrer et il a fondu, comme je yiens de le dire, la relation de notre voyageur Pour rendrc ce'leciplus interessante et plus complete, il y a joint, par une id^e assez heureuse, certains details (larticuliers que lui fournit son confrt're Simon de Saint(2uentin, I'un des associes d'Ascclin dans la seconde ambassade Ayant eu occasion de voir Simon a son retour de Tartarie, il apprit de lui beaucuup de clioses qu'il a ins^rees en plusieurs endroilsde son Miroirctspecialement dans le 32° et dernier livre Li\, avec ce qu'avoit ecrit et publie de Carpin, et ce que Simon lui raconta de vive voix, il a fait une relation mixte, qu'il a divisee en cinquante chapitres ; et c'est celle que connoissent nos modernes Bergeron en a donn^ une traduction dans son recueil des voyages fails pendant le douzieme sibcle et les trois suivans Cependant il a cru devoir separer ce qui concernoit de Carpin d'avec ce qui appartient ii Simon, afin d'avoir des mdmoires sur la seconde ambassade comme on en avoit sur la premiere II a done detache du r^cit de Vincent six chapitres attribuds par lui i\ Simon ; et il en a fait un article a part, qu'il a mis sous le nom d'Ascelin, chef de la seconde legation C'est tout ce que nous savons de celleci Quant au succfcs qu'eurent les deux ambassades, je me crois disi)ensd d'en parler On devine sans peine ce qu'il dut etre ; et il en fut de meme de deux autres (jue saint Louis, quoique par un autre motif, envoya peu aprt;s dans la meme contree Ce monarque se rendoit en 1248 ;\sa desastreuse exj;(5dition d'Egypte, et il venoit de relacher en Cypre avcc sa flotte lorsqu'il re9Ut dans cette ile, le 12 DtJcemhre, une dt'putation des Tartares, f H IMAGE EVALUATION TEST TARGET (MT3) F^ ^A 4^ <^ 10 II US ^^ "^ US Uii §22 ^ 14^ 110 iL25 iu U& 16 6" V Photographic Sciences Corporalion & 23 WBT MAIN STRHT WIISTn,NY I4SM (7l«)t734S03 '^ 9« NautgattoHS Voyagts, ? dont les deux chefs portoient les ncms de David et de Marc Ces aventuriers se disoient d^l^gufe vers lui par leur prince, nouvellement convert! 4 la foi chr^tienne, et qu'ils appetoient Ercalthay lis assuroient encore que le grand Kan de Tartaric avoit ^gaiement re9u le bapteme, ainsi que les principaux officiers de sa cour et de son arm^e, et qu'il desiroit faire alliance avec le roi Quelque grossifcre que fut cette imposture, Louis le put pas s'en ddfendre II r^solu t d'envoyer au prince et au Kat convertis une ambassade pour les fciiciter de leur bonheur et les engager \ favo riser et h propager dans leurs (5tats la religion chr^tienne L'am bassadeur qu'il nomma fut un Frt'rei>recheur nomni^ Andrtf longjumeau ou Longjuniel, et il lui associa deux autres Doniini cains, deux c'ercs, et deux officiers de sa maison David et Marc, pour lui en imposer davantage, affectfcrent de se montrer fervens chr^tiens Us assistferent avec lui fort devotieus inent aux offices de Noel ; niais ils lui firent entendre que ce seroit une chose fort agreable au Kan d'avoir une tente en ^rlaie C'i?toitl\quevouloient cnvenirlesdeuxfriix)ns Etenefletleroien conmiandaune niagnifiquc, surlaquelle il fitbroder I'Annonciation, la Passion, etles autres mystbresduchristiar'sme Ace present il en ajouta, un autre, celui delout re qu i etoit n&essaire, soit en ornemens soit en vases et argcnterie pour une chapelle Enfin il donna des reliques et du bois de la vraie croix : c'cst;\dire ce que, dans son opinion, il estinioit plus que tout au monde Mais une observation (jue je ne dois point omettre ici, parre (ju'elle indique Tcsprit de cette cour Romaine qui se croyoit faite pour commander a tous les soMvcrains : c'est que le Icgat que le pajie avoit place dans rarm<5e du roi pour I'y nprescnter et ordonneren son nom, ecrivit, par la voir des ambassadcurs, aux deux souvcrains Tartares, et que dans sa Icttrc il leui annon(joit qu'il les adoptoit et lc£ rcconnois soit entans de I'eglisc II en fut pour ses pretentions et les avances de sa lottre, ainsi que le roi, pour sa tente, pour sa chappclie ct ses reliques Longjuincau, arrive en Tartaric, eut beau chercher le prince Ercalthay et ce grand Kan baptise avec sa cour ; il revint comme il t^toit parti Cependant il devoit avoir, sur cette contr^, quelques renseignemens Deja il y avoit voyage, disoiton ; et nicnie quand David parut devant lui en Cypre, il pr^tcndit le reconnoitre, comme I'ayant vu che/ les Tartares Ces circonstances nous ont ete transmises par les historians du i, t Traffiques, ana Discouerits 93 temps Pour lui, il n'a rien laisse sur sa mission On diroit iiu'il en a eu honte Ixjuis avoit dtc asscz grossicremcnt dup^ pour partager un i)cu ce sentiment, ou ijour en tircr au moins une le^on do prudence Et ntSanmoins tresi)eu d'annucs aprls il se laissa tromper encore : c'etoit en 1253 ; et il se trouvoit alors en Asie (juoique au sortir de sa prison d'Egypte tout lui fit une loi de retoumer en France oil il avoit taut do plaics a former ct tan', de larmcs :\ tarir, une devotion nial cclairce I'avoit conduit en Talestine IJJ, sans songer ni \ scs sujcts ni a ses devoirs de roi, non seulcri>ent il venoit de jicrdre deux annoes, prcsquc unique ment occupe de pdlerinages ; mais nialgre rcpuisomcnt des finances de son royaunie, il avoit dcpciise des somnics trescon sid<5rables i relever et a fortifier quelques bicoques que Ics chr(5ticns de cos contrccs y posscdoient encore Pendant ce temps, Ic bruit courut (ju'un prince Tartare nommd Sartach avoit embrasse Ic christianisme Le baptcnie d'un prince infidlrle otoit pour Iouis uno do cos beatitudes au charme desquelles il ne savoit pas resistor II rcsolut d'envoyer une ambassade a Sf,rtach ]ioiir Ic ft'licitcr, comnie il en avoit envoyd une ;\ Ercalthay Sa |)riuitre cxcmplaircs inanu scrits, sous Ics nuuicros 4S98, 4900, 4901, ct 4902 Ia'S deux V'oyagcurs du ciuuor/icino siccle qui ont public des rclaiions nc sonl jjoint ncs Fran^ais ; inais tous deux ccrivireiit primiiivcmciu dans njirc languc : ils nous apparticnncnt i\ litre d'autcurs, ct sous cc rapiwrt jc dois en parler L'un est Hayton I'Arnicnicn ; I'autrc, rAnj^lais MandcviUc Hayton, roi d'Annciiic, avoit etc ciepouillc de ses clats par les Sarrasins, II imagina d'allcr solliciicr les secours des Tartares, qui en elTct prirciii les amies puur liii ct Ic retablircnt Ses ncgo ciations ct son voyage lui parurcnt meriter d'etre transmis a la postente, el il dressa des nv'moires qu'cn niourant il laissa entre ks mains d' Hayton son neveu, seigneur dc Courchi Ccluici, aprcs avoir i>ris unc i*arl iresactive tant aux afTaircs d'Arnienie (ju'aux gucrrcs qu'clle cut a soutenir encore, vint se taire Preniuntrc en Cypre, oil il ajjprit la languc Franijaise, qui portee L'l par les Lu!>ignans, y cloit devenue la languc dc la coiir ct cclle de tout ce qui n'etoit pas peupic Dc Cypre, Ic nioine Hayton ayant passe ;\ Poitiers, voulut y fairc connoitre les incuioires dc son oncle, ainsi que les evenemens dans lesquels liiinicuic avoit etc, ouacleur, ou temoin II intitula cc travail Hisioirc d'Oricnt, et en coniia la publication a un autre nioinc nounnc dc Faucon, auquel il Ic dicta de memoire en Franfais L'ouvragc eut un tcl succes que, pour en fairc jouir les peuples auxqucls notre languc cloit ctrangerc, Clement W chargea Ic nieme de Faucon dc le traduirc en Latin Celuici fit paroilrc en 1307 sa version, doni j"ai trouvc parmi le les manu scrits dc la Bibliotlieque nationalc Irois cxcmplaircs sous les nume ros 7514, 7515 — A, et 6041 (I'age 180) i la fin du nunicro 7515, on lit cette note de lediieur, qui donnc la preuve de ce que jc viens de dire du livre "Exi)licit liljcr Historiarum I'arcium [I'artiuni] Orientis, :\ religioso viro fratre Haytono, ordinis beati Auguslini, domino Churchi, consanguinco regis Armeniic, compiKito [compilatus] ex mandate summi pontificis domini dementis papa; quinti, in civitate pictaviensi rcgni Franchia; : quern ego Nicolaiis Falconi, primb scripsi in galico ydiomate, sicut idem fraterH michi[mihij ore suo dictabat, absque nota sive aliquo* exemplar! Et • L'cxemplaire no, 5514 ajoute a verl)o ad verbum u crr i i)>ii i 'f in ii ia»i»> Traffi^ues, and DiscoMtrits 97 de gallico transtuli in latinum ; anno domini MTCC septimo, niense Augusti Bergeron a public I'histoire d'Hayton Mais, au lieu donner It texle Fran9ais original, au ou moins la version Inline del'editeur, il n'a donn^ qu'une version Fran;aise de ce I^tin : de sorte que nous n'avons ainsi qu'une traduction de traduction Pour ce qui regsrde Mandeville, il nous dit que ce voyageur composa son ouvrage dans les trois langues, Anglaise, Franfaise et Laline C'est une erreur J 'en ai en ce moment sous les yeux un exemjjlaire manuscrit de la Riblioth^que nationale, no 10024* ccrit en 1477 ainsi que le porte une note finale du copiste Oi, dans celuici je lis ces mots : Je eusse mis cest livre en latin, pour plus briefment delivrez (pour aller plus vite, pour abreger le travail) Mais pour ce que plusieurs ayment et endendent mieulx romans [le franfais] que latin, laige [jel'ai] mis en Romans, affin que chascun I'entende, et que les seigneurs et les chevaliers et aultres nobles homines qui ne solvent point de latin, ou petit [peu] qui ont este oultremer, saichent se je dy voir [viai], ou non D'ailleurs, au temps de Mandeville, c'<^toit la langue Franfaise qu'on parloit en Angleterre Cette langue y avoit dte portee i>ar GuillaumeleConciuerant On ne |x>uvoit enseigner qu'elle dans les ecoles Toutes les sentences des Tribunaux, tous les actes civils devoient etre en Fran^ais ; et quand Mandeville ecrivoit en Fran^ais, il ecrivoit dans sa langue S'il se fQt servi de la Latine, c'eQl ^t^ pour etre lu chez les nations qui ne connoissoient pas la n6tre A la verity, son Fran9ais se ressent du sol II a beaucoup d'anglicismes et de locutions vicieuses ; et la raison n'en est pas difficile \ deviner On sait que plus un ruisseau s'eloigne de sa source, et plus ses eaux doivent s'alterer Mais c'estlk, selon moi, le moindre ddfaut de I'auteur Sans goOt, sans jugement, sans critique, non seulement il admet indistinctement tous les contes et toutes les fables qu'il entend dire ; mais il en forge lui meme ^ chaque instant A I'entendre il s'embarqua I'an 1332, jour de SaintMichel; il voyagea pendant trentecinq ans, et parcourut une grande partie de I'Asie et de I'Afriquc Eh bien, ayez comme moi le courage * II y en a dans la meme biUiotheque un autre exemplaire note 7973 ; mais celuici, mutile, incomplrt, tiesdifficile a lire, par la bUncheut de son encre, ne peut cueres avoir de valeur qu'en le coiUtioiiaut avec I'autrc VOL X N % I \ I m 9I NauigahoHS, Voyages, de le lire ; et si vous lui accordcz d'avoir vu peut^tre Constanlin opk, la Palestine et I'Egyptc (co (|uc mui jc mc garderois bicn dc garnniir), a coup sAr au nioin vous rcsterez convaincu que jamais i, nc mit le pied dans tous cos pays dont i! parlc h I'aveugle ; Arabic, 'I'artarie, Jndc, Flhiopic, etc etc Au inuins, si Ics fictions cpi'il imagine nffruicnt ou quelque agrtfment ou (|ul'1(|uu inleret I s'il ne faisoit r)u'uscr du droit dc mcntir, dont se sont mis dcpuis si longtemps en possessioii la ]>lupart des voyngeurs! Mais chez lui cc sont dcs errcurs gcographicpics si grossieres, des fal)les si sottcs, dcs descriptions de jH:uplcs ct de contrces imaginairessi ridicules, enfindes Aneries si rcvoUantcs, (|u'cn vcritc on nc siit ([uel nom lui donner II en coilleroit d'avoir a traiter de charlatan un ecrivain Que seroitce done si on avoit h la cjualificr de hableur efTronte ? Cependant comment designer levoyagcur cpn' nouscite dcs gcans dclrentepieds (!c long ; des arbres dont les fruits se changent en oiseaux (]u'on mange ; d'autres arbes qui tous les jours sorlent dc terre et sen clcvent depuis le lever du solcil jusqu'^ niidi, ct qui dcpuis midi jus(ju'au soir y rcntrcnt en cnticr ; un val perilleux, dont il avoit prcs la fiction dans nos vieux ronians dc chevalerie, val ou il dit avoir eprouvc dc tcllcs aventurcs (luinfalliblcment il y auroit peri si |)rccedemmcnt il n'auoit rcfcu Corpus Domini (s'il n'avoit com inunic); un fleuvc qui sort du paradis terrcstre et qui, au lieu d'eau, roule des pierres precieuses ; ce paradis qui, ditil, est au commencement de la terre ct plact^ si haut qu'il touche dc pils la lunc; enfm mille autres impostures ou sottisses de memc esiK'ce, qui denoicnt non I'erreur dc la bctise ct de la crcdulitc, mais le mensonge de la reflexion et de la fraude? Je regarde nicme comme tels ces trentccinq ans qu'il dit avoir employes a parcourir le monde sans avoir songe i revcnir dans sa patrie que ({uand enfm la goutc vint le tourmenter Quoiqu'il en existe trois editions imprimccs, I'une en 1487 chez Jean Cres, I'autre en 15 17 chez Rpgnault, la troisieme en 1542 chez Canterel, on ne le connoit giurc que jKir le court extraitqu'en a public IJcrgeron Et en effet tet editcur I'avoit trouv^ si invrais emblable ct si fabuleux qu'il I'a reduit :\douze pages quoique dans notre manuscrit il en contienne cent soixante et dixhuit Dans le quinziemc siecle, nous eumes deux autres voyages en 'rerro Sainte : I'uii que je public aujourd'hui ; I'autre, par un carme nomme Huen, imprime en 1487, ct dont je ne dirai rien ici, parrj (i' il est postcrieur h I'autre JL^ Ttajii/iici and Diuoiitrit's 99 \a meine raison ni'eni|KclK'ra dc parlcr d'un ouvrn^o misi au jour par Mamerot, chanlrc et clunoine dc Troyes D'ailleurs celuici, intitule [lassages faiz ouiirc mcr par Ics roys dc I'rnncc ct autres princes et seigneurs Franifuis contrc Ics 'I'urc(|s ct autrcs Sarrasins et Mores oultrcMuarins, n'cst point, h proprenicnt |>arlcr, un voyage, ninis une conipilation historiiiuc des difTcrcntcs craisades qui ont eu lieu en France, et quo I'autcur, d'aprls la fausse Chronique de Turpin et nos romans de chevalerie, fait conimencer it Charlemagne I^ l(ibiiuthe(iuc natiunale posslde de celuici un magniliquc cxcmplaire, orne dun grand nuinbre dc belles miniatures et tableaux Je viens a I'ouvragc dc In Urocquierc ; mais celuici demandc quelque explication Seconde Partie L\ folic dcs Croisades, commc tous les genres divresse, n'avoit eu en France qu'une certainc durce, ou, pour parler plus cxactement, de meme que certaines fievrcs, cllc s ctoit calnice apres quc!(]ucs acccs Et assurement li croisadc dc Louisle Jcune, les deux de saint Louis jilus desastreuses encore, avoient attire sur Ic royaumc asscz dc home et de nialheurs pour y croire cc fanatisme eteient a jamais Cependent la superstition cherchoit dc temps a Ic rallumcr Souvent, en confession ct dans certains cas de penitence publi(|ue, Ic clerg^ imposoit pour satisfaction un pclerinage a Jerusalem, ou un temps fixe dc croisadc I'lusieurs fois meme les papcs employ^rent tous les ressorts de leur |X)litiquc et I'ascendant de leur autorite pour renouer chcz les princes Chretiens quelqu'une de ces ligues saintes, ou leur ambition avoit tant a gagner sans rien risquer que des indulgences PhilippeleBcl, par hypocrisie de zele et de religion, affecta un moment de vouloir en former unc nouvellc pour la France PhilippedeValois, le prince le moins propre i une enterprise si difficile et qui exigeoit tant de talens, [xirut s'en occuper pendant quelqucs annecs II rcfut une ambassade du roi d'Armenie, entama des ni^gociations avec la cour de Rome, ordonna meme des preparatifs dans le port de Marseille Enfin dans I'intervalle de ces mouvemens, Ian 1332, un domini cain nomme Brochard (surnonime I'Mlemand, du nom de son pays), lui presenta deux ouvriges Litins com[)Oses a dessein sur cet olijt V* too yaHixahoHt, foyaxet V L'un, dans lequel il lui faisoit connoltre la contr^ qui alloit Aire le out de la conqu^te, ^ioit une description de la TerreSainte; et comme il avoit demcur^ vingtquatre ans dans cctle contree en ijualitt' de missionnaire et de pr^dicateur, peu de gens pouvoient alle^iicr autant de droits ()ue lui |>our en |iarler I/autrc, divisc en deux livres, \\ax commemoration des deux ep^es dont il est mention dans I'Evangile, sousdivise en douxe chapitres h I'honneur des douze apotres, traitoit des differentes routes entre lesqucUes I'arm^e avoit h rhoisir, des precautions de detail k prendre iKJur le succts de I'entreprisc, enfin des moyens de dinger ct d'assurer I'expedition Quant in celuici, dont les malibres concerncnt entierement la marine et I'art militaire, on est surpris de voir I'auteur I'avoir cntrepris, lui qui n'etoit qu'un sim|)lc religieux Mais i|ui nc snit que, dans les slides d'ignorance, quiconquc est moins ignorant (]ue scs conteiiporains, s'arrogc Ic droit d'ecrire sur tout ? D'aillcurs, parmi les conseils que Brochard donnoit uu roi et ;) scs generaux, son ex])eriencc pouvoit lui en avoir suggere quel quesuns d'utilcs Kt apres tout, puisque dans la classe des nobles auxquels il cut appartenu de traitcr ces objets, il nc se trouvoit |)ersonne |)eutetrc qui put ofTrir et les memes connoissanccs locales que lui et un talent egnl pour les ecrire, pourquoi n'auroitil pas hasard^ ce qu'ils ne pouvoient faire? Quoiqu'il en soit du motif et de son excuse, il ixtroit que louvrage fit sur le roi et sur son conseil une impression favorable On voit au moins, par la continuation de la Chronique de Nangis, que le monaripae envoya in terrain Turcorum Jean de C<5poy et r<5veque de Ikauvais avec quelque peu d'irfanterie ad explorandos partus et passus, ad faciendos aliquas munationes et prapara tiones victualium pro passagio Terre Sancta ; et que la petite troupe, apr^s avoir remport^ quelques avantages aussi considerables que Ic permettoient ses foibles forces, revint en France I'an i335* Au reste tout ce fracas d'armemens, de preparatifs et de menaces dont Ic royaume rctcntit pendant quelques annees, s'evanouit en un vain bruit Je ne doute point que, dans les commencemens, le roi ne fut de bonne foi Sa vanite s'^toit laiss^e ^blouir par un projet brillant qui alloit fixer sur lui les yeux de I'Asie et de I'Europe ; et les esprits mediocres ne savent point resister h la seduction de pareilles chim&res I Spidl t II p 764 1 TraffiijMti^ and DiseoHtrui let Mais bicntot, coinme lc« rararilTCi foibIcK, fatigue dc« dirti cultt'% il c herrha dcs prt'lextcs piur «e mcttre H liVart ; ct dans re dcsscin il dcmanda au na,H; dcs tilreii ct de larncnt <|iic ccluiii n'acc'orda )«» Alors on pj paria plus dc rcxpcditu)n; ct tout cc (|u'vlle produisit fut d'nttirer la colcre et la vcn^'canre df« Tuns 8ur cc roi d'Armcnic, qui I'toit vcnu en Frame solliritir contre eux une liguc ct dcs secours Au sic"lc suivant, la mome fanfaronnadc cut lieu \ la rour de Bourgogne, (juoiquc avcc un debut plus scrieux en apparencc I'an 1432, rent ans apres la imbliiation des deux ouvrages de Drochard, plusieurs grands seigneurs dcs t'lats dc lloiirgnune et officiers du due Philip|)elcnnn font le pelerinagc de la Terrc Sainte Panni eux est son premier ecuyer tranrhant nonune la Brocfiuibre Celuici, aprts plusieurs courses devotes dans le pays, rcvient malade h Jerusalem, ct jiendant sa convalescence il y forme le hard! projet de retourner en France jiar la voie dc terre Cetoit s'engagerh traverser toute la iKirtiefxridcntaled'Asic, toutc I'Furope orientate ; ct toujours, cxcepte sur la fin du vovage, il travcrs la domination musulmane 1 execution de rette cntreprisc, qui aujourd'hui memcnc scroit point sans difficultes, passoitalorspour )m|K)ssible En vain scs ramarades essaient dc Ten detourncr: il s'y obstine ; il \an, ct, apres avoir surmonte tous Ics obstacles, il revicnt, dans le cours de I'annee 1433, se presenter au due sous le costume Sarrasin, qu'il avoit etc obline m|)OSL' |»ar scs nrdrcs : ct Ion con viendra qu'il n'a (;u^rc |>u y Otrc |>laci< snns im dcsscin formel ct une intention |)artiruliirc En ertet on vit de temps en temps l'hilip|M annoncer siir cet objct de grands desscins; maisplusoccu|K lio plaisirsc|uedc gloire, ainsi que Ic prouvent Ics quinzc batards connus (jiril a laisses, toutc sa forfanterie s'evapornit en paroles Enfin cependant un moment arriva oii la ('hrelii'ntc, alarmee des completes rapides du jeune et formidable Mahomet II et de rarmement terrible (pi'il pre paroit rontrc Constintinople, crut (|u'il n'y avoit plus de digue ^ lui op|)oscr (pi'une ligue generale Ie due, qui, jwr I etendue et 1x jxipulation dc ses etats, c'toit plus puissant que beaucoup de rois, ))ouvoit joucrdans la coalition un r6le important II afTecta dc se montrer en scbne un des pre miers ; et [)our le faire avcc eclat, il donna dans Lille en 1453 une (5te splendide et ponipetisc,ou plufjtungrandsiH^ctaclea machines, fort bizarre dans son ensemble, fort disparate dans la multitude dc ses ])arties, mais le plus etonnant dc ccux de ce genre que nous ait transmis I'histoire Ce s|)eclacle dont j'il donne ailleurs la dcstri|) tion*, et(iui absorb:\ en pur fasle des sommes considerables (|u'il cut ^t^ facile dans Ics circonstances d'employer beaucoup micuN, se termina par (|uelques vceux d'armes tant de la part du due (]uc de celle de plusieurs seigneurs de sa cour : et c'est tout ce i\a\ en r^sultn Au reste il eut lieu en fevricr, et Malionici prit Con stantinople en Mai I^ nouvellc de ce desnstre, les massacres horribles qui avoieni accompagn^ la conciuete, les suites incalculablcs qu'clle pouvon avoir sur le sort de la chretiente, y repcndirent la consternation Ie due alors crut qu'il devoit enfin se prononccr autremeni que par des propos et des fetes Il annon^a une croisade, leva en consequence de grosses sommes sur ses sujets, forma meme une arm^e et s'avanija en Allemagne Mais touthcoup ce lion fou gueux s'arrett Une incommodite qui lui survint fort & propos lui servit de pretexte et d'excuse ; et il rcvint dans ses ctats N(!anmoins il affccta de continuer h parler croisades comme auparavant II chargea meme un de ses sujets, Joseph Miclot, chanoine de Lille, de lui traduire en Fran^ais les deux traitcs de •Hist, dc la vie privi'edes Franfais, t Ill, p 324 jyaffii/Mes, itnJ Puiouftui '01 ririMhard dont j'ai parlc rcdoiMis Knfin, (|u; il Ic Piipc I'io II i'onv(M|iia dins MiintoiR* tn MS'), i'"*' as!«i'nil)U'u dc prinrcn < hrcticns pour lorincr iinc Ukuc i niuro Mnhoinet, il nc iii,ini|ua pas d'y cnvoycr scs aniliassadcurs, a la ictc dcs(iucls cioii Ic due dc t'Kvcs Miclot finit Hon travail id 1455, ct Ic court prcainhulc i|u'il a mis cii tcte rannoncc lcs deux tradti* tiuns sc Irouvcnt dans un de CCS inaiiuscriiii (|ue la Mil)liotlKi|uc natiuivdc a rc^UH rcccn) incnt dc la ltclgi(|iic KIIch sont, | our rccrilurc, dc la lui'inc main c|uc Ic voyaj^c dc la llro<'i|uk'ic : niais c|uiiii|U(' i\i:^ truin ouvrancH ccluici ait dil paroiirc avanl Ics deux autrcs, tout iroi* cepcndant, soil par economic dc rcliure, soil par anilo^ic dc maticrcs, ont etc reunis enscnd)lc ; et ils forment ainsi un ;;ros volume infolic>, numcrotc 514, relic en hois avcc l)asanc rouuf, tt intitule au dos, Avis dircctif dc llroc hard Ce manuscrit, au(|ucl son crritiirc, sa conservation, ses miniatures, ct Ic beaux choix de son \clin donnent deji beaucoup dc prix, me paroil en ac(iuerir davantago em ore sous un autre asi)ect, en ce tjuil est lompose, selun moi, des traites orii^inaux prcscntes par leurs autcurs a I'hilippulcllon, ou tie rexemplairc commandc par lui a I'un «le ses copistes sur raiitoj;raphe des nuteurs, pour etre place dans sa hibliothcque Jc crois voir la preuvc de cette assertion non seulement dans la beaute du manuscrit, ct dans Iccusson du prince, tpii s'y trouve arnioric en (;uatrc endroits, et deux foix avec sa devise Aultrt n'arnyi mais encore dans la vij^nette d'un des deux fronlispiccs, ainsi (|U dans la miniature dc I'autrc Cette vij^nette, (pii est en tete du volume, rcpresentc Mielot ;Y genoux, faisant Toffrande de son livrc au due, lecpiel est assis et cntoure de plusicurs courtisans, dont trois portent, commc lui, le collier de la 'I'oison Dans la miniature ([ui precede Ic Voyaj^c, on voit la Hrocquicre faire de la meme manierc son offrandc II est en costume Sarrasin, ainsi qu'il a etc dit cidessus, et il a aupres de lui son cheval, dont j'ai parlc Quant a ce due Philippe qu'on surnomma le Hon, ce n'est point ici le lieu d'examiner s'il mcrita bien veritablement ce titre glorieux, et si I'liistoire n'auroit pas a lui faire des repr(K:lies de plus d'un genre Mais, commc litterateur, je ne puis m'em|)echer de remarquer ici, a I'honneur de sa mcnioire, ([ue les lettres an nioins lui doivent de la reconnoissance ; (jue c'est un des princes 104 Aauigalious, Voyages, ^ qui, depuis Charlemagne jusqu'i Francois I', ait le plus fait pour elles ; qu'au quinzi&me si^cle il fut dans les deux Bourgognes, et dans la Belgique surtout, ce qu'au quatorzieme Charles V avoit dti en France ; que comme Charles, il se crea une biblioth^que, ordonna des traductions etdes compositions d'ouvrages, encouragea les savans, les dessinateurs, les copistes habile ; enfin qu'il rcndit peutStre aux sciences plus de services reels que Charles, parce qu'il fut moins superstitieux Je donnerai, dans I'Histoire de la litterature Franfaise, h laquelle je travaiile, des dt^tails sur ces differens faits J'en ai trouve des piouves multipli^es dans les manuscrits, qui de la Belgique ont passe h la Bibliotheque nationale, ou, ]K>ur parler plus exactement, dans les manuscrits de la bibliotheque de Bruxelles, qui faisoient une des portions les plus considerables de cet envoi Cette bibliotheque, pour sa partie Franfaise, qui est specialement confine h ma surveillance, et qu'^ ce titre j'ai parcourue presque en entier, ^toit composite de plusieurs fonds particuliers, dont les principaux sont : 1° Un certain nombre de manuscrits qui prec^demment avoient forme la bibliotheque de Charles V, celle de Charles VI, celle de Jean, due de Berri, ir^re de Charles V, et qui pendant les troubles du royaume sous Charles VI, et dans les commence mens du r^gne de son iils, furent pilles et enlev^s par les dues de Bourgogne Ceux de Jean sont reconnoissables k sa signature, appos^ par lui k la derni^re page du volume et quelquefois en plusieurs autres endroits On reconnoit ceux de deux rois a I'^cu de France blasonne qu'on y a peint, a leurs epitres d^dica toires, k leurs vignettes, qui representent TofTrande du livre fait au monarquc, et le monarquc revetu du manteau royal II en est d'autres, provenus de ces deux depots, sur Tenl^vement desquels je ne puis alleguer des preuves aussi authentiques, parce que dans le nombre il s'en trouvoit beaucoup qui n'^toient point omds de miniatures, ou qui n'avoient point ^t^ offerts au roi, et qui par consequent ne peuvent offrir les mSmes signalemens que les premiers ; mais j'aurois, pour avancer que ceux1^ ont it6 pris ^galement, tant de probabilites, tant de conjectures vraisemblables, qu'elles Equivalent pour nioi h une preuve positive 2° Les manuscrits qui appartinrent lEgitimement aux dues de Bourgogne, c'estkdire qui furent, ou acquis par eux, ou dddies et pr^sentes k eux, ou commandes [kt eux, soit comme ouvrages V ! I'; 'J'rafii/utfi, and Uiscoueiim lo; soil comnie simples co|>ies Dans la classe dcs deilics Ic irls grand nombre la ^te i\ Philip|>c1 !tun ; dans (cllc dcs laits par ordre, presque tous lurenl ordonnes par iui: et ('«st la ciu'on \oit, comme je I'ai dit plus haut, I'uLiligation qui iui unt ks Ictircs it tout ce qu'il fit pour dies 30 I^s manuscrits qui, aprts avoir ap;>aricnu i des pariiculitrs, ou<\de grands seigneurs des etats dc Bourgognc, uut passe lii difierens temps et d'une manicre (luclconque ilaiis I;; l>ililioill't|uc de Bruxellcs Parmi ceuxci Ton doit disiin^'i r spccialcniciii ceux de Ciiarlcs de Croy, comte de Cliiitay, parriin dc Cliailes Quint, chevalier de la toison, i interc>saiit pour les personnes (jui, comme moi, cnticpriiiduiit IhiiUiirc ucs arts dans les bas siecles Klles luir poivLioni qu'cu I!il_i(|ue letat florissant de certaincs manula( turcs y avDit loit avante i'ait de la j)tinture et du dtssin Mais jc rcvicns ri;\ irois iriic tic iiotre volume Je ne dirai qu'un mot ^u^ la description 'c li r;i>;iic | ar Brochard, parce que I'original Iaiin ayart ce iniiinc ellc est connue, et que Mielot, dans le preimliulc dc si i;aduH]tii, ;bsi:i, ce dont je nie suis convaincu, n'y avuir ailjousic ricu dc sicf Brochard, de son cote, proteste de son exactitude I'on sculeu:< it il a demeure vingtquatre ans dans It jays, niais il la tlavll^c dans son double diaii^tre du nord mu ^ud, dcpuis le pi^d dc Liban jusqu'i Bersabee; et du touchaiu au lc\nt, dcpuis la Mediterranee jusqu'a la nier Morte Enlin il nc dcvrit rieu qu'il n'ait, jwur me servir dcs teruies de son iraducteur, veu 10; porellement, Iui, esiant en iceulx lieux La traduction commence au folio 76 de notre voluuc, ct cllc porte pour titre : Ie livre de la dcsciiiiiiii dc la Tcirc Saincte, fait en I'onneur ct loenge «lc Diiu, ct <'iii]ic j dis, I'an MIIKXXXII, pr frere Brochard, rAlcn::n , dc lunjc des Preescheurs VOL X n li I' ' 'I ie6 Nauigattons, Voyagts, It ( ij, I : % \ Son second ouvrage ^tant inedit, j'en parlerai plus au long, mais uniquement d'aprbs la traduction de Mi^lot Le volume est coni])Ose de deux parties, et porte pour litre, Advis directif (conseils de marche et de direction) pour faire le jassage doultremcr On a pour ce passage, dil Urochard, deux voies diflerentes, la terre et la iner ; et ii conscillc au roi de les employer toutes les deux i la fois, la premiere jjour I'armee, la scconde jiour le transport des vivres, tentes, machines, et munitions de guerre, ainsi que i)our les [jersonnes qui sont accoutumees a la mer Celleci cxigera dix i douze galores, qu'on pourra, par des negocialions et des anangemens, obtenir des Ccnois et des Veniticns Les dernicrs possLilcnt Candie, Negrepont et autres lies, terres, ou places importantes Les Gcnois ont Pera, prts de Constantinople, et CafTa, dans la Tartaric Dailleurs les deux nations connoisseat bien les vents et les mers d'Asie, de mcme que la langtie, les iles, cotes et jrorts du pays Si Ton choisit la voie de ncr, on aura le choi>' de s'embarquer, soit a AiguesMortes soit a Marseille ou a Nice: puis on 1xlachera en Cyprc, comme fit Saint Louis Mais la mer et le sejour des vaisseaux ont de nonibreux inconveniens, et il en resulle de facheuses maladies pour les hommes et ]X>ur les chcvauy D'ailleurs on de[)eud des vents : sars ceise on est reduit ;i craindre les tempetes et le chanf;enient de climat Souvent meme, lorsqu'on ne comptoit faire qu'uise rclache, on s( voit force de sejourner Ajoutez h ces dangers Jej vins de Cyprt, qui de leur niture sont trop ardents Si vous y m>»»tez de I'eoj, ils i)erdent toute leur saveur; si vous n'en meitez point, ils attaquent le ccrveau et brulent les entrailles Quand Saint Louis liiverna dans I'ile, I'armee y eprouva tous ces inconveniens II y niourut deux cens et cinquaate, que contes, que barons, que chevaliers, des plus noble qu'ii eust en son ost II est an autre passage composd de mer et de terre, et celuici ofTre deux routes ; I'une par I'Afrique, I'autre \iax i'ltalie La voie d'Afiique est extrenienient difficile, a raison des chateaux fortifitJs qu'on y rencontrera, du manque de vivres auquel on sera expose, de la traversee des detierts, et de 1 Egypte qu'il faudra franchir Le chernin d'ailleurs est immense par sa longueur Si Ton part du d^troit dc Gibraltar, on aura, po jr arriver i deux petites journees de Jerusalem, 2500 milles ;\ pftr I Tr,iffi(/ues, and Disonierits, 107 courir ; si Ton part de Tunis, on en aura 2400 Conclusion : la voie d'Afrique est impracticable, il faut y renoncer Celle d'ltalie pr^sente trois chemins divers I'un par Aquil^, par I'lstrie, la Dalmatie, le royaume de Kassie (Servie) et Thessalonique (Salonique), la plus grande cite de Mac^doine, laquelle n'est qu'i huii petites journees de Constantinople C'est la route que suivoient les Komains quand ils alloient |X)rter la guerre ei Orient Ces conirees sont fertiles ; mais le pays est habit6 de gens non obeissans \ I'eglise de Rome Rt qunnt est de leur vaillance et hadiesse \ resister, je n'en fais nullc mention, n^ant plus que de femmes Le second est par la Pouille On s'embarqueroit i 1 randis (Brindes), \ our d<5barquer ;\ Duras (Durazzo) qui est a nionseigneur Ic prince de Tarente Puis on avanceroit par I'Albanic, par Blaque et Thessalonique La troisitme traverse e^alement la Pouille ; mais il passe jjar Ydronte (Oirante), Curpho (Corfou) qui est a mondit seigneur de Tarenie, Desponte, Blaque, 'Ihessalonique C'est celui qu'a la premiere croisade prirent Robert, cornte de Flandre ; Robert, due de Normandie ; Hugues, frfere du roi Philippe I", et Tancrede prince de Tarente Apr^s avoir parle du passage par mer et du passage compete de terre el de mer, Brochard examine celui qui auroit lieu entiere ment par terrf Ce dernier traverse TAUcmagne, la Hongrie et la Bulgarie Ce fut celui qu'h la meme jiremiere expedition suivit une grande |>artie de I'armee de France et d'Allenngne, sous li conduite de Pierre Therniite, et c'est celui que I'auteur conseille au roi Mais quand on est en Hongrie on a deux routes ^ choisir : I'une par la Bulgarie, I'autre par I'Esclavonie, qui fait partie du royaume de Rassie Godefroi de Bouillon, ses deux frferes, et Baudouin, comte de Mons, prirent la premiere Raimond, comte de SaintGilles, et Audemare, dveque du Puy et l^gat du Saint Si^ge, prirant la seconde, quoique quelques auteurs pr^tendent qu'ils suivirent celle d'Aquilde et de Dalmatie Si le roi adoptoit ce passage par terre, I'arm^e, arrivee en Hongrie, pourroit se diviser en deux ; et alors, pour la plus grande commodity des vivres, chacune des deux parlies suivroit un des deux chemins ; savoir Tune, celui de la Bulgarie ; I'autre, ceiui de I'Esclavonie Le roi prendroit la ii'emifcre route, comme la plus courte Quant aux Languedociens el Proven^aux, qui sont i n io8 NauigatioHS Voya^s, i I 1 'i ,i I SI voisins de I'lialie, Jl leur seroit permis d'aller par Brindes et Otrante Leur rendezvous seroit k Thessalonique, oil ils trou veroint le corps d'arm^j, qui auroit pris par Aquil^e A ces renseignemens sur les avantages et les inconveniens des des divers passages, le dominicain en ajoute quelques autres su? les princes par Ls etats desquels il faudra passer, et sur les res sources que icurniront ces etats Ia Rassie est uu pays fertile, dit il ; elle a en activitd cinq mines dor, cinq d'argent, et plusieurs autres qui portent or et argent II ne faudroit pour la ronquete de cette contree que mille chevaliers et cix niille hoinmes d'infanterie Ce seroit un joyel (joy*") gracieux et plaisant u acquerir I'auteur veut cju'on ne fasse aucun trait»J d'alliance ni avec ce roi ni meme avec renqjereur Grec ; et, pour mieux motiver sont assertion, il rapporte quelques details sur le jiersonnel de ces ])rinces, et princijjalement sur le premier, qu'il dit etre un usurpa teur Quant h I'autre, il demande non seulement qu'on ne fasse avec lui ni paix ni treve, mais encore qu'on lui declare la guerre En consequence il donne des moyens pour assieger Constantinople, Andrinople et Thessalonique Et comme, d'aprts ce qui es arrive, il ne doute nullement de ce qui doit arriver encore, c'esth ' \ 119 A'aMifitthoHS, yoyagts, \ i fffi Hainaut, dc Hollandc, dc Zclande et dc Nanuir ; maniuiii du SaintEmpire ; seigneur de Frise, dc Salins et dc Malines : Je, liertrandon de la Uroc(|uiere, natif du duche de Guienne seigneur de VieuxChaleau, consciller et premier ccuyer tranchnnt de mondit trt;sredoute seigneur ; D'aprls cc que je puis me rapiHiler et ce (jue j'avois consigne en abrege dans un |)elit livret en guise de n emorinl, j'ai r^dige |)ar ecrii ce ]>eu de voyage que j'ai rincc chr*$ticn vouloit entreprendre la con(|uete de Jerusnlem et v conduire par terrc unc armee, ou si quel(]ue noble liomme vouloit y voyager, les uns et les autre pussent connoUre, depuis le duche de Bourgognc jusqu'a Jeru salem, toutes les villes, cites, rt^gions, contr^cs, rivieres, mon tagnes et passages du pays, ainsi que les seigneurs auxquels ils apparticnnent LA route d'ici h la cite sainte est si connue que je ne crois ]>as devoir m'arreter hi la decrire Je ])asserai done legerement sur cet article, et ne commencerai a m'etendre un peu que quand je parlerai de la Syrie J'ai parcouru ce pays entier, depuis Gazere (Gaza), qui est I'entree de I'Egypte, jusqu'a uiie journee d'Hale|)^ ville situee nu nord sur la frontibre et oil j'on se rend quand on vtut allcr en Perse J'avois resolu de faire Ic saint pelerinage de Jerusnkm l)*^termine ik I'accomplir, je quittai, au mois de I'evrier Ian 1432, la cour de mon tresredoute seigneur, qui alors ^loit u Gand Apr^s avoir traverse la Picardie, la Champagne, la Bourgogne, j'entrai en Snvoie oil je passai le Kh6ne, et arrival a Chamberi par le MontduChat lii commence une longue suite de montagnes, dent la plus haute, nommee mont Cenis, forme un passage dangereux dans les temps de neige Partout la route, eiant couverte ct cachee, il faut avoir, si Ton ne veut pas se perdre, des guides du pays, appel^s marruns Ces gens vous recommandent de ne faire en chemin aucune sorte de bruit qui puissc etonner la montagne, |>arce qu'alors la neige s'en detache et vient tri:simpetueusement lomber au bas I^ mont Cenis sdpare I'ltalie de la France Descendu de la dans le Piemont, ]}ays beau et agreable, qui jiar trois cdtes est clos de hautes montagnes, je passai par Turin, oil je traversal le P6; par Ast, qui est au due d'Orleeans; par Alexandrie, dont la plupart des habitans sonl usuriers, diton : A'auisalioHs, l'ojvj;es, • 13 par Plaisance, qui apparticnt au nuc de Milan ; enfin par Bolognc laGrasse, qui est au pape L'empereur Sigismond t'loit dans Plaisance II venoit de Milan, ou il avoit re^u sa sccondc couronnc, et alloit i Rome chercher la troisieme* De Bolognc, jwur arriver dans Ictat dcs Florentins, j'cus :\ passer une autre chaine de montagnes (I'Apennin) Florence est une grande ville 011 la commune se gouverne par cllemume He irois en trois niois ellc sc choisit, pour son administration, dos magistrals qu'elle appclle prieurs, et qui sont pris dans diverses professions Tant qu'ils restent en i)Iace on les honore; niais, quand leurs trois mois sont exjjircs, chacun retourne h son c'tatt De Florence j'allai h MontFouIchan(Monterulciano), chateau bJti sur une hauteur et enloure de trois coles par un grand lac (le lac de Pdrouse); i Espoliie (Spolcie); h MontFlaschon (Monte Fiascone) ; enfin h Rome Rome est connue On sait par des Merits veridiques que pen dant sept cents ans elle a ele mailrcssc du monde Mais quand ces Merits ne raitesteroient pas, on nenauioit pas moins la prcuve dans tous ces beaux Wifices qu'on y voit encore, dans ces grands palais, ces colonnes de marbre, ces statues et tous ces monuniens aussi nierveilleux i voir qu'i dtcrire Joignez i cela Timmense quantile de belles reliques (ju'ellc possJjde, tant de choses (jui N S a louciiees, tant de saints corps d'ap6tres, de martyrs, de confesseurs et de vierges; enfin ))lusieurs ^glises, oil les saints jjontiles ont accorde plein pardon de peine et de coulpe (indulgence pldni^re) J'y vis F2ugfene IV, V^niiien, qui venoit d'etre dlu papet Ie prince de Salerne lui avoit declare la guerre Celuici etoit un Colonne, et neveu du pape Martin^ * En 1414, Si|;isinon(i, elu empereur, avoit re;u la couronnc d'argent a \ix laChapelle Au mois de Novembre I4tl, peu avant le passage de iiuire voyageur, il avoit re(U h Milan la courcine de fer Ce ne ful qu'on 1443 qu'il rejut k Rome, des mains du pape, celle d'or f Pour donner une idee favoralile du talent de la Brocquiere, ne pourrciiton pas citer le court et bel elogc qu'il fait ici du gouvernmement lepresentatir et r^publicain qu'avnit alors Florence ? X On va voir que la Brocqui^re sortit de Rome le 25 Mars, et Eugene avoit ^t^ ^lu dans les premiers jours du mois § Martin V, predecesseur d'Eugene, eloit de la maison dcs Colonne, et il y avoit inimitie declaree entre cette famille et celle des Ursins Eugene, <'ki qu'il se vit ^tabli sur le SaintSiege, prit parii entre ces deux maisons II se d(!clara pour la seconde contre la premiere, et surtout contre ceux des Coloni e, qui ^toient neveux de Martin, Ceux ci prirent les armes et lui firent la guerre VOL X F u I "4 NauigatiOHi, Voyages, \A\ i j Je sortis de Rume Ic 25 Mars, ,et |>assant par une ville du cointe dc Thalainon^, parent du cardinal des Ursins, par Urbin ; par la seii^neuric des Malatestes, par Keymino (Rimini), par Ravcnnc, qui est aux V^nitiens, je traversal trois fois le PA (trois branches dc I'cnibouchurc du I'A), et vins h Cloge (Chiosa), ville des V^nitiens qui autrefois avoit un bon |X)rt, bquel fut d^truit |>ar cux quand les Jennevois ((t^nois) vinrent assi^ger Venise* Knfin, de Cloi{e jc me rcndis h Venise, qui en est distantc de vingtcinq milles Venise, grande et belle ville, ancienne et marchande, est bitic au milieu de la mer Ses divers quartiers, separ^ par les caux, forment des iles ; dc sortc qu'on ne |)cut allcr de I'une ^ I'autre ()u'en bateau On y poss^dc Ic cor))s de sainte HtMene, mbrc dc I'empereur Constnntin, ainsi que plusieurs autres que j'ai vus, ct s|>«^ialenicnt plusicurs dus Innocens, qui sont cntiers Ceuxci se trouvcnt dans une ile qu'on appelle Reaut (Rtalto), ilc renommee par sts fabriques de verre Le gouvernement du Venise est sage Nul ne |>eut etre membre du conseil ou y poss^der ({ueUiue emploi s'il n'est noble et n^ dans la ville II y a un due ()ui sans cesse, pendant le jour, est tenu d'avoir avec lui six des ancitns du conseil les |>lus remarquables Quand il meurt, on lui donne pour successeur cclui qui a montr^ le plus de sagesse et le |)lus de z^le pour Ic bien commun I^ 8 Mai je m'embarquai, |x>ur accomplir mon voyage, sur une galde (galore) avec quelques autres |)^lerins Elle cotoya I'Esc'a vonie, et relicha successivement in Pole (Pola), Azarre (Zara), Seb^nich (Sebenico) et Corfo (Corfou), Pola me parut avoir et^ autrefois une grande et furle ville Elle a un tr^sbeau port On voit h Zara le corps de ce saint Simeon h qui N S fut pr^sent^ dans le temple Elle est entour^e de trois cot^s i>ar In mer, et son |x>rt, ^galement beau, est fenn^ d'une chaine de fer Sebenico ap|)artient aux Venitiens, ainsi que I'tle et la ville de Corfou, qui, avec un tr^sbeau port, a encore deux chiteaux 'Jennevois ou (jennevoiji Les auteurs de ce temps appellent tiiujours ainsi les G^nois Je n'eniploierai desurmnis que cede derniere denomination, I'autre ctant aujourd'hui exclusivement consacree aux haliiians de Geneve Traffiquts^ and Discoutrus "S De Corfou nous vinmes k Modon, honne ct liellc villc de Moree, qu'ils pos^irdent aussi ; ^ Candic, ile trt:sfcrtilc, dont Ic8 habitans sont excellens marins ct oil la seigneurie de Venise noinmc un gouverneur qui pone le titre de due, mais (|ui ne rcste en place que trois ans ; \ Rhodes, oil je n'eus que le timps dc voir la vllle ; \x Baffc, ville ruin^e de I'ile de Cyprc ; enfin \ JafTe, en la saintc terre dc |>ermission C'est & Jaffa, que comniencent les pardons de laditc snintc tcrrc Jadis elle appnrtint aux chrdtiens, et alors clle ^toit forte ; main tenant die est enti^rement d^truite, ct n'a plus que qucl()ucs cahutles en roseaux, oil les p^icrins sc retirent pour se dt^fcndrc de la chaleur du solcil I^ mer entre dans la ville ct forme un mau vais liavre |ieu profond, oil il est dangereux dc rester, parce ({u'on |)eut £tre jet^ \ la cote par un coup dc vent Elle a deux sources d'eau douce, dont I'une est couvcrtc dcs caux de mer quand lu vent de Poncnt souffle un pcu fort Des qu'il dcbarquc nu port quelqucs pelcrins, aussitot des trucliemcns ct nulrcs offiriers du soudan * viennent pour s'assurer de leur nonibre, pour leur sirvir de guides, et rccevoir en son nom Ic tribut d'usn^e Karnes (Ramie), oil nous nous rcndimcs dc Jaffc, est unc villc sans murnilles, mais bonne ct mnrchanile, sise dnns un canton agr^able et fertile Nous allAnies dnns le voisinagc visiter ung village oil monseigncur saint Gcorg fu martiric ; ct dc retour a Karnes, nous reprimes notrc route, ct nrriviimes en deux jours en la sainte cit^ dc Jh^rusalem, oil nostre Seigneur Jhcsu Crist rcful rnort et passion pour nous Apr^s y avoir lait les p^lerinages qui sont d'usnge pour les p^lerins, nous Itmes ceux de la montagne oil J^sus jeOna quarante jours; du Jourdain, oil il fut baptist; de I'^glise de SaintJean, qui est prbs du fleuve ; de celle de SaintcMarieMadelainc ct de SainteMarthe, oil notre Seigneur ressuscita le I^idrc (Iazarc) : de Bclhl^cm, oil il prit naissance ; du lieu oil nnquit SnintJean Baptiste ; de la maison de Zacharie ; cnfin de SainteCroix, oil cH^t I'arbrc de la vraie croix: apr^s quoi nous revtnmes \ Jerusalem II y a dans Bethl^em des cordeliers qui ont una ^glise oil iis font le service divin ; mais ils sont dans une grande suj^tion des •C'ett du Koudan d'Eg)pte, qu'il s'agit ici C't'loit ^ lui <|u'ul)eiuo!ent alors la Palestine et la Sytie II en sera suuvent mention dans Ic cour> du voyage il6 Nauinationt Voyagtt, \ I Sarrasins Ia ville n'a |Hiur hal>itans que des Sarrusins et quel'|ue« chrtflicns dc la ceinture* Au lieu de la nainsancc de saintc Jcnn Duptistc, on montrc unc roche qui, pendant ciu'H^rode i)crst'cutoit lea innocens, s'ouvrit niiraculeusemcnt in deux Sainte Elisabeth y cacha son fil« ; aussitot file se ferma, el I'enfant y resta, diton, deux jours cnticrs Jerusalem est dans un fort [wiys des montagnes, et c'cst encore aujourd'hui une viHc asscz tonsidt'rablc, quoiciu'elle juroisse I'avoir ete autrefois bien davanlage Kile est sous la domination du soudan : ce qui doit faire honte ct douleur \ la chrt'tient^ II n'y a de chreliens Francs que deux cordeliers qui habitent au SdntSepulcre, encoie y sont ils bien vexes des Sarrasins ; et je puis en parler avec connoissance dc cause, moi (|ui |)endant deux niois en ai eie le ti'inoin Dans i'etjlisc du Sepulcre se trouvent aussi d'autres sortcs de Chretiens: Jacobites, Krinenins (Armeniens), Ab&ins (Abyssins), de la terre du j)r^tre Jehan, et chtt'tiens de la ceinture ; mais de tous cc sunt les Francs (|ui eprouvent la sujetion la plus dure Apres tous ces pelerinages acconq)lis, nous en cnirepitmes un autre egalement d'usa^e, celui de SainteCalherine au moni Sina'f : ct pour celuici nous nous reiinimes dix i)^lerins : messire Andre de Thoulongeon, messire Michel de lignet Guillaume de Iignc son frfcre, Sanson de Lalaing, Pierre de Vaudrey; Godefroi de Thoisi, Humbert Buflfart, Jean de la Roe, Simonnet (le nom de la faniile est en blanc), et moit Four I'instruction de ceux qui comma moi, voudroient I'entrc prcndre, je dirai c|ue I'usage est de trailer avcc le grand trucheman de Jerusalem ; que celuici commence |>ar percevoir un droit * L'an 335 de I'hcgire, 856 de I'ere chr^tienne, le calife Motouakkek astreignit les Chretiens et les Juifs ik porter une lar(;e ceinture de cuir, et aujuurd'hui encore ils la portent dans rOiient Mais depuis cettc epoque les Chretiens d'Asie, et spccialement ceux dc Syiic, qui sont presque tous Nesloriens ou Jacobites, furent nomincs chreliens de U ceinture f On sail que le nom de messire ou de monseigneur etoit un litre qu'on donnoit aux chevaliers X Ces noms, dont le cinq premiers sont ceux de grands seigneurs des etats du due de Bourgiigne, attestent que plusieurs personnes de l,i cour du due s'cioient rcunies pour le voyage d'oulremer, et ce sont probablement celles i|ui s'cmbarquirent k Vtnise avec notre auteur, quoique jusqu'ik present il ne les ait pas nommees Toulongeon, celle meme annee 143a, Tut cre^ chevalier de la toison d'or ; mais il ne re9ut pas I'ordre, parce qu'il ctoit pelerin et qu'il mourut en route J'riifii/Htt, iDit Discokerui llf |)OUr Ic soudan t uti autre pour lui, ct qu'alurs il cnvoic prdvenir Ic truchcman «lc (ia/n, (|ui a son tour traite du passage aver les Arabes du dcscrt (!cs Aral)cs jouisscnt du dn)ii de coiiduire Ics pclcrins ; ct commo ils nc sont pas toujour* fort ouniis au soudan, on est ol)line do *c Hcrvir de Icurs chamcaux, qu'iU louvnt b deux ducats |)ar hctc IC Sarrasin (|ui rcmplissoit alors I'cmploi dc ^rand irurhcnmn IC iionimoit Nanchardin ()uand il cut rci^u la ri'ponsc dcs Aral)e», il nous asscuibla dcvant la chapcllc nui est a I'cntree et ii la gauche de Tej^lise de Saint Sepulcre lit il prit par ctril no» igcH, noms, surnoms ct sinnaienicns tresdetaillcs, et en envoya le doul)le au grand trui henian du ('aire (Jcs precautions ont lieu pour la sflrct*? des voya^curs, afm (|uc les Arahes nc puissent en retcnir aucun ; niais je suis persuade ((u'il y cnlre aussi de la nieCiance, ct (ju'on criiini ((uelque e( hange ou (|uel(|ue substitution qui fasse perdre le tribut I'rcts h partir, nous achctauics du vin pour la route, et fimes notre provision de vivre cxcepte cello dc biscuit, pnrcc a la cou en jiartie, la tourna sur le dos, les pieds en lair, et la tua Elle avoit la tete d'un fort li^vre, les pieds comme les mains d'un petit enfant, et une assez longue queue, semblable a celle des gros verderenux (lizards verts) Nos Arabes et notre trucheman nous dirent qu'elie i!toit fort dangereuse* A la fm de la seconde journee je fus saisi d'une fievre ardente, si forte qu'il me fut impossible d'aller plus loin Mes quatre compagnons, bicn d^sol^s de mon accident, me firent montcr un ine, et me recoinmandetent \ im de nos Arabes, qu'ils chargtjrent de me reconduirc \ Gaza, s'il etoit possible Cet homme eut beaucoup soin de moi ; ce qui ne leur est point ordinaire visivis des Chretiens 11 me tint fidele com pagnie, et me mena le soir passer la nuit dans un de leurs camps, qui pouvoit avoir quatrevingls et quelques tentes, rangees en forme de rues Ces tentes sont faites avec deux fourches qu'on plante on terre par leur gros bout 'k une certaine distance I'une de I'autre Sur les deux fourches est posee en traverse une perche et sur la perche une grosse couverture en laine ou en gros poll Quand j'arrivai, quatre ou cinq Arabes de la connoissance du mien vinrent au devant de nous Us me descendirent de mon ane, me firent coucher ciir un matelas que je portois, et 1^, me traitant h leur guise, ils me p^tirent et me pinc^rent tant avec lest mains que, de fatigue "^t de lassitude, je m'endormis et reposai six heures Pendant tout ce temps aucun d'eux ne me fit le moindre de ])laisir, et ils ne me prirent rien Ce leur dioit cependant chose bien ais^e ; et je devois d'ailleurs les tenter, puisquc je portois sur moi deux cents ducats, et que j'avois deux chamcaux charges de provisions et f*; • in D'apris la description vague que ilonne ici la Brocquiere, it paroil que ranimal dunt il paileest le grand lezard appele munitor, parce qu'on pretenJ qu'il avertit da I'&iproche du crocodile, (juant i la terreur qu'en avoieni les Aral)es, elle netoit point lontlce + C'est ce que nous appclons masser Cette mc'thode est employee dans beaucoup de contrees de I'Orknt pour certiines maladies •* 1 lap Naut^ations, yoya^es, M !i Y* • f 'I Je me remis en rouie ivant le jour pour regngne; (laza : mais quand j'y arrival je nc retrouvai ,)lus ni mes qratre coni|)agnons, ni nieme messire Sanson de I^laing Tcus cinq etoient retournes h Jerusalem, et ils avoient enimene avec eux le truceman Heu reusement je trouvai un Juif Siciiien de (jui je pus me Jiire entendre II fit venir pres de nioi un vieux Somaritain qui, par un remede qu'ii me donna, appaisa la grande "'rteur que j'endurois Deux jours apres, mft sentant un i)eu micux, je partis dans la compagnie d'un Maure II me mena par le chemin de la mprine (de la cote) Nous passames pres d'Esclavonie (\scalon), et vtnnies, h travers un pays toujours agr^able et fertile, ik Ramie, d'oii je repris le chemin de Jerusalem La premiere journee, je rencontrai sur ma route I'amiral (com mandant) de cette ville II revenoit d'un p^lerinage avec une troupe de cinquante cavaliers et de cvpt chameaux, months presque tous |)ar dcs femmes et des enfans qui I'avoient accom I agne au lieu de sa devotion Je pass'ii la nuit avec eux ; et, le lendeniain, de retour a Jerusalem, j'allai loger chez les cordeliers, A r^glise du mont de Sion, oil je retrouvai mes cinq camarades En arrivant je me mis au lit i)0ur me faire trailer de ma maladie, et je ne fus gueri el en eiat de partir que le 19 d'Aout Mais pendant ma convalescence je me rappelai que plusieursfoisj'avois entendu difTt^rentes personnes dire qu'il eioit impossible ii un Chretien de revenir par terre de Jerusalem en France Je n'oserois pas nienie, aujourd'hui que j'ai fait le voyage, assurer qu'il est sOr Cependant il me sembla qu'il n'y a rien qu'un homme ne puisse entreprendre quand il est asscz bien constitue pour sup|X)rter la fatigue, et qu'il possfede argent et same Au reste, ce n'est point par jactance que je dis cela ; mais, avec I'aide de Dieu et de sa glorieuse rnbre, qui jamais ne manque d'assister ceux qui la prient de bon cceur, je rdsolus de tenter I'aventure Je nie tus ndanmoins pour le moment sur nion projet, et ne m'en ouvris pas meme h ir°s compagnons D'ailleurs je voulois, avant de I'entreprendre, faire encore quelques autres pelerinages, et specialement ceux de Nazareth et du mont Thabor J'allai done prdvenir de mon dessein Nanchardin, grand trucheman du soudan h, Jerusalem, et il me donna pour mon voyage un truche man pariiculier Je comptois commercer par celui du Thabor, et ddji tout dtoit arrange ; mais quand je fus au moment de partir, le gardien chez qui je logeois m'en detouina, et s'y opposa m€me Trafiques, and Diswuenes 131 de toutes ses forces Ie trucheman, dc son cole, s'y rcfusi, et il m'annonfa que je ne trouverois dans les circonslances personne pour m'accoitipagner, parce qu'il nous faudroit passer sur le territoire de villes qui »'toient en guerre, et que tout recemment un Venilien et son trucheman y avoient dte assassines Je me restreignis done au second pelerinage, et messire Sanson de I^laing voulut m'y accompagner, ainsi que Humbert Nor= laissames au niont de Sion messire Michel de Iigne, qui etc malade Son frfcre Guiliaume resta pres de lui avec un scrviteur pour le garden Nous autres nous partinies le jour de la niiaoflt, et notre intention etoit de nous rendre b JafTii i)ar Ramie, et de Jaffa h Nazareth ; niais avant de me mettre en route, j'allai au tombeau de Notre Dame imploier sa protection pour mon grand voyage J'entendis aux cordeliers le service divin et je vis la des gens qui se di^ont Chretiens, desquels il y en a de bien estranges, selon nostre inaniere Le gardien de Jerusalem nous fit I'amiiie de nous arcompngntr jusqu'i Jaffa, avec un frere cordelier du couvent d'' lieaune l^'i ils nous quitterent, et nous primes une barque de aires qui nous conduisit au port d'Acre Ce port est beau, ])rofond et bien ferme I a ville ellememe jKiroit avoir ete grande et forte; mais il n'y subsiste plus main tenant que trois cent maisons situei's a I'une de ses extreniites, et assez loin de la marine Quant a notre pelerinage, nous ne pilmes I'acroniplir Des marchands Venitiens que nous con sultames nous en detourntrent, et nous primes le parti d'y renoncer 11 nous apprirent en meme temps qu'on attendoit a Barut une gali5re de Narbonne Mes camarades voulu^enl en profiter pour retoarner en France, eten consequence nous primes le chemin de cette ville Nou vimes en route Sur, ville ferniee et qui a un bon port, puis Saiette (Seyde), autre port de mer assez boii* Pour liarut, elle a et^ plus considerable qu'elle ne Test aujourd'hui ; mais son port est beau encore, profond et sflr pour les vaisseaux On voit h I'une de ses pointes les restes d'un chateau fort qu'elle avoit autrefois, et qui est detruitt • Sur est I'ancienne Tyr j Saiette, Tancienne Sidon ; Barut, I'ancienne Berite + Les notions que noui donne ici la Urocquiere sont intcressaiiles pour la |>eof;Taphie Elles pruuveiit que tous ces purtj de Syrie, jadis si commer^ins et si fameux, aujourd'hui si degrades et si coitipletemeiu inuliles, ctuiciil de son temps proprcs encore la plupait au couiiiierce VOL X U taa Naui'sattons, Voyages, U ii u n W^ I Moi qui n'etois occupe que de mon grand voyage, j'employai mon sejour dans cette ville h prendre sur cet objet des renseigne nicns et j'ai m'adressai pour cela i un marchand G^no's nomm^ Jacques Perv«5zin II me conseilla d'aller h Dnmas; m'assura que j'y trouverois des inarchandi' Venitiens, Catalans, Florentins, (lenois et autres, qui pourroient me giiider par leurs conseils, et me donna meme, pour un de ses compatriotes appel^ Ottobon Escot, une lettre de recommendation Resolu de consulier Escot avant de rien entreprendre, je pro |)osai h messire Sanson d'aller voir Damas, sans ceiiendant lui rien dire de mon projet II accepta volontiers la proposition, et nous partimes, conduit par un moucre J'ai d^ja dit qu'en Syrie les moucres sont des gens dont Ic mdtier est de conduire les voyageurs et d' leur louer des aneK et des mulets Au sortir de JJarut nous cAmes h traverser de hautes montagnes jusqu'i une longue plaine appel<5e vallde de NoC, parce que Noe, diton, y batit son arche I^ vallee a tout au plus une lieue de large; mais elle est agreable et fertile, arrosec par deux rivieres et i^euplfe d'Arabes Jusqu'ii Damas on continue de voyager ent'^; des montagnes au pied desquelles on trouve beaucoup de villages et de vignobles Mais je prdviens ceux qui, comme moi, auront h les traverser, de songer a se bien numir pour la nuit ; car de ma vie jc u'ai eu aussi froid Celte excessive froidure a pour cause la chute de la ros^e ; et il en est ainsi par toute la Syrie Plus 1 1 chaleur a ete grande pendant le jour, plus la rosee est abondante et la nuit froide II y a deux journees de Barut h Damas Par toute la Syrie les Mahometans ont etabli pour les chretiens une coutume particulitre qui ne 'aur permet point d'ailer k clieval dans les villes, Aucun d'eux, s'il est connu pour tel, ne I'oseroit, et en consequence notre moucre, avant d'enirer, nous fit mettre pied h terre, messire Sanson et moi A peine etions nous entr^s qu'une douzaine de Sarrasins s'approcha pour nous regarder Je portois un grand chapeau de feutre, qui n'est point d'usage dans le i)ays Un d'eux vint le frapper par dessous d'un coui) de baton, et il me le jeta jiar terre J'avoue que mon premier mouvement fut de lever le poing sur lui Mais le rnoucre, se jetant entre nous deux, me poussa en arrifere, et ce fut pour moi un vrai bonheur ; car en un instant trente ou ( Traffiques, and Dtscoiienes "3 quarante autres personnes accoururent, et, si j'avois frappc^ je ne sais ce que nous serious devenus Je dis ceci pour averiir que les habitans de cctte v lie sent gens ni&hants qui n'entendent p s trop raison, et ((ue jar con sequent il faut bien se garder d'avoir querrelle avec eux i! en est de meme ailleurs J'ai eprouve par moimenie qu'il nf fau' visivis d'eux ni (aire le mauvais, ni se montrcr peure;; ^u'il ne faut ni jiaroitre pauvre, parce qu'ils vous mepriseroient ; ni riche, parce qu'ils sonl trts avides, ainsi que Texpcrinientent tous ceux qui debarquent a Jaffa Damas peut bien contenir, m'aton dit, cent mille 3me"* i^ ville est riche, marchande, et, apres le Caire, la plus considerable de toutes celles que possfede le soudan Au levant, au seplentrion et au midi, elle a une grande plaine ; au ponanl, une niontagne au pied de laquelle sont batis ies fauhourjs Elle est travtrsee d'une rivifere qui s'y divise en plusieurs canaux, et ferniee dans son enceinte seulemenl de belles munilles ; car les faubourgs sont plus grands que la ville Nulle part je n"ai vu d'aussi grands jardins, de nieilleurs fruits, une plus grande abcndance d'eau Cette abondance est telle qu'il y a pcu de maisons, ni''ton dit, qui n'aient leur fontaine Le seigneur (le gouverneur) n'a, dnns toule la Syric et I'Egyptt, que le seu! soudan qui lui soil superieur en puissance Mais comnie en difTerens temps qutlquesuns d'eux se sont revoltds, les soudans ont pris des precautions pour les contenir Du cote de terre est un grand et fort chateau qui a des '^isses larges et profonds lis y placent un c£,,itaine i leur choix, et jamais ce capitaine n'y laisse entrer le gouverneur En 1400 Damas fut detruite en cendres par le Tambrulant (Tamerlan) On voit encore des vestiges de ce desastre ; et vers la porle qu'on appelle de SaintPaul, il y a un quartier tout entier qui n'est pas rebSti Dans la ville est un kan destine a servir de depot de sflrete aux n^gocians pour leurs marchandises On I'apiJelle kan Berkot, et ce noni 'mi a ^t^ donn^, parce qu'il fut originairenient la maison • II y dans le texte cent mille hommes Si, par ce mot hommc;, I'auteur entend les habitans malen, alors, pour comprendre les (emmes dans la popula tion, il faudroit compter plus de deux cent mille imlividus au lieu ile cent mille S'il entend les personnes en c'tat de porter lesaimcs, sen I'lat de populatiim est ttop fort et ne peut etre admis 194 Nautsalwns, yojagts, ]\ d'un homme nommiJ ainsi Pour moi, je c/ois que Berkot endant ce court intervalle, nous filmes temoins d'une fete que les Maurcs ceiebr^ rent ii leur ancienne nianiere Elle commen9a le soir, au coucher du soleil l)es troupes nonibreuses, <5parses 9a et la, chantoient et poussoient de grands oris Pendant ce temps on tiroit le canon du chiteau, et les gens de la ville lan9oicnt en I'air, bien haut ct bien loin, une manierc de feu plus gros que le plus gros fallot que je visse onc(]Ucs allum^ lis me dirent qu'ils s'jn servoient quelquelois a la mer pour brfllcr les voiles d'un vaisseau ennemi II me semble que, comme c'est chose bien aisee et de une petite despense, on Ix>urroit I'employcr egalement, soit 2l consumer un camp ou un village couvert en paille, soit dans un combat de cavalerie, ^ epou vanter les chevaux Curieux d'en connoUrc la composition, j'envoyai vers celui <|ui le faisoit le vaiijt de mon bote, et lui fis dcmandcr de me I'apprendre II me repondit (|u'il n'oseroii, ct que ce seroit pour lui une affaire trop dangereuse, si elle etoit sue : mais comme il n'est rien qu'un Maure ne fasse pour de I'argent, je donnai il celuici un ducat, et, pour I'amour du ducat, il nvapprit tout ce qu'il savoit, et me donna meme des monies en bois et autres ingrediens que j'ai apportes en France La veille de I'embarquement je pris h part messire Andre de Toulongeon, et aprfes lui avoir fait promettre qu'il ne s'opposeroit en rien Jl ce que j'allois lui reveler, je lui fis part du projet que j'avois forme de retourner par terre Consdquemmcnt Ji sa parole donn^e, il ne tenta point de m'en empecher; mais il me represenla tout ce que j'allois courir de dangers, et celui surtout de me voir contraint \ renier la foi de J^susChrist Au reste j'avoue que ses representations etoient fondees, et que dc tous les ])erils dont il me menacoit il n'en est point, excepte celui de renier, que je n'aie eprouves II engagea Egalement ses camarades ^ me parler ; mais ils eurent beau faire, je les laissai partir et demeurai Aprfes Icur depart je visitai une mosqu^e qui jadis avoit ete une trfesbelle eglise, bltie, disoiton, par sainte Barbe On ajoute (jue quand les Sarrasins s'en furent empar^s, et que leurs crieurs voulurent y monter pour annoncer la prifere, salon leur usage, ils furent si battus que depuis ce jour aucun d'eux n'a ose y retourner I i I «l 126 Aauif^alions, I oyai ' f, II y a aussi un auirc blllinient niiraculeux qu'on a change en eglise C'etoit auparavant line maison de Juifs Un jour que ces gensli avoient trouve une image de Notre Seigneur, ils se mirent i la lapider, coinme leurs peres jadis I'avoient lapidtJ lui nieme ; mais I'image ayant verse du sang, ils furent tellement effrayes du miracle, qu'ils se sauvtrent, aliferent s'accuser h leveque, et donnerent meme leur maison en reparation du crime On en a fait une ^glise, qui aujourd'hui est desservie par des cordeliers Je logcai chez un marchand Venitien nommar luurs inurailles, (|ui ne valenl pas, i beaucou)) pres, cclles dc nos villes I^ montagne, vers Sur, s'arrondit en croissant, ct s'avanre ax ses deux pointes jusqu'd la mcr IVspace vide enire I'une et I'autre n'a point de villages ; mais il y en a beaucoup le \ax\% de la montagne Unc lieue audcli on trouvc une gorge qui vgus oblige de passer sur une falaise au haul de laquelie est unc tour Les cava liers qui vont de Sur a Vcre n'ont jjoint d'autre route (juc ce jjassage, et la tour a (5te construile pour Ic girder Dcpais ce defile jus(|u'^ Acre les montagnes sont peu elevees, et Ton y voit beaucoup d'liabitations (jui, pour la plupart, sont reniplies d'Arabes I'res de la villc je rencontrai un grand seigneur du pays nomnie Fancardin II campoit en plein champ, et portoit avec lui ses tentes Acre, entouree de trois cotes par des montagnes, ([uoique avec une plaine d'environ (luatre lieues, I'eU de I'autre par la mer J'y fis connoissance d'un mnrchand de Venise nomine Auhert Franc, qui m'accueillit bien et (|ui me piocura sur mes deux pelerinages des renseignemcns utiles dont je profitai A I'aide de ses avis je me mis en route pour Nazareth, et, aprfes avoir traverse une grande plaine, je vins a la fontaine dont Notre Seigneur changea I'eau en vin aux noces d'Ar'heleclin;* elle est prfes d'un village oil Ton dit que naquit saint Pierre Nazareth n'est qu'un autre gros village bSti entre deux monta gnes ; mais le lieu ou I'ange Gabriel vint annoncer a la vierge Marie qu'elle seroit mfcrc fait piti^ i voir L eglise qu'on y avoit b;ltie est entiferement detruite, et il n'en subsiste plus qu'une petite chose (case), IJl ou NostreDame estoit quand I'angele lui ajjparut De Nazareth j'allai au Thabor, oil fut faite la transfiguration de Notre Seigneur, et plusieurs autres miracles Mais comme les paturages y attirent beaucoup d'Arabes qui vienient y mener leurs betes, je fus oblige de prendre pour escone quatre autres hommes, dont deux etoient Arabes euxmemes \jx montee est tresrude parce qu'il n'y a point de chemin ; je * Architriclinus est un niut Latin forme du Grec, par letjuel I'Evangile lnnre avec celles ile la vijjne Elles sont lobees de meine; inais le colon nait dans des capsules, et non sur des feudles On cunnoit en lioianiquc plusieurs arljrcs dont les (euillcs sont couvettes k leur surface ext^rieure d'uii duvet blanc; niais on n'en connoit aucune qui pruduise du coton Traffit/ues, and Disponents t nous deux Arabes armc's ^ leur mani^re ct nioiuus sur dc supcrbcs chevaux \x moucre, en les voyant, eut grandc |)eur 1 Ivtireusc inent ils pass^rent sans nous ricn dire ; mnis il ni'avoua que, st'lls m'cusscnt soup^onniS d'etre chretien, nous t^tions perdus, it qu'ils nous eussent tut^s tous deux sans remission, ou pour le nioins d^|)ouilles en entier Chacun d'eux portoit une longuc ct mince perihe ferric par les deux bouts, dont I'un *^toit tranchant, I'autrc nrrondi, nuis garni de plusieurs taillans, et long d'un cnipan Leur ecu (bouclier) dtoit rond, selon leur usage, convexe dans la panic du milieu, et garni au centre d'une grosse |X)inte de fer ; mais depuis cette poin''> jusqu'au bas il t^toit orn^ de longucs franges de soie lis avoicnt pour v^tement des robes dont les manches, larges de plus d'un pied et demi, d^passoient leur bras, et pour toque un chapeau rond termini en |>ointe, de laine cramoisic, ct velu; mais ce chapeau, au lieu d'avoir sa toile tortillce tout aulour, comnie I'ont les autres Maures, I'avoit pendente fort bns des deux cot^s, dans toute sa lar^eur Nous Sllanies de Ma loger h Samarie, jinrcc que jc voulois visiter la mer de Tabarie (lac de Tib^riadc), ou Ton dit que saint Pierre pechoit ordinairement, et y a aucuns (quehjues) |)ardons : c'tStoient les quatreiemps de Septembre Le moucre mc laissa seul toute la journ^e Samarie est situce sur la pointe d'une montagne Nous n'y entrames qu'^ la chute de jour, et nous en sortimes it minuit pour nous rendre au lac Le moucre avoit prd(6r^ cette heure, aiin d'esquiver le tribut que paient ceux qui s'y rendent ; mais la nuit m'empecha de voir le pays d'alentour J'allai ensuite au puits qu'on nomme puits de Jacob, |)arce que Jacob y fut jetd par ses frbres II y a 1^ une belle mosqu^e, dans laquelle j'entrii avec mon moucre, parce que je feignis d'etre Sarrasin Plus loin est un pont dc ])icrrc sur IcqucI on passe le Jourdain, et qu'on appelle le pont de Jacob, ^ cause d'une maison qui s'y trouve, et qui fut, diton, celle de ce patriarchc Le fleuvc sort d'un grand lac situ^ au pied d'une montagne vers le nordoucst (nordouest), et sur la montagne est un beau chateau posscdc par Nancardin Du lac je pris le chemin de Uamas T^e pays est assez agrc able, et quoiqu'on y marche toujours entre deux rangs de montagnes, il a constamment une ou deux iieues de large Cependant on y trouve un endroit fort Strange \Ji Ic chemin est VOL X R I3» Viiuifa/ions, yoj'a_i;et Vf < 1: r^duit uni(|Ui*nK'nt A ce qu'il (aut pour Ic i>nMnge dcs rhcvnux tout Ic rcNtc, h gnuche, dnns unv largeur ct unc longueur d'une licuc environ, nc pn^scntc (|u'un nmns iinnicnscdcrnilloux pnreilH It ci'ux de rivii^rc, ct dont la plupnrt sont gros commc des queues de vin Au dehouche de cc lieu est un treshcau kan, cntoun' de fontaincs et de ruisscaux A (|untrc on ( inq niilies de Damas il y en a un autre, le plus magnifique (juc j'aie vu de ma vie Celiii ri est pris il'une pclitc rivilre fornit'e par des sources ; ft en general plus un approche dc la vdle et plus le pay: est beau lA jc trouvai un Maure tout noir (jui venoit du Caire h course de cliameau, ct (jui etoit vcnu en huit jours, qnoi(]n'il y eflt, nic diton, seize journOes de marchc Son rhameau lui avoit e'"hap|>«?: h I'aidc de nion nioucre je parvins ;\ Ic lui faire reprcndre Ces courcurs ont une sclle fort singulit:re, sur lacpiellc ils sontassis Ics janil)cs croisecs ; niais la rapidite dis < hanicaux qui Ics conduiscnt est si grande que, pour resij or h I'inipression dc I'air, ils sc (ont serrer d'un handagc la tete ct • 'irps Ccluici etoit i>orteur tru'i ordrc du soud'in Une galbre et deux galiotes du prince dc 'i arcnte avoient pris devant Tripoli dc Syrie une griperie* de Maurcs : Ic soudan, jiar rcpresailles, envoyoit saisir ;\ Damas ct dans toute la Syrie tons Ics Catalans et les (Jenois qui s'y trouvolent Cette nouvellc, dont J2 fus instruit ]iar mon moucre, nc m'efTraya pas J'enlrai hardiincnt dans la villc avec les Sarrasins, parce cjue, haliille romnie cux, je crus n'avoir rien ;\ craindre Mon voyage avoit dur«5 scjjt jours I,e lendemain de mon arrivee je vis la caravane qui revenoit de la Mecquc On la disoit compos«?c dc trois mille chamcaux ; ct en cffet elle employa pour entrer dans la ville prfes de deux jours et deux nuits Get dvenement fut, selon I'usage, une grande fete Le seigneur dc Damas, ainsi que les plus notables, allfcrcnt au devant de la caravane, par respect pour i'Aikoran qu'elle avoit Ce livre est h loi qu'a laiss^e aux sicns Mahomet 11 <5toit cnvclop[)e d'unc etoffe de soie peinte et charg^e de lettres morisquc, ct un chameau le portoit, couvert luimfime cgalement de soic En avanl du chameau marchoient (juatrc menestrels (musiciens) et une grande quantite de tambours et de nacquaires (timbalcs) * Ciripcric, grip, sotte de l>atiment pour aller en course, vaisseau corsaire Trajffli/Mts, and Disamtrui IJI (|ui fniioient ung liault bruit Dcvant ct niitour de lui (Jtoienl une trentaine d'honimcs dont Ics una |K)rt(iic'nt des arlKilltes, Ics outre3 del dpt'es nucs, d'autrcs du pctits canons (ar()ucl)iise8) qu'ils tiroicnt de temps en temps,' I'ar derriere suivoient hull vieillards, ({ui inontoient chacun un < hameau de course prls duquel on mcnoit en lesse leur cheval, magtiifKjuemcnt couvcrt et otni de riclies sclles, selon la mode du pays Aprls eux enfin xnoit une dame Turtjuc, parente de grandseigncur : elle t'toit dans une litifcrc que portoient deux chameaux rirhemcnt pares et couverts II y avoit plusieurs de ces animaux couverts de drap d'or 1^ caravane «;loit composee de Maures, do Turcs, Uarbes (Barbaresques), Tartres (Tatars), I'ersans et autres sectateurs du faux prophttc Mahomet Ces gensl^ prL'tendent cpie, (|uand ils ont fait une fois le voyage de la Mecciue, ils ne peuvent plus £tre damn^s C'est ce que m'assiira un esclave renegat Vulgaire (Bulgare) de naissance, lequel nppartenoit \ la dame dont je viens de parler It s'apfHjloit Hayauldoula, ce qui en lure signific serviteur de Dieu, et |)retendoit avoir ete trois fois II la Mecque Je me liai avec lui, parcc qu'il parloit I'n pcu Italien, et souvent meme il me tenoit compagnie la nuit ainsi <|ue le jour Plusieurs fois, dans nos entretiens, je I'interrogeai sur Mahomet, et lui demandai oii reposnit Kon corps II me repondit que c'^toit i!i la Mecque ; que la fiertre (chasse) qui le renfermoit se trouvoit dans une chapelle ronde, ouverte par le haut : que c'tJtoit par cette ouverture que les pelerins alloient voir la fiertre, et que parmi eux il y en avoit qui, apres I'avoir vue, se faisoient crever les yeux, parce qu'aprfes cela le monde ne pouvait rien offrir, disoientils, qui mt^ritat leur regards Effectivement il y en avoit deux dans la troupe, I'un d'environ seize ans, I'autre de vingtdeux a vingttrois, qui c'etoient fait aveugler ainsi Hayauldoula me dit encore que c'ncst point in la Mecque qu'on gagne les pardons, mais k Meline (Medine), ville oii saint Abraham fist faire une maison qui y est encoirest Ia maison est en forme de cloitre, et le i>^lerins en font le tour * L'nuteur ne dit pas si ces arqucbuiics ctoient a fuurcheUe, a nieclie, a rouet ; mniii il est reinati|iial>le cjiie nos armei fi feu portativcs, dont I'inveniion ctoit encore nssez rvcenle en Europe, fussent deslors en usage chez les Mahometans il'Anie t Notre voyiigeur a confondu : c'est a Medine, et non a li Mectpie, cju'est le tombeau de Mahomet ; c'est a la Mecque, et non a Medine, qu'est la pre tendue maison d'Abraham, que les pelciins gngneni les pardons ct f|ue se fail le grand commerce ill m '3» J^auigations, Voyages, i \ n il n ifl n Quant h la ville, elle est sur le bord de la nier Les homnies de la tcrre du pretre Jean (les Indians) y apportent sur de gros vaisseaux les epices et autres marchandiscs que produit leur pays C'est la que les Mahometans vont les achcter lis les chargent sur des chameaux ou sur d'auires betes de somme, et les portent au Caire, h Damas et autres lieux, ainsi qu'on sait Dela Mecque a Damas il y a quarante journees de marche h travers le desert ; bs clialeurs y sont excessives, et la caravane avoit eu plusieurs personnes etoufft^es Selon I'esclave renegat, celle de Medine doit annuellement etre compossee de sept cent niille personnes ; et quand ce nombre n'est \a% complet, Dieu, pour le remplir, y envoie des agnes Au grand jour du jugement Mahomet fera entrer en paradis autant de personnes quil voudra, et li ils auront i discretion du lait et des fenniies Comme sans cesse j'entendois ))arler de Mohoniet, je voulus savoir sur lui quelque chose, et m'adressai pour cela k un pretre qui dans Damas ^toit attache au consul des Venitiens, qui disoit souvent la messe i I'hotel confessoit les marchands de cette nation, et, en cas de danger, rdgloit leurs affaires Je me confessai >l lui, je reglai les miennes, et lui demandai s'il connoissoit I'historie de Mahomet 11 me dit que oui, et qu'il savoit tout son Alkoran Alors je le suppliai le niieux qu'il me fut possible de rediger par ecrit ce qu'il en connoissoit, afin que je pusse le presenter i mon seigneur le due* 11 le fit avec plaisir, et j'ai apport^ avec moi son travail Mon projet ^toit de me rendre h Bourse On m'ab<;ucha en cons«5quence avec un Maure qui s'engagea dam'y conduire en suivant la caravane II me demandoit trente ducats et sa ddpense; mais on m'avertit de me defier des Maures comme gens de mau vaise foi, sujets h fausser leur promesse, et je m'abstins de conclure Je dis ceci pour I'instruction des personnes qui auroient affaire a eux; car je les crois lels qu'on me les a peinis Hayauldoula me procura de son cote la connoissance de certains marchands du pays de Karinan (de Caramanie) Enfin je pris un autre moyen • Le due tie Bnurgogne, auquel etoit attache la Urocquiere Par tout ce que cil ici le voyageur on vuit combien peu tfloit connu en Europe le fundateur dc ri!ilaniisme et I'auteur du Koran Trafi(/ues, wui Discoueries '33 Le grand'l'urc a ])our les pelerins qui vont i la Meccjue un usage qui lui est particulier, au moins j'ignore si les autros puis sances Mahonietanes I'observent aussi : c'est que, quand ceux de ses etats partent, il leur donne i\ son clioix un chef au(|ucl ils sont tenus d'oWir ainsi qu'd lui Cclui de la caravane sappeloit Hoyarbarach ; il etoit de Bourse, et c etoit un des principaux hahitans Je me fis presenter i lui pa» mon bote et par une autre personne, comme un honinie ([ui vouloit aller voir dans celte ville un frtre qu'il y avoit, et ils le prierent de me recevoir dans sa troupe et de m'y accorder sflrete 11 demanda si je savois I'Arabc, le Turc, I'Hebreu, la langue vulgaire, le Grec ; et comme je rt^pondis (jue non: Eh bien, que vcutil done dcvcnir? rcpritil Cependant, sur la representation qu'on lui fit que je n'osois, a cause de la guerre, aller par mer, et que s'il daignoit m'admettre je ferois comme je pourrois, il y consentit, et aprfes s'etre mis les deux mains sur sa tete ct avoir touchtf sa barbe, il dit en Turc que je pouvois me joindre h ses esclaves ; mais il exigea que je fusse vetu comme eux D'apres cela j'allai aussitot, avec un de nies deux conducteurs, au marche qu'on appelle bathsar (bazar) J'y achetai deux longues robes blanches qui mc descenoient jusqu'au talon, une toque accomplie (turban complet), une ceinture de toile, une braie (cale^on) de futaine pour y mettre le bas de ma robe, deux petits sacs ou besaces, I'un pour mon usage, I'autre pour suspendrc a l;i tele de mon cheval quand je lui ferois manger son orge et sa paille : une cuiller et une salifere de cuir, un lapis pour coucher ; anfin un paletot (sorte de pourpoint) de panne blanche que je fis couvrir de toile, et qui me servit beaucoup la nuit J'achelai aussi un tarquais blanc et garni (sorte de carquois), auquel pendoient u'le epee ei des couteaux : mais pour le tarquais ct I'epee je ne pus en faire I'acquisition que secrfctement ; car, si ceux qui ont {'administration de la justice I'avoiert su, le vendeur et moi nous eiissions couru de grands risques Les epees de Uamas sont le plus belles et les meilleures de tout la Syrie ; mais c'est une chose curieuse de voir comment ils les brunissent Celte op A'auigafions, Voyages, I ''4 I' f j f Pendant le s^jou" qud fit ll Damas la caravane, j'allai visiter un lieu de pelerinage qui est ^ seize niilles environ vers le nord, et qu'on nomme NotreDanie de Serdenay II faut, pour y arriver, traverser une montagne qui pent bien avoir un quart de lieue, et jusqu'k laquelle s'($tendent ies jardins de Damas; on descend ensdite dans une valine charmante, remplie de vignes et de jardins, et qui a une belle foniaine dont I'eau est bonne \iiL est une rnche sui laquelle on a construii un petit chateau avec une ^glise de callogero (de caloyers), oil se trouve une image de la Vierge, peinte sur bois : sa tete, diton est portde par miracle ; quant ^ la mani^re, je I'ignore On ajoute qu'elle sue toujours, et que cette sueur est une huile* Tout ce que je puis dire, c'est que quand j'y allai on me montra, au bout de I'eglise, derribre le grand autel, une niche pratiqu^e dans le inur, et que III je vis I'iniage, qui est une chose plate, et qui pcut avoir un pied et demi de haut sur un de large Je ne puis dire si elle est de bois ou de pierrc, ])arce qu'elle ^toit couverte enti^rement de drapeaux Le devant ^toit ferme par un treillis de fer, et audessous il y avoit un vase qui contenoit de I'huile Une femme qui dtoit l\ vint h moi ; clle remua Ies drapeaux avec une cuill&re d'argcnt, et voulut me faire, le si<;ne de la croix au front, aux tempes et sur la poitrine II me sembia que tout ccia etoit une pratique pour avoir argent ; cepen dant je ne veux jjoint dire parli que NotreDame n'ait plus de pouvoir encore que cette image }e revins li Damas, et, la ville du depart, je r^glai mes affaires et disposal ma conscience, conime si j'eusse dd mourir; mais tout kcoup je me vis dans I'embarriis J'ai parl^ du courier qu'avoit envoy^ le soudan pour faire arreter Ies marchands G^nois et Catalans qui se trouvoient dans ses Etats En vertu de cet ordre, on prit mon bote, qui dtoit G^nois ; ses eflets furent saisis, et Ton pla^a chez lui un Maure • ri"sieurs de nos cuteurs du treiziime siicle font mentiun de cetle vierge de Serdenay, devenue (anieuse pendant Ies croisades, et ils parlent de sn sueur huileuse, qui pas;oit pour faire beaucoup de miracles Ces fables d'exsudations, iriraculeuses etoient communes en Asie On y vnntoii entre autres celle qui d^couloit du tomlieau de I'evcque Nicolas, I'un dc ces saints dont I'existence est plus que douteuse Cette liqueur prelendue de Nicolas etoit menie un ohji 'e culte ; et nous lisons qu'en 1651, un curd de Paris en ayant rejut une Mole, il demanda et obtint de I'archeveque la permission de I'ex (loser ilavt 'ration des Kdilts (IIistde la ville et du diocise i!e Pans, par Lel)euf, t part 2, p 557) Traffiques and Discouen'es 137 pour les garden Moi, je cherchai k lui sauver tout ce que je pourrois, et afin que le Maure ne s'en aperjflt pas, je I'enivrai Je fus arrets k mon tou'', ct conduit devant un des cadis, gens qu'ils regardent comme nous nos ^veques, et qui sont chargiSs d'administrer la justice Le cadi me renvoya vers un autre, qui me fit conduire en prison avec les marchands II savoit bien pourtant que je ne I'dtois pas ; mais cette affaire m'tStoit suscitt^e par un trucheman qui vouloit me ran9onner, comme il I'avoit deja tent^ i mon premier voyage Sans Antonine Mourrouzin, consul de Venise, il m'eut fallu payer; mais je restai en prison, et pendant ce temps la caravane part it Pour obtenir ma liberty, le consul et quelques autres personnes furent obliges de faire des dmarches auprts du roi (gouverneur) de Damas, all^guant qu'on m'avoit arr^te k tort et sans cause, et que le trucheman le savoit bien Le seigneur me fit venir devant lui avec un GtJnois nonime Gentil Imperial, qui ^toit un marchand de par le soudan, pour alltr achetcr dos esclaves k Cafla II me demanda qui j'<5tois, et ce que je venois faire ^ Damas ; et, sur ma reponse que j'etois I'ran9ais, venu en ptJierin age d J(5rusalem, il dit qu'on avoit tort de me retenir, et que je pouvois [lartir quand il me plairoit Je partis done, Ic lendemain 6 Octobre, acconipagne d'un nioucre, que je chargeai d'abord de traiisi)orter hors de la ville mes habillemens Turcs, parce qu'il n'est point perniis i\ un Chretien d'y parottre avec la toque blanche A peu de distance est une montagne 011 Ton montre une maison qu'on dit avoir (5te celle de Cain ; et, pendant la premiere journ^e, nous n'eumcs que des montagnes, quoiquc le chemin soit bon ; mais k la seconde nous trouvames un beau pays, et il conlinua d'etre v;"eable jusqu'il Bilbec C'est li que mon moucre me iinitta, et que je trouvai la caravane Elle ^toit canii)^e prfes d'une riviere, h cause de la chaleur qui r^gne dans le pays ; et cependant les nuits y sont trfesfroides (ce qu'on aura peine a croire), et les ros^es trts abondantes J'allai trouver Hoyarbarach, qui me confirma la permission qu'il m'avoit donnde de venir avec lui, et qui me recommenda de ne joint quitter la troupe Le lendemain mat'n, b onze heures, je fis boire mon cheval, et lui donnai la paille ct Twoine, selon I'usage de nos contr^es Pour cette fois les Turcs ne me dirent rien ; mais le soir, a six VOL X s ^ I Ki»i lit t g ' trgy r* '' I, '38 A'auif^ations, ^ovai;es, ' l 140 A'auiga/iOHS, Voyages, heurcs d'usage Enfin, peu aprbs, et avant le lever du ooleil, les g?ns divots font leurs pribres et ablutions ordinaircs Pour ces ablutions, s'iis sont aupr&s d'un ruisseau, ils descen dant de cheval, se mettent les pieds nus, et se lavant les mains, les pieds, le visage et tous les conduits du corps S'ils n'ont pas de ruisseau, ils passent la main sur ces parlies Le dernier d'entre eux se lave la bouche et I'ouvcrtHre opposte, aprfes quoi il se tourne vers le midi Tous alors Invent deux doigts en I'nir ; ils se prosternent et baiscnt la terre trois fois, puis ils se reinvent et font leurs priferes Ces ablutions leur ont €l€ ordonn^es en lieu de confession Les gens de distinction, pour n'y point manquer, portent toujours en voyage des bouteillesdecuirpleines d'eau : on les attache sous le ventre des chameaux et des chevaux, et ordinairenient elles sont trfesbelles Ces peuples s'accroupissent, jraur uriner, comme les femmes ; aprbs quoi ils se frottent le canal contre une pierre, contre un mur ou quelque autre chose Quant ^ I'autre besoin, jamais apres I'avoir satisfait its ne s'essuient Hamos (Hems), bonne ville, bien fermee de murailler avec des fosses glacis (en glacis), est situee dans une plaine sur une petite rivifere lil vient aboutir la plaine de NoC, qui s'^tend, diton, jusqu'en Perse C'est par elle que deboucha ce Tamerlan qui prit et ddtruisit tant de villes A I'extremite de la ville est un beau chateau, construit sur une hauteur, et tout en glacis jusqu'au pied du mur De Hamos nous vinmesJl Hamant (Hama) Le pays est beau; mais je n'y vis que peu d'habitans, excepte les Arabes qui rebStis soient quelquesuns des villages ddtruits Je trouvai dans Ham ant un marchand de Venire nomm^ Laurent Souranze II m'ac cueillit, me logea chez lui, et me fit voir la ville et le chateau Elle est garnie de bonnes tours, closedc fortes et epaisses murailles, et construite, comme le chateau de Provins, sur une roche, dans laquelle on a creus^ au ciseau des fosses fort profonds A I'une des extrdmitds se voit le chateau, beau et fort, tout en glacis jusqu'au pied du mur, et construit sur une t^l^vation 11 est cntoure d'une citadelle qu'il domine, et baign^ par une rivifere qu'on dit ^tre I'une des quatre qui sortent du paiadis terrestre Si le fait est vrai, je I'ignore Tout ce que je sais, c'est qu'elle descend entre le levant et le midi, jilus j)rfes du priemier que du second, (estsudest), et qu'elle va se perdre h Antioche 1 Jl est la roue la ]ilus haute et la plus grande que j'aie vue de ma Traffii/ues, and DUcoueries 141 vie EUe est mise en mouvcment par la riviferc et fournit Ji la con sommation dcs habitans, quoique leur nombre oit considerable, la quantity d'eau qui leur est n^cessaire Cett eau tombe en une auge creusee dans la roche du chateau ; de 1 elle se porte vers la ville et en parcourt les rues dans un canal orme \ax de grands piliers carres qui ont douze pieds de haut sur deux dc large 11 me nianquoit encore differentes choses pour etre en tout conime mes conipagnons de voyage Le namelouck m'en avoit averti, et nion h6te Laurent me mena luimeme au bazar pour en faire I'acquisition C'etoient lie petites coiffes de so'e \ la mode des Turcoman!;, un bonnet pour meitre sous la coiffc, des cuilleres TurqutJ, des couteaux avec leur fusil, un peigne avec son etui, et un gobclet dc cuir Tout ccUc s'itlache et se suspend h I'epee, J'achetai aussi des porcjons* pour tirer de Tare, un larquais nouveau tout garni, pour ei)argner le mien, qui ^toit tresbeau, et que je voulois conserver ; effin un caijinat : c'est une robe de feutre, blanche, tresfine, et impenetrable i la |)luie En route je m'etois Iit5 avec (juclquesuns de mes rompagnons de caravane Ceux ci, quand i!s surent que jetois loge chez un Franc, vinrent me trouver pour me demander de leur procurer du vin Le vin leur est d^fendu jiar leur loi, et ils n'auroient ose en boire devant les leurs ; mais ils esp^roient le faire sans ri'jquc chez un Franc, et cependant ils revenoient de la Mecque J 'en parlai i mon bote I^urent, qui me dit qu'il ne I'oseroit, parce que, si la chose ^toil sue, il courroit les plus grands dangers J'allai leur rendre cette rdponse ; ma's ils en avoient d^ja rherche ailleurs, et venoient d'en trouver chez un Grec Ils me propos erent done, soit par pure amitie, soit pour et autorise auprbs du Grec h boire, d'aller avec eux chez lui, et je le y accompagnai Cet homme nous conduisit dans une petite galerie, 011 nous nous asstmes par terre, en cercle, tous les six II posa d'abord au milieu de nous un grand et beau plat de terre, qui eQt pu con tenir au nioins huit lots (seize pintes) ; ensuite il apporta pour chccun de nous un pot plein de vin, le versa dans le vase, et y mit deux ^cuelles de terre qui devoient nous servir de gobelets Un de la troupe commen9a la premier, et il but h son compag non, selop I'usage du pays Celuici en fit de meme pour son ^\ i '' i ' * Sorte (le duigtier qu'on mettoit au pouce, afin >le le garantir ei suivnnt, et ainsi des autre" Nous bAnies de cctte manilrc, et sans manger, pendant fort longtemps Enfin, quand je m'aper^us que je ne |K)uvois pas continucr davnntage sans m'in commoder, je les supplicii h mains jointes dc m'en dis|)cnse r; mais lis se facherent heaucoup, et se plaignirent, comme si j'avois resolu d'inlerrcmpre leurs plaisirs et de leur faire tort Heureuscment il y en avoit un parmi eux qui ^toit plus li^ avec nioi, et qui m'aimoit tant qu'il m'appeloit kardays, c'estll dire frfcre Celuici s'oflrit i prendre ma place, et i boire jHJur moi quand ce seroit mon tour Cette ofTre les satisfit ; ils racceptlrent, et la partie continua jusqu'au soir, oil il ncus fallut retourner au lean Le chef etoit en ce moment assis sur un si«5ge de pierre, et il avoit devant lui un fallot allume II ne lui fut |)as difficile de diviner d'oii nous venions: aussi y eutil quatrede mes ''amarades qui s'es(iuivferent ; il n'en resta qu'un avec moi Je dis lout c'cci, alin de prdvenir les personnes qui, demain ou un jour quelconquc, voyageroient, ainsi que moi, dans leur pavs, qu'clies se gardent bien de boire avec eux, h moins qu'ellcs ne veuillent etre obligees d'en prendre jusqu'k ce qf'elles tombent i terre le manielouck ne savoit rien de ma d«5l)auche Pendant ce temps il avoit nchct^ une oie pour nous deux II venoit dc la faire bouillir, et, au defnut de verjus, il I'avoit accommodde avec des feuilles vertes de porreaux J 'en mangeai avec lui, et elle nous dura trois jours J'aurois bien desir^ voir Alep ; mais la caravane n'y allant |)oint et se rendant directement k Antioche, il fallut y renoncer Cependant, comme elle ne devoit se mettre en marche que deux jours aprcs, le manielouck fut d'avis que nous prissions tous deux les devants, afin de trouver plus ais^ment h nous loger Quatre autres camarades, marchands Turcs, dcmaudferent k etre des notres, et nous parttmes tous six ensemble A une demilieue de Hama, nous trouvames la liviere et nous la ]>assames sur un pont Elle ^toit debord^e, quoiqu'il n'eOt point plu Mois, je voulus y faire boire mon cheval ; mais la rive ^to t escarp^ et I'eau profonde, ct infaillihlement je m'y serois noy^ si le mamelouck n'etoit venu h mon secours Au delk du fleuve est une longuo et vaste plaine qui dure toute une journde Nous y rencontrames six k huit Turcomans accompagn^s d'une feinme Elle portoit la tarquais ainsi qu'eux ; I'tafiiiiuti, ii/ia Discoueriti, 143 et, \ ce sujet, on inu dit quo celles de ccttc nation sont braves ct (|u'en guerre ellcs combattent conmic les hommcs On ajuuta mcme, et ceci m'dtonna bien davantage, «|u'il y en a tiivirun trente mille qui portent ninsi le tarquais, et qui sont soumises \ un sei^'neur nommd Turcgadiroly, lequel liabite les inontngnes d'Arm^nie, sur les frontil*res de la I'crse I^ seconde journde fut h Iravers un pays de moniagnes II est assez beau quoi(|ue |)eu arrosd ; niais jwr tout on ne voyoit que des habitations ddtruites Tout en le traversant, nion niamelouck m'ap[irit \ tirer de Tare, et il me fit acheter iks jjou^ons (5t des anneaux pour tirer Enfin nous arnvJmcs h un village riche en bois, en vignnbles, en terres \ ble, niais (jui n'avoit d'autres eaux ijue celles de citcrnes Ce canton paroissoit avoir eie habite autrefois par des chreiiens, et j'avoue qu'on me fit un grand plaisir ({uand on me dit (|uc tout cela avoit ele aux Francs, et qu'on me montra pour preuvc des d^lises abattues Nous y logeames ; et ce tut la jiremitre Ibis que je vis des habitations de Turcomans, et dos femmes de ccttc nntiona visage d(5couvert Ordinairenient elles le caclient sous un mtrceau d'«$taniine noire, et celles (jui sont riches y portent attachees des pieces de monnoie et des pierres ])rdcieuses I,cs hommcs sont bons archers J'en vis plusieurs tirer de I'arc lis tirent assis et a but court : ce peu d'espace donne i leurs fllches une grande rapiditfS Au sortir de la Syrie on entre dans la Turcomanie, que nous appellons Armdnie La capitale est une tr^sgrande ville qu'ils nomnient Antdquayd, et nous Antioche Elle fut jadis tres florissante et a encore de beaux murs bien enticrs, qui renferment un tr^sgrand espace et meme des montagnes Mais on n'y compte point d present plus de trois cents maisons Au midi elle est bornt^e par une montagne, au nord par un grand lac, audel2i duquel on trouve un beau pays bien ouvert Le long des murs coule la rivifere qui vicnt de Hama Presque tous les habitans sont Turcomans ou Arabes, et leur diat est d'dlever des troupeaux, tels que chameaux, ch^vres, vaches et brebis Ces chfevres, les plus belles que j'aie jamais vues, sont la plupart blanches; elles n'ont point comme celles de Syrie, les oreilles pendantes, et portent une laine longue douce et crt5|)ue Les nioutons ont de grosses et larges queues On y nourrit aussi des Anes sauvages qu'on apprivoise et qui, avec un poil, des oreilles 9? il 144 NauignlioHS, I'nyagtt, I f et unc tfite |>areils \ ceux dc ccrf, ont coinme lui le pied fcndu J'ignore s'ils ont son cri, car jo ne les ai |K)int cntendus crier lis lont licnux, fort grnnds, et vont avcc les autres b^les; mais jc n'ai point vu qu'on les montat* Four le trans|K)rt de Icurs niarchandises, leit habitans se servcnt dc buuufs ct de hufnes, conimc nous nous servons d chcvaux lis les emploicnt aussi en montures ; et j'en ai vu des troupes dans lesquelles les uns ^toient chargt^s de marchandiscs, ct les autres ^toient montes Le seigneur de ce pays ^toit Ramcdang, prince riche, brave ct puissant Pendant longtcnips il se rendit si rcdoutible c|ue le soudan le craignois et n'osoit I'irriter Mais le soudan voulut le d^truire, et dans ce dessein il s'entcndit avec le karman, qui pouvoit mieux que personne tromper Ramcdang, puisqu'il lui avoit donn^ sn socur en manage En eflet, un jour qu'ils mangoient ensemble, il ririeta ct le livra au soudan, qui le fit mourrir et s'empara dc lt Turcomanic, dont cepcndant il donna un portion au karman Au sortir d'Antioche, je rcpris ma route avec mon mamelouck ; et d'abord nous eflmes h i)xsser une montagne nommt^c Ntgrc, sur la(|uclle on me montra trois ou quatre beaux chateaux ruintSs, qui jidis avoicnt nppartenu ^ des Chretiens 1^ chemin est bcnu ct sans cesse on y est parfum^ p r les lauriers nombreux quelle produit ; mais la dcscente en est uno fois |)lus rapide que la montdc Elk' aboutit au golfe cpi'on nomme d'Asacs, et que nous autres nous apiiellons l^iyaste, parce qu'en effet c'est la ville d'Ayas qui lui donne son nom II s'dtend entre deux niontitgnes, et s'avance dans les terres I'espace d'environ quinze tnilles Sa hrgc'ir h I'occident m'a paru etre de douze ; mais sur cet article je m'en ripporte il la carte marine Au pied de la montagne, pr^s du chemin et sur le bord de la mer, sont les restes d'un ch&teau fort, qui du c6te de la terre dtoit ddfendu ))ar un marecage; de sorte qu'on ne pouvoit y aborder que par mer, ou |'ar une chaussdo dtroitequi traversoit le mnrais II dtoit inhabitd, mais en avant s'dtoient dtablis des Turcomans Us occupoient cent vingt pavilions, les uns de feutre, les autre de colon bleu el blanc, tous tr^sbeaux, tons asscz grands ix>ur loger k I'aise quinze ou seize [lersonnes Ce sont Icurs * Cet aiiimal ne pent etre un ane, puisqu'il a le \»<;^ fendu et que I'dne ne I'n point C'est prubablemcul une espcce dc gazvtW, ou plutot un liubale r ntaiionsi, flt^ WNIMie nous dans l>>!i nutrcH, ils y font tuut Icur menage, h rexceplion du feu Nous nouH arrctauics chex eux lis vinrcnt pltccr dcvnnt nous une de cos nap|)cs a coulisses dont j'ai parte, et dans ln(|uellc il y avoit encore des micttcs de pain, des fraj;iiiens dc from;ine et des grains de raisin Apres cpiui ils nous apporterent une dou/aine de pains plats avcc un grand i|uartier de lait caiile, (ju'ils appcllent yogort Ces pains, iarges d'un pied, sont ronds et plus mince que des oublics On Ics plie en cornet, coni'uc une uublio \ pointes, et on Ics mange avcc le caille Une lieuc audcU\ L'toit une |)etit karvassera (caravanserai) oil nous logeAmes Ces etablisemcns consistent en maisons, comme Ics leans de Syrie En route, dai s le cours dc la journee j'wois rencontre un Ermin (Armenien) qui parloit un peu Italien S'ctant apenu que j'etois chrtJticn, il se lia de conversati'in avcc moi, et me conta beaucoup de details, tant sur le pays et les habitans, cpie sur le soudan et ce Kamcdang, seigneur de Turcomanie, dont jc viens de fairc mention II me dit ({ue ce dernier ctoit un homme de haute taille, tres brave, et le (ilus habile de tous les Turcs h manier la masse et I'^pee Sa mlre ^toit une chreiienne, qui I'avoit fait baptiser ^ la loi Gregoise (selon le rit des (irccs) " pour lui oster le flair ct la senteur que ont ceulx qui no sont ))oint baptisez"* Mais il n'dtoit ni bon chr^tien ni bon Sarrasin; et quand on lui parloit des deux prophetes Jesus et Mahomet, il disoit : Moi, je suis pour les propht:tes vivans, il me seront plus utiles que ceux qui sont morts Ses Etats touchoient d'un cute h ceux du karman, dont il avoit epousc la sceur ; de I'autre h la Syrie, qui appartenoit au soudan Toutes les fois que par son pays passoit un des sujets de celuici, il en exigeoit des phages Mais eniin Ic soudan ohtint du karnian, comme je I'ai dit, qu'il le lui livreroit ; et aujourd'hui il pnssede toute la Turcomanie jusqu'i\ Tharse et meme une journee par del& Ce jourI2i nous logeAnies de ncuvcau chcz des Turcomans, oii Ton nous servit encore du lait; et I' Armenien nous y accom * Le» Chretiens d'Atie croyoient de bonne foi que les infidiles avoient une mauvaise odeur qui leur ^toit p' 'ticuliire, et qu'ils perdoient par le baplfme II sera encore parl^ plus bas de cette superstition Ce bapt£me etoit, selon la loi Gregoise, par immersion VOL X T i :"' 146 NauigattonSy Voyages, pagna Ce fut Ik que je vis faire par des femtnes ces pains minces et plats dont j'ai parld Voici comment elles s'y prennent Klles ont une petite table ronde, bien unie, y jettent un peu de fiine qu'elles detrempent avec de I'eau et en font une pdte plus niolle que celle du pain Cettc pite, elles la partagent en ^lusieurs morceaux ronds, qu'elles aplatissent autant qu'il leur est possible avec un rouleau en bois, d'un diambtre un peu moindre que celui d'un ceuf, jusqu'i ce qu'ils soient amincis au point que j'ai dit Pendant ce temps elles ont une plaque de fer convexe, qui est posee sur un tripled et dchauffee en dessous par un feu doux Elles y ^tendent la feuille de pite et la retournent tout aussitdt, de sorte qu'elles ont plustot fait deux de leurs pains qu'un oublieur chez nous n'a fait une oublie J'employai deux jours k traverser le pays qui est autour du golfc 11 est fort beau, et avoit autrefois bcaucoup de chateaux qui appartcnoient aux Chretiens, et qui maintenant sort detruits Tel est celui qu'on voit en avant d'Ayas, vers le levant U n'y a danp la contr^e que des Turcomans Ce sont de beaux honimes, excellens archers et vivant de peu Leurs habitations sont rondes comme des pavilions et couvertes de feutre lis demeurent toujours en plein champ, et ont un chef auquel ils obdissent ; mais ils changent souvent de place, et alors ils emportent avec eux leurs maisons Leur coutume dans ce cas est de se soumettre au ""igneur sur les terres duquel ils s'dtablissent, et mSme de le servir de leurs amies s'il a guerre Mais s'ils quittenl ses domaines et qu'ils passent sur ceux de son ennemi, ils rcrviront celuici a son tour coitre I'autre, et on ne leur en sait pas mauvais gr^, parce que telle est leur coutume et qu'ils sont errans Sur ma route je rencontrai un de leurs chefs qui voloit (chassoit au vol) avec des faucons et prenoit des oies privtJes On me dit qu'il pouvoit bien avoir sous ses ordres dix mille Turcomans Le pays est favorable pour la chasse, et coup6 par beaucoup de petiies rivibres qui descendent des montagnes et se jettent dans le golfe On y trouve surtout beaucoup de sangliers Vers le milieu du golfe, sur le chemin de terre, est un defile formd par une roch^ sur laquelle on passe, et qui se trouve i deux portdes d'arc de la mer Jadis ce passage 6toit defendu par un chateau qui le rendoit tr^sfort Aujourd'hui il est abandonnd Au sortir de cette gorge on entre dans une belle et grande plaine, peuplee de Turcomans Mais I'Armenien mon compagnon Traffiques, and Discoueries '47 me montra sur une niontagne un chateau oil il n'y avoit, disoitil, que des gens de sa nation, et dont les murs sont arros^s par une rivifcre nomm»5e Jehon Nous cotoyAmes la rivitrc jusqu'i une ville qu'on nomine MissesurJehon, parce qu'elle la traverse Misse, situ^e ^ quatre journ<^es d'Antioche, appartint \\ des Chretiens et fut une cit^ importante On y voit encore plusieurs eglises k moitie detruites et dont il ne reste plus d'entier que le choeur de la grande, qu'on a convert! en mosqu(5e Le pont est en bois, parce que le premier a ete detruit aussi Enfin, des deux moititJs de la ville, I'une est totalement en ruines ; I'autre a conservi^ ses murs et environ trois cents maisons qui sont remplies par des Turcomans De Misse ii Adeve (Ad^ne) le pays continue d'etre unietbeau; et cc sont encore des Turcomans qui I'habitent Adfene est i deux journees de Misse, et je me proposois d'y attendre la caravane EUe arriva J'allai avec le mamelouck et quelques autres personnes, dont plusieurs Violent de gros marchands, loger prts du pont, entre la riviere et les murs ; et ce fut li que je vis com ment les Turcs font leurs priferes et leurs sacrifices ; car non seulement ils nc se cachoient point de moi, mais ils paroissoient meme contens quand "je disois mes patrenostre, qui leur sambloit merveilles Je leur ouys dire acunes fois leus heures en chantant, \ I'entrt^e de la nuit, et se assi^ent k la r(!onde (en rond) et bran lent le corps et la teste, et chantent bien sau\ ?igement" Un jour ils me men^rent avec eux aux etuvcs et aux bains de la ville ; et comme je refusal de me baigner, parce qu'il eQt fallu me d^shabiller et que je craignois de montrer mon argent, ils me donnbrent leurs robes k garder Depuis ce moment nous fQmes trfesli^s ensemble La maison du bain est fort elev^e et se termine par un dome, dans lequel a ^t^ pratiqude une ouverture circulaire qui eclaire tout I'interieur Les t^tuves et les bains sont beaux et tr^spropres Quand ceux qui se baignent sortent de I'eau, ils viennent s'asseoir sur de petites ciaies d'osier fin, oil ils s'essuient et peignent leur barbe C'est dans Adfene que je vis pour la premiere fois les deux jeunes gens qui i la Mecque s'etoient fait crevei ' 's yeux aprfes avoir vu la sepulture de Mahomet Les Turcs sont gens de fatigue, d'une vie dure, et \ qui il ne coute rien, ainsi que je I'ai vu tout le long de la route, de doriuir f\ J 148 Naw^atiotts Voyages, \\\ t^ sur la terre commes les animaux Mais ils sont d'humeur gaie et joyeuse, et chantcnt volontiers chansons de gestes Aussi quel qu'un qui veut vivre avec eux ne doit ^tre ni triste ni rfiveur, mais avoir toujours le visage riant Du reste, ils sont gens de bonne foi et charitables les uns envers les autres " J'ay veu bien souvent, quant nous mengions, que s'il passoit ung povre homme aupr^s d'eulx, faisoient venir mengier avec nous ; ce que nous, ne Ksies mes point" Dans beaucoup d'endroits j'ai trouve qu'ils ne cuisent po'nt leur pain la moitid de ce que Test le notre II est mou, et i moins d'y £tre accoutum^, on a bien de la peine h le mdcher Pour leur viande, ils la mangent crue, sechee au soleil Cepen dant quand une de leurs betes, cheval ou chameau, est en danger de mort ou sans espoir, ils I'^gorgent et la mangent non crue, un peu cuite lis sont trfesprcpres dans I'appret de leurs viandes ; niais ils mangent trbssalement Ils liennent de meme fori pro prement leur barbe ; mais jamais ils ne se lavent les mains que quand ils se baignent, qu'ils veulent faire leur prifere, ou qu'ils se lavent la barbe ou le derrifere Ad^ne est une assez bonne ville marchande, bien femide de murailles, situde en bon pays et assez voisine de la mer Sur ses murs passe une grosse riviere qui vient des hautes niontagnes d'Arm^nie et qu'on nomme Adena Elle a un pont fort long et le plus large que j'aie jamais vu Ses habitans et son amiral (son seigneur, son prince) sont Turcomans ; cet amiral est le frfere de ce brave Ramedang que le soudan fit mourir ainsi que je I'a racont^ On m'a dit meme que le soudan a entre les mains son fils, et qu'il n'ose le laisser retourner en Turcomanic D'Adfene j'allai h Therso que nous appellons Tharse Le pays, fort beau encore, quoique voisin des montagnes, est habits par des Turcomans, dont les uns logent dans des villages et les autres sous des pavilions Le canton ou est bsltie Tharse abonde en bl^, vins, bois et eaux Elle fut une ville fameuse, et Ton y voit encore de trfesanciens Edifices Je crois que c'est celle qu'assi^gea Baudoin, frere de Godefroi de Bouillon Aujourd'hui elle a un amiral nomme par le soudan, et il y demeure plusieurs Maures Elle est ddfendue par un chateau, par des fosses i glacis et par une double enceinte de murailles, qui en certains endroits est triple Une petite rivifere la traverse, et h peu de distance il en coule une autre J'y trouvai un marchand de Cypre, nomme Antoine, qui dcpuis Traffiques, and Discoueries 149 longtemps demeuroit dans le pays et en savoit bien la languei II m'en paria pertinemment ; mais il me fit un autre plaisir, celui de me donner de bon vin, car depuis plusieurs jours je n'en avois point bu Tharse n'est qu'Jl soixante milles du Korkene (Curco), chateau construit sur la mer, et qui appartient au roi de Cypre Dans tout ce pays on parle Turc, et on commence meme h le parler dfes Antioche, qui est, comme je I'ai dit, la capitalede Tur comanie "C'est un trfesbeau langaige, et brief, et bien aisie pour aprendre" Comme nous avions h traverser les hautes montagnes d'Armenie, Hoyarbarach, le chef de notre caravane, voulut qu'ellc fflt toute rdunie ; et dans ce dessein il attendit quelques jours Enfin nous parttmes la veille de la Toussaint Le mamelouck m'avoit con seill^ de m'approvisioner pour quatre journ^es En consequence j'jichetai pour nioi une provision de pain et de fromage, et pour mon cheval une autre d'orge et de paille Au sortir de Tharse je fis encore trois lieues Fran^aises a travers un beau pays de plaines, peuple de Turcomans; mais enfin j'entrai dans les montagnes, montagnes les plus hautes que j'aie encore vues EUes enveloppent par trois cotes tout le pays que j'avois parcouru depuis Antioche L'autre partie est fermee au midi par la mer D'abord on a des bois Jl traverser Ce chemin dure tout un jour, et il n'est pas malaise Nous logedmes le soir dans un passage ^troit oil il me parut que jadis il y avoit eu un chateau I^ seconde journiSe n'eut point de mauvaise route encore, et nous vtnmes passer la nuit dans un caravanserai La troisibme, nous cotoyAmes constamment une petite riviere, et vJme3 dans les montagnes une multitude immense de perdrix griaches Notre halte du soir fut dans une plaine d'environ une lieue de longueur sur un quart de large Li se rencontrent quatre grandes combes (valines) L'une est celle par laquelle nous etions venus j l'autre, qui perce au nord, tire vers le pays du seigneur, qu'on appelle Turcgadirony, et vers la Perse ; la troisifeme s'^tend au Levant, et j'ignore si elle conduit de mSme i la Perse ; la dernit;re enfin est au couchant, et c'est celle que j'ai prise, et qui m'a conduit au pays du karman Chacunc des quatre a une rivifcre, et les quatre rivieres se rendent dans ce dernier pays II neigea beaucoup pendant la nuit Pour garantir mon cheval, !i 1 1 \ i|a Nauigattons, Voyages, { m i\ je le couvris avec mon capinat, cette robe de feutre qui me servoit dc raariteau Mais tnoi j'eus froid, et il me prit une maladie qui est malhonnSte (le d^voiement) : j'eusse mSme ^t^ en danger, sans mon mamelouck, qui me secourut et qui me fit sortir bien vite de cc lieu Nous parttmes done de grand matin tous deux, et entrdmes dans les hautes montagnes II y a 1:1 un chdteau nomme Cublech, le plus ^leve que je connoisse On Ic voit k une distance de deux journ^es Quelquefois cependant on lui tourne le dos, i cause des detours qu'occasionnent les montagnes; quelquefois aussi on cesse de le voir, parce qu'il est cache par des hauteurs : mais on ne peut pen^trer au pays du karman qu'en passant au pied de celle ou il est bdti Le passige est etroit II a fallu m^me en quelques parties I'ouvrir au ciseau ; mais partout il est doming par le Cublech Ce chateau, le dernier* de ceux qu'ont perdus les Armdniens, appartient aujour'hui au karman, qui I'a eu en partage h la mort de Kamedang Ces montagnes sont couvertes de neige en tout temps, et il n'y a qu'un passage pour les chevaux, quoiqu'on y trouve de temps en temps de jolies petites plaine!' F'Ues sont dangereuses, par les Turcomans qui y sont r^pandus ; mais pendant les quatre jours de marche que j'y ai faite, je n'y ai pas vu une seule habitation Quand on quitte les montagnes d'Armenie pour entrer dans le pays du karman, on en trouve d'autres qu'il faut traverser encore Sur I'une de cellesci est une gorge avec un chateau nomme L^ve, oil Ton paie au karman un droit de passage Ce p^age etoit afi'erm^ h un Grec, qui, en me voyant, me reconnut h mes traits pour Chretien, et m'arr^ta Si j'avois dt6 oblig^ de retourner, j'^tois un homme mort, et on me I'a dit depuis : avant d'avoir fait une demilieue j'eusse ^t*^ ^gorg^ ; car la caravane ville autrefois ferm^e, et aujourd'hui dans un grand delabrenient J'y trouvai au moins des vivres ; car, dans mes quatre jours de marche depuis Tharse, la route ne ni'avoit cert que j I'eau Les environs de la ville sont couverts de villages habites en trts grande partie par des Turcomans Au sortir d'Erdgli nous trouvames deux gentilshommes du pays qui paroissoient gens de distinction ; ils firent beaucoup d'amitic au mamelouck, et le menl;rent, pour le regaler i un village voisin dent les habitations son toutes creusdes dans le roc Nous y passames la nuit ; mais moi je fus oblige de passer dans une caverne le reste du jour, pour y garder nos chevaux Quand le mamelouck revint, il me dit que ces deux homnies lui avoient demand^ qui j'etois, et qu'il leur avoit rdpondu, en leur donnant le change, que j'etois un Circassien qui ne savoit point parler Arabe D'Eregli \ Larande, oil nous allames, il y a deux journ(5es Cette viileci, quoique non close, est grande, marchande et bien situ^e II y avoit autrefois au centre un grand et fort chateau dont on voit encore les portes, qui sont en fer et trfesbelles ; mais les murs sont abbatus D'une ville i I'autre on a, comme je I'ai dit, un beau pays plat ; et depuis Lfeve je n'ai pas vu un seul arbre qui fflt en rase campagne II y avoit u Larande deux gentilshommes de Cypre, dont I'un s'appelloit Lyachin Castrico ; I'autre, L^on Maschero, et qui tous deux parloient assez bien Finrnis,* lis me demandt;rent quelle ^toit ma patre, et comment je me trouvais Ik Je leur r^pondis que j'dtois serviteur de monseigneur de Bourgogne, que je venois de Jerusalem et de Damas, et que j'avois suivi la caravane Ils me parurent tresemerveilles de ce que j'avois pu passer ; mais quand ils m'eurent demande oil j'allois, et que j'ajoutai que je retournois par terre en France vers mondit seigneur, ils me dirent que c'dtoit chose impossible, et que, quand j'aurois mille vies, je les perdrois toutes En consequence ils me proposferent de retourner en Cypre avec eux 11 y avoit dans I'ile deux galdres qui ^toient venues y chercher la sceur de roi, accord(5 en mariagc * Les Lu 'rnnn, devenus rois de Cypre sur In fin du douzieme siecle, avuient i"* Juii uans Lv(e ile la langue Fran5aise C'est en Cypre, an passige de saint Louis pour sa iroisade d'K^'pte que fut fait et public cc code qu'on nppela Assise: de Jeiasalem, et qui devint le code des Cypriots La lanj;ue Franjaise runtinua d'etre celle de la cour et des gens bien eleven ;n »' '''XI^Hfc' Naui^attojts, Voyaf^es, \f'A |i au fils de monseigneur de Savoie,' et ils ne doutoient point que le roi, par amour et honneur pour monseigneur de Bourgogne, ne m'y accorddt passage Je leur repondis que puisque UJeu m'avoit fait la grace d'arriver i\ I Grande, il me feroit probablement celle d'aller plus loin, et qu'au resie j'etois resolu d'achever raon voyage ou d'y mourir A nion tour je leur demandai ou ils alloient lis me dirent que leur roi venoit de mourir; (jue pendant sa vie il avoit toujours entretenu trbve avec le grand karmnn, et que le jeune roi et son conseil les etivoyoit vers lui pour renouveller I'alliance Moi, qui etois curieux de connoJtre ce grand prince que sa nation considere comme nous notre roi, je les ])riai de permettre que je les accompagnasse ; et ils y consentirent Je trouvai a Larande un autre Cypriot Coluici, nomme Perrin Passerot, et marchand, demeuroit depuls quelque temps dans le pays II etoit de Famagouste, et en avoit ete banni, parce qu'avcc un de ses frferes il avoit tente do remettre dans les mains du roi cette ville, qui etoit dans celles des Genois Mon mamelouck venoit do recontrer aussi cinq ou six de ses compatriotes C'etoient de jeunes csclaves Circassiens que Ton conduisoit au soudan II voulut h leur passage les r^galer ; et comme il avoit appris qu'il se trouvoit 4 Larande des chrf;tiens, et qu'il soup^onnoit qu'ils auroient du vin, il me pria de !ui en procurer Je cherchai tant que, moyennant la moitie d'un ducat, je trouvai h en acheter demipeau de chfevre (une demioutre), et je la lui donnai II montra en la recevant une joie extreme, et alia aussitot trouver ses camarades, avec lesquelles il passa la nuit tout enti^re a boire Pour lui, il en prit tant que le lendemain, dans la route, il manqua d'tn mourir ; mais il se gu^rit par une methode qui leur est propre : dans ces caslH, ils ont une trfesgrande bouteille pleine d'eau, et h laesure que leur estomac se vide et se^ debarrasse, ils boivent de I'eau tant qu'ils peuvent en avaler, comme s'ils vouloient rincer une bouteille, puis ils la rendent et en avalent d'autre II employa ainsi k se laver tout le temps de la route jusqu'k niidi, et il fut gueri entiferement De larande nous allames h Qulongue, appelee par les Grecs * Louis, Ills d'Amedce VIII, due de Savoie II c'pousa en 1432 Anne de Lusignan fille de Jean II, roi d'* Cypre, mort au mois de Juin, et soeui de Jean III, ijui alors etoit sui le trone 1 1 Traffiques, and Discouenes, tjf Quhongucpoly* II y a d'un lieu k I'autre deux journees Le pays est beau et bien garni de villages ; mais il maiKiue d'eau, et n'a, ni d'autres arbres que ceux qu'oti a plantes prbs des habita tions pour avoir du fruit, ni d'autre riviere que celle qui coule prbs de la ville Cette ville, grande, marchande, defendue par des fosses en glacis et parde bonnes murailles garnies de touts, est la meilleure qu'ait le karman II lui reste un petit chdteau Jadis elle en avoit un trfesfort, qui etoit construit au centre On I'a jcte bas pour y bdtir le palais du roit Je restai l\ quatre jours, afin de donner le temps h I'ambassadeur de Cypre, et h la caravane d'arriver II arriva, ainsi qu'elle Alors j'allni demander h I'ambassadeur (|uc, quand il iroit saluer le karman, il me permit de me joindre k sa suite, et il me promit Cependant '1 avoit parmi ses esclaves quatre Grecs de Cypre renegats, dont I'un dtoit son huissier d'armes, et qui tous quatre firent auprfes de lui des efforts pour Ten ddtourner ; mais il leur r^pondit qu'il n'y voyoit point d'inconv^nient : d'ailleurs j'en avois t^moign^ tant d'envie qu'il se fit un plaisir de m'obliger On vint le prdvenir de I'heure k laquelle il pourroit faire sa reverence au roi, lui exposer le sujet de son ambassade, et offrir ses presens ; car e'est une coutume audelk des niers qu'on ne paroit jamais devant un prince sans en apporter quelquesuns I^s siens dtoient six pieces de camelot de Cypre, je ne sais com bien d'aunes d'^carlate, une quarantaine de pains de sucre, un faucon p^lerin et deux arbaletes, avec une douzaine de virest On envoya chez lui des genets pour apporter les presens ; et, pour sa monture ainsi que pour sa suite, les chevaux qu'avoient laiss^s k la porte du palais ceux des grands qui ^toient venus faire corttJge au roi pendant la ceremonie II en monta un, et mit pied k terre k I'entr^e du palais ; aprbs quoi, nous entrkmes dans une trfesgrande salle oil il pouvoit y avoir environ trois cents personnes Le roi occupoit la chambre suivante, autour de laquelle etoient ranges trente esclaves, tous debout Pour lui, il etoit dans un coin, assis sur un tapis par • Plus bas le copiste a eccit Quohongue et Quhongue j'ectirai d^sormais Couhongue fL'auteur, d'apres ses pr^juges Europcens, einploie ici le mot roi pour designer le prince, le souverain du pays JVives, grosses fliches qu se lan{oient avec I'arbalite VOL X U M *' ' r xi^tfai »S4 Nauigahons, Voyages, m terre, selon la coututne du pays, v6tu de drap d'or cramoisi, et le coude appuyd sur un carreau d'une autre sorte de drap d'or Pr^s de lui dtoit son ^pee ; en avant, son chancelier debout, et aiitour, h peu de distanr?, trois hommes assis D'abord on fit passer sous ses yeux les prdsens, qu'il parut h peine regarder ; puis I'ambassadeur entra accompagnd d'un truche man, parce qu'il ne savoit point la langue Turque Quand 11 eut fait sa rdvdrence, le chancelier lui demanda la lettre dont il dtoit porteur, et la lut tout haut L'ambassadeur alors dit au roi, par son trucheman, que le roi de Cypre envoyoit le saluer, et qu'il le prioit de recevoir avec amitid les prdsens qu'il lui envoyoit I^ roi ne lui rdpondit pas un mot On le fit asseoir par terre, k leur mani^rc, mais audessous des trois personnes assises, et assez loin du prince Alors ccluici demanda comment se portoit son frfere le roi de Cypre, el il lui fut rdpondu qu'il avoit perdu son pfere, qu'il envoyoit renouveler I'alliance qui du vivant du mort, avoit subsist^ entre les deux pays, et que pour lui il la desi roit fort Je la souhaite dgalement, dit le roi Celuici demanda encore i l'ambassadeur quand dtoit mort le ddfunt, quel Sge avoit son successeur, s'il dtoit sage, si son pays lui obi^issoit bien ; et comme h ces deux dernibres questions la rdponse fut un oui, il tdmoitna en 6tre bienaise Aprfes ces paroles on dit h l'ambassadeur de se lever II obdit, et prit congd du roi, qui ne se remua pas plus h son depart qu'il ne I'avoit fait h son arrivde En sortant il trouva devant le palais les chevaux qui I'avoient amend On lui en (it de nouveau monter un pour le reconduire h sa demeure ; mais h peine y futil arrivd que les huissiers d'armes se prdsentbrent k lui En pareilles cdrdmonies, c'est la coutume qu'on leur distribue de I'argent, et il en donna II alia ensuite saluer le fils aind du roi, et lui presenter ses prdsens et ses lettres Ce prince dtoit, comme son pfere, entourd de trois personnes assises Mais quand l'ambassadeur lui fit la reverence, il se leva, se rassit, le (it asseoir k son tour audessus des trois personnages Pour nous autres qui I'accompagnions, on nous pla^a bien en arrifere Moi j'avois apper9U k I'dcart un banc, sur lequel j'allai me mettre sans fa9on ; mais on vint m'en tirer, et il me fallut plier le jarret et m'accroupir h terre avec les autres De retour h I'hotel, nous vtmes arriver un huissier d'armes du fils, comme nous avions vu du pfere On lui donna aussi de I'argent, et au reste ces gens1^ se contentent de peu Traffiques, and Discouenes tJJ A leur tour, Ic roi et son fils en envoy^rent h I'ambassadeur pour sa d^pense ; et c'est encore 1^ une coutume Le premier lui fit passer cinquante aspres, le second trente L'aspre est la monnoie du pays : il en faut cinquante pour un ducat de Venise Je vis le roi traverser la ville en cavalcade C'«Jtoit un Vendredi jour de (£te pour eux, et il alloit faire sa pri^re Sa garde dtoit compos^e d'une cinquantaine de cavaliers, la plupart ses csclaves, et d'environ trente archers \ pied qui rentouroient II |x>rtoit une ^pde \ sa ceinture et un tabolcan d rar(,on de sa selie, selon I'usage du pays Lui et son fils ont ^td baptises :\ la Grecque, pour oter le flair (la mauvaise odeur), et Ton m'a dit nieme que la mbre de son fils dtoit chrdtienne II en est ainsi de tous les grands, ils se font baptiser afin qu'ils ne puent point Ses dtats sont considerables ; ils commencent ^ une journ^e en de9i de Tarse ; et vont jusqu'au pays d'AmuratBey, cet autre karman dont j'ai parl^, et que nous appelons le grandTurc Dans ce sens, leur largeur est, diton, de vingt lieues au plus ; mais ils ont seize journdes de long, et je le sais, moi qui les ai traversees Au nordest, ils s'dtendent, m'aton dit, jusqu'aux frontibres de Perse Le karman possbde aussi une cote maritime qu'on nomme les Farsats EUe se prolonge depuis Tharse jusqu'i Courco, qui est au roi de Cypre, et ^ un port nomme Zabari Ce canton produit les nieilleurs marins que Ton connoisse ; mais ils se sont revoites contre lui Le karman est un beau prince, agd de trentedeux ans, et qui a epousd la soeur d'AmuratBey II est fort obei dans ses etats ; cependant j'ai entendu des gens qui disent de lui qu'il est trbs cruel, et qu'il passe peu de jours sans faire couper des nds, des pieds, des mains, ou mourir quelqu'un Un homme estil riche, il le condamne i mort pour s'emparer de ses biens ; et j'ai oui dire qu'il s'dtoit ainsi ddfait des plus grands de son pays Huit jours avant mon arrivde il en avoit fait etrangler un par des chiens Deux jours apr^s cette execution il avoit fait mourir une de ses femmes, la mfere meme de son fils aind, qui, quand je le vis, ne savoit rien encore de ce meurtre Les habitans de ce pays sont de mauvaises gens, voleurs, subtils et grands assassins lis se tuent les uns les autres, et la justice qu'il en fait ne les arrSte point Je trouvai dans Cohongue Antoine Passerot, fr^re de ce Perrin Passerot que j'avois vu i Larande, qui tous deux accuses cl'ivoir IS« Nauigattons, Voyages, voulu remettre Famagouste sous la puissance du roi de Cypre, en avoicnt ^t^ bannis, ainsi que je I'ai dit ; et ils s'^toient retir^ dans le pays du karman, I'un SV viande cuite On y fait aussi, avcc dcs noix vcrtcs, \ incts particulicr Pour cela on Ics pbic, on Ics coupe en deux, on les entile avcc une ficelle, et on les arrose de vin ruit, (|ui so prend tout autour et y forme une gelue conuue de In colic C est unc nourriture assc/ agrcablc, surtout ([uand on a faim Nous fames obliges d'y faire une i)rovision de pain et de fromagc pour deux jours ; et je convicns que j'etois d«5goflte de chair cruc Ces deux jours fuicnt employes \ vcnir de Carassar ;\ Cotthay Le pays est beau, hicn arrosd et garni de montagncs peu dlev^es Nous traversAmes un bout de foret qui nic pnrut remaniuable en ce quelle est composde enticremcnt de chcnes, et que ces arbres y sont plus gros, i)lus droits ct plus li:\uts que ceux que j'avois et<5 h portec de voir jusquelii I >'ailleurs ils n'ont, comme les sapins, de branches ([u'ii leurs rimes Nous vinmes loger dans un caravanserai qui ctoit cloigne do toute habitation Nous y trouvdmes de \'ox^ i de la paille, ct il cflt ^tt5 d'autant plus aisc de nous en approvisionncr, (ju'il n'y avoit d'auirc gardien qu'un seul valet, Mais on n'a ricn de semblable h craindre dans ces licuxK\, et il n'est {)oint d'hommc assez hardi pour oser y prendre unc poignee de marchandisc sans payer Sur la route est une petite rivii:rc renommdc pour son eau Hoyarbarch alia en buire avec ses femmes ; il voulut que V busse aussi, ct luimeme m "^n pri^scnta dans son gobelet de ^ aussi dans une halle un spectacle lamentable : c'^toient des Chretiens, hommes et femmes, que Ton vendoit L'usage est de les fane asseoir sur les bancs Celui qui veut les acheter ne voit d'eux que le visage et les mains, et un peu le bras des femmes A Damas j'avois vu vendre une fille noire, de quinze h seize ans ; on la menoit au long des rues toute nue, " fors que le ventre et le derribre, et ung pou audesoubs" C'est k Burse que, pour la premiere fois, je mangeai du caviare * a Thuile d'olive Cctte nouriture n'est gufere bonne que pour des Grecs, ou quand on n'a r> mag !^ H i ii de Jerusalem, comtne pour marquer que tout ce pays etoit sous sa loi Pr^s de cette colonne il y en n trois autres, plac^es sur une mSme lignc, ct d'un seul morceau chacun Cellesci portoient trois chevaux dor^s qui sont maintenant h Venise* Dans la jolie ^glise de Panthdacrator, occup^e par des religieux caloyers, qui sont ce que nous appellerions en France moines de rObservance, on montre une pierre ou table de diverses couleurs que Nicodbme avoit fait tailler pour placer sur son tombeau, et qui lui servit h poser Ic corps de NotrcSeigneur quand il le dcscendit de la croix Pendant ce temps la Vierge pleuroit sur le corps ; mais ses larmes, au lieu d'y rester, tombbrent toutcs sur la pierre, et on les y voit toutes encore, D'abord je crus que c'^toient des gouttes de cire, et j'y portai la main pour les tAter ; je me baissai ensuite, afm de la regarder horizontalement et i contrejour, et me sembla que c'estoient gouttes d'eau engelldes C'est Ih une chose que plusieurs personncs ont pu voir comme moi Dans la m6me eglise sont les tombeaux de Constantin et de sainte Hfelene sa mere, plac«$s chacun i la hauteur d'environ huit pieds, sur une colonne qui se termine comme un diamant pointu h quatie faces On dit que les Vdnitiens, pendant qu'ils eurent Jl Constantinople une grande puissance, tirt;rent du tombeau de sainte Helfene son corps, qu'ils emportfcrent h Venise, oil il est encore tout entier lis tenlerent, diton, la mfime chose pour celui de Constantin, mais ils ne purent en venir Ji bout ; et le fait est assez vraisemblable, puisqu'on y voit encore deux gros mor ceaux brises h I'endroit qu'on vouloit rompre Les deux tombeaux sont couleur de jaspre sur le vermeil, comme une brique (de jaspe rouge) On montre dans I'eglise de SainteApostole un tron9on de la colonne h laquaH^tJ^mach^ NotreSeigneur pour etre battu de verges chez iflate Ce nratceau, plus grand que la hauteur d'un homme, es/de la meme pierre que deux autres que j'ai vus, I'une h Rome, IJQutre h Jerusalem ; mais ce dernier exc^de en grandeur les deux autres ensemble II y a enrore dans la meme ^glise, et dans des cercueils de bois, plusieurs corps saints qui sont entiers : les voit qui veut L'un d'eux avoit eu la tete couple ; on lui en a mis une d'un autre * lis sont maintenant & Paris, et il y en a qiiatre TVaffiquts, and Dtscouttits «7« saint All reste les Orecs ne portent point \ ccs reliiiucs Ic m£nic respect que nous II pi est de mdme pour la pierre de Nichodeme et la cojjnnc de NotreSeigneur : celleci est sculcment couvertc d'une enveloppe en planches, et (los^e debout prbs d'un pilier, & main droite quand on entre dans I'^glise par la porte de dcvant Parmi les belles ^glises je citerai encore conime une des plus remarquables cclle qu'on nomme la Blaqueme, |>arce (|u'elle est pris du palais imperial, et qui, quoique petite et mal couverte, a des peintures avec pav^ et revfitemcns en marbrc Je ne doute pas qu'il n'y en ait plusieurs autres i!galement dignes d'etre vant^es; mais je n'ai pu les visiter toutes Les niarchands (marchands Latins) en ont une oil tous les jours on dit la messc II la roniaine Celleci est vi»ivis le passage de P^ra La ville a des marchands dc plusieurs nations ; mais aucune n'y est aussi puissante que les Veniticns lis y ont un ba'lle (baile) qui connolt seul de toutes leurs affaires, et ne depend ni dc I'em pereur ni de ses officiers C'estlh un privill'ge qu'iis posst'dcnt depuis longtemps* : on dit meine que par deux fois ils out, avcc leurs galores, sauv^ des Turcs la ville ; pour moi je croy que Dieu I'a plus gardde |}our les saintes reliqucs qui sont dedans (|ue pour autre chose Le Turc y entretient aussi un officier pour le commerce (lu'y font ses sujets, et cet officier est, de meme que le baile, indtJpen dant de I'empereur ; ils y ont meme le droit, ({uand un de leurs esclaves sMchappe et s'y rdfugie, dc le redeinander, et I'empereur est obligti de le leur rendre Ce prince est dans une grande suj^tion du Turc, puisque an nuellement il lui paic, m'aton dit, un tribut de dix mille ducats ; et cette sommeest uniquement pour Constantinople: car au deli de cette ville il ne possbde rien qu'un chateau situd h trois lieues vers le nord, et en Grfcce une petite citd nommde Salubrie J'dtois logd chez un marchand Catalan Cet homme ayant dit k I'un des gens du palais que j'dtois k monseigneur de Bourgogne, I'empereur me fit demander s'il dtoit vro' que le due eflt pris la pucelle, ce que les Grecs ne pouvoient croiret Je leur en dys * Depuis la conquete de I'etnpire d'Orient par les Latins, en 1204, conquete \ laqnelle les Vdnitiens avoient contribue en grande partie t La pucelle d'Orleans, apr&s avoir combattu avec gloire les Anglais et le due de Bourgogne ligucs contre la France, avoit ^t^ faitc prisonniire en 1430, par un officier de Jean de Luxembourg, general des troupes du due, puis II I |i V'i •7a A'auiga/ions, yoyagts la v^rit^ tout ainsi que la chose avoit eit^; de quoy its furetil bien csmcrveilli^s Le jour de la Chandeleur, les marchands me pr^vinrent que, I'aprbsdtn^e, il devoit y avoir au palais un office solennel pareil it celut que nous faisons ce jourl2i ; et ils m'y conduisirent L'em pereur dtoit Ix I'extr^niit^ d'une salle, assis sur une couche (un coussin) : I'l'mpdratrice vit la rtfr^monie d'une pibce 8U|)^rieure ; et sont les chappeliains qui chantent I'office, estrangnement vestus et habillids, et chantent par cuer, selon leurs dois Quelques jours apr&s, on me mena voir ^galement une ftte qui avoit lieu pour le mariage d'un des parens de Tempereur II y cut une joute \ la mani^re du pays, et cette joute me parut bien Strange I^ voici : Au milieu d'une place on avoit plants, en guise de quintainc, un grand pieu auquel dtoit attachde une planche large de trois pieds, sur cinq de long Une quarantaine de cavaliers arrivbrent sur le lieu sans aucune pibce quelconque d'armure,' et sans autre arme qu'un petit bdton D'abord ils s'amusbrent h courir les uns aprbs les autres, et cette manoeuvre dura environ une demiheure On apporta ensuite soixante h quatrevingts perches d'aune, telles et plus longues encore que celles dont nous nous servons pour les couvertures de nos toits en chaumc Le marie en prit une le premier, et il courut ventre Jl terre vers la planche, pour I'y briser Elle plioit et bran loit dans sa main ; aussi la rompitil sans eflfort Alors s't^levbrent des cris de joie, et les instrumens de musique, qui dtoient des nacaires, comme chez les Turcs, se firent entendre Chacun des autres cavaliers vint de m£me prendre sa perche et la rompre Enfin le marid en fit lier ensemble deux, qui h la vdritd n'dtoient pas trop fortes, et il les brisa encore sans se blesser* Ainsi finit vendue par Jean aux Anglais, qui la firent brdler vive I'ann^e suivante Cette vengeance atroce avoit retenti dans toute I'Europe A Constantinople le bruit public I'nttribuoit au due ; mais les Grecs ne pouvuient croire qu'un prince Chretien eflt ^t^ capable d'un pareille horreur, et leur sembloil, dit I'auteur, que c'estoit une chose impossible * La Brocqui^re devoit trouver ces joutes ridicules, porce qu'il i^toit accou tuine aux tournois de France, oil des chevaliers tout couverts de fer se battoient avec des dpees, des lances, des massues, et ou trisfrequemment il y avoit des hommes tuds, blesses ou ^erases sous les pieds des chevnux C'est ce qui lui fait dire par deux fols que dans la joute des perches il n'y eut personne de bless^ J I %imm mm JVaffii/Mts, and Dtscoutnti •73 ,1 la fite, et chacun retourna chez soi «ain et sauf I''nii<<:reur ct son Spouse ctoicnt h une fcn£tre |M)ur la voir Jc m'^tois propostS de partir avcc ce niessire HcniVJicl de Four lino, qui, comnie je I'ai dit, dtoit envoyc en ambassadv vers !e Turc par Ic due de Milan II avoit avec lui un gcntiihomniu du due, nomni^ Jean Visconti, sept autres personnes, ct dix chcvaux de suite, parce ({ue, quand on voyage en Grccc, it fnut porter sans exception tout cc dont on peut avoir bcsoin Je sortis de Constantinople le aj Janvier 1433, et traversal d'abord Rigory, passage jadis assez fort, et forme par une valk'e dans laquelle s'avnnce un bras de mcr qui peut hicn avoir vingt miiles de longueur II y avoit une tour ([ue les 'lures ont abattue II y reste un pont, une chaussee ct un village de Orecs Pour arriver Ji Constantinojilc par terre on n'a ([ue ce passage, el un autre un peu plus bas que ccluici, plus fort encore, et sur une rivifcre qui vient l\ se jeter dans la mer De Rigory j'allai i Thiras, habile pareillement par des Grecs, jadis bonne ville, et passage aussi fort que le precedent, parce qu'il est forme de meme par la mer A chaque bout du pont ^toit une grosse tour La tour et la ville, tout a etc detruit par les Turcs De Thiras je me rendis i Salubrie Cette ville, siluee ;\ deux journees de Constantinople, a un petit port sur le golfe cjui s'ctend depuis ce dernier lieu jiisqu'i Galipoly Les Turcs n'ont pu la prendre, ([uoique du cote de la mer elle ne soil nas forte Kile appartient i I'empereur, linsi que le pays jusquelJi; niaisce pays, tout ruine, n'a que d^s villages |)auvres De IJi je vins i Chourleu, jadis considerable, detruit par les Turcs et peuple de Turcs et de (jrecs ; De Chourleu i Mist^rio, petite place fermee ; il n'y a que des Grecs, avec un seul Turc i\ (jui son prince I'a donnee ; De MistiJrio \ Pirgasy, oil il ne dt^cuie que des Turcs, et dont les murs sont abattus ; De Pirgasy a Zambry, egrlcment detruite ; De Zambry h Andrciiopoly (Andrinople), grsnde ville mar chande, bien peuplee, ct ^ ituee sur une trhs yr lise riviere (ju'cr nomme la Marisce, \ aix journees de Conbtuninople C'est la plus forte de toutes cellci que le Turc possfede dans la Grfece, et c'est celle qu'il habite le plus volontiers Le seigneur ou lieu tenant de Grfece (le gouverneur) y fait aussi son sejour, et Ton y trouve plusieurs marchands ViJnitiens, Catalans, Genois et Floren >74 Nauigations, Voyages, tins Depuis Constantinople jusque \h, le pays est bon, bien arrest, mais mal peupl^ ; il a des valines fertiles, et produit de tout, except^ du bois Le Turc etoit h Lessfere, grosse villa en Pyrrhe, prfes du lieu de Thessalie oil se livra la bataille entre C^sar et Ponip^e, et messire Benedicto prit cette route pour se rendrc aupr6s de lui Nous passdmcs la Marisce en bateaux, et rencontrdmes, a peu de distance, cinquante de ses femmes, accompagndes d'environ seize eunuques, qui nous apprirent qu'ils les conduisoient h Andrinople, oil lui menie se proposoit de venir bientot J'allaid Dymodique, bonne vilie, fermee d'une double enceinte de murailles EUe est fortifi^e d'un cot^ par una rivibre, et de I'autre par un grand et fort chateau construit sur une hauteur presque ronde, et qui, dans son circuit, pent bien renfermer trois cents maisons Le chdteau a un donjon oil le Turc, m'aton dit, tient son tresor De Dymodique je me rendis Ypsala, assez grande ville, mais totalemcnt d^truite, et oii je passai la Marisce une seconde fois* Elle est h deux journees d' Andrinople Le pays, dans tout cet espace, est marecageux et difficile pour les chevaux Ayne, audeli d'Ypsala, est sur la mer, h I'embouchure de la Marisce, qui a bien en cet endroit deu\ milles de large Au terns de TroyelaGrant, ce fut une puissante cit^, qui avoit son roi : niaintenant elle a pour seigneur le frfere du seigneur de Matelin, qui est tributaire du Turc Sur une butte ronde on y voit un tonibeau qu'on dit etre celui de Polydore, le plus jeune des fils de Priam La p^re, pendant le sitJge de Troie, avoit envoy^ son fils au roi d'Ayne, avec de grands tresors ; mais, aprbs la destruction da la ville, le voi, tant par crainte des Grecs que par convoitise des tresors, fit mourir le jeune prince A Ayne je passai la Marisce sur un gros batiment, et me rendis h Macry, autre ville maritime h I'occident de la premibre, et habitee de Turcs et de Grecs Elle est prfes de Tile de Samandra, qui appartient au seigneur d'Ayne, et elle paroit avoir et^ autrefois trfesconsiderable ; niaintenant tout y est en mines, k I'exception d'une partie du chiteau * Ici le copiste ccrit la Maresce, plus haul il nvoit mis Maresche, et plus haul encore Mn> isce Ccs variations d'orthographe sent infiniment communes dans nos manuscrits, et jouvent d'une phrase k I'autre J'en ai fait la remarque dans mon discours prcliminaire I ? k Traffiques, and Discouenes '75 Caumissin, qu'on trouve ensuite aprfes avoir traverse una nion tagne, a de bons murs, qui la rendent assez forte, quoique petite Elle est sur un ruisseau, en beau et plat pays, ferm(5 par d'autros niontagnes k I'Dccident, et ce pays s'^tend, dans un espace de cincj II six journdes, jusqu'^ I^ssbre Missy fut ^galement et forte et bien close ; mais une partie de ses murs sont abattus ; tout y a dte deiruit, et elle n'a point d'habitans Pdritoq, ville ancienne et autrefois considerable, est sur un golfe qui s'avance dans les terrt' d'environ ciuarante milles, et qui part de MonteSanto, oii sont tant de caloyers Elle a des Grecs pour habilans, et pour defense de bonnes niurailles, qui cependant sont entamees par de grandes breches, De li, pour aller h Lessfere, le chemin est une grande plaine C'est prfcs de Lessbre, diton, que sc livra la grande bataille de Tliessale (de Pharsale) Je n'allai point jusqu'i cette derniere ville Instruits que le Turc etoit en route, nous I'atlendtmes k Yamgbatsar, village con struit par ses sujets II n'arriva que le troisienie jour Son escorte, (]uand il marchoit, etoit de tjuatre h cinq cents chevaux ; mais comme il aimoit passionn^ment la chasse au vol, la plus grande partie de cette troupe etoit conqiosee de fauconniers et d'ostriciers (autoursiers), gens dont il faisoit un grand cas, et dont il entretenoit, me diton, ])lus de deux mille Avec ce goilt il ne faisoit que de petites journees, et ses marches n'etoient pour lui ipi'un objet d'amusement et de plaisir II enlra dans Yamgbatsar avec de la pluie, n'ayant pour cortege qu'une cinquantaine de cavaliers avec douze archers, ses esclaves, (jui marchoient k pied devant lui Son habillement etoit une robe de velours cramoisi, fourree de martre zibeline, et sur la tete il portoit, comme les Turcs, un chapeau rouge ; mais, pour se garantir de la pluie, pardessus sa robe il en avoit mis une autre de velours, en guise de manteau, selon la mode du pays II campa sous un pavilion (ju'cn avoit apportd ; car nulle part on ne trouve i loger, nulle (lart on ne trouve de vivres que dans les grandes villes, et, en voyage, chacun est oblige de porter tout ce qui lui est necessaire Pour lui, il avoit un grand train de chameaux et d'autres betes de somme L'aprfesdJnde il sortit pour aller prendre un bain, et je le vis i\ mon aipe II etoit k cheval, avec son nieme chapeau et sa robe cramoisie, accompagne de six personnes a pied ; je I'entendis M 176 Nautgattons, Voyages, 1 i meme parler a ses gens, et il me parut avoir la parole lourde C'est un prince de vingthuit i trente ans, qui ddja devient trfesgras L'ambassadeur lui fit demander par un des siens s'il pourroit avoir de lui une audience et lui offrir les pr^sens qu'il apportoit II fit r^ixjnre qu'allant h ses plaisirs il no vouloit point entedre parler d'affaires ; que d'ailieurs ses bayschas (bachas) <5toient absens, et que l'ambassadeur n'avoit qu'ii les attendre ou aller ratteiidre luimenie dans Andrinople Messire Benedict prit ce dernier parti En consequence nous retournames h Caumissin, et de \\ aprfes avoir repasse la montagne dont j'ai parle, nous vinmes gagner un passage form^ par deux haules rochcs cntre lesquelles coule une rivifere Pour le garder on avoit construit sur I'une des roches un fort chdteau notnmii Coulony, qui nirintenant est detruit presqiie en entier I; i f 178 Nauigattons, Voyages, vouloit employer contra elle la puissance et les revenus dont il jouit, ce lui seroit chose facile d'en conqu^rir une trfesgrande partie* Un de ses goflts favoris est la chasse aux chiens et aux oiseaux II a, diton, plus de mille chiens et plus de deux mille oiseaux dressds, et de diverses espfeces ; j'en ai vu moimeme "me trfes grande partie II aime beaucoup i boire, et aime ceux qui boivent biet;, Four lui, il va sans peine jusqu'il dix ou douze grondils dc vin : ce qui fait six ou sept quartest C'est quand il a bien bu qii'il devient liberal et qu'il distribue ses grands dons : aussi ses gens sontils tr^saises de le voir demander du vin L'annde dtrniere il y eut un Maure qui s'avisa de venir le precher sur cet objet et qui lui representa que cette liqueur ^tant d^fendue par k prophtte, ceux qui en buvoient n'etoirnt pas de bons Samiins: pourtoute r^ponse il le fit niettre en prison, puis chasser de ses ^tats, avec defense d'y jamais remettre les pieds Au goflt pour les fenn"^ il joint celui des jeunes gar^ons II a trois cents des preinicius i' une trentaine des aulres; nais il se plait di" • intage ave>: rcuxci Quand ils sont grands il les i^com pense par de riches ;' ~,:ij el des seigneuries : il y en a un auquel il a donnt? en inariage I'une de ses sceurs, avec vingtcinq mille ducats de revenu Certains personnes font rnonter son trfesor Ji un demimillion de de ducats, d'autres h un million II en a en outre un second, qui consiste en esclaves, en vaissel);, etprincipalement enjoyauxpour ses femmes Ce dernier article est estim^ seul un million d'or Moi, je suis convaincu que s'il tenoit sa main fermc^e pendant un * Le Sultan dont la Brocquiere fait ici mention, et qu'il a ilc'signc cidevant sous le non d'AniouratBay, est Amurat II, I'un des princes Ottomans les plus celebres L'histoire cite dc lui plusicurs conquetes qui i la veritc sont la plupart postcrieures au temps dont parle ici la relation S'il n'cn a point lait (lavantage, c'est qu'il eut en tete Iluniade et Scanderberg D'ailleurs sa gloire fut eclipsee par telle de son fils, le fameux Mahomet II, la terreur des rhretiens, surnomnie le grand par sa nation, et qui, vingt ans apres, en 1453, prit Cinstantinople, et dctruisit le pei qui subsistoit encore de I'empire Grec + 1, f quarte s'apptloit ainsi, parcc qu'elle c'toit Ic quart du chenet, qui con tenuii quatre pots et une pinte Le pot ctoit de Icux pintes, et par consequent la quarte faisoit deux bouteiiles, plus un dcmisetier; et douze grondils, vingt ir lis bouteiiles t4|S3Bc!tlt mum Traffiques, and Diseouenes '79 an, et qu'il s'abslint de donner ainsi h I'aveugle, il ^pargneroit lii million de ducats sans faire tort a personne De temps en temps il fait de grands exemples de justice bien remarquables ; ce qui lui procure d'etre parfaitement obei tant dans son int^rieur qu'audehors D'ailleurs il sait maintenir son pays dins un excellent dtat de defense, et il n'emploie vish vis de ses sujets Turcs ni taille ni 'lucun genre d'extorsion* Sa maison est composde de cinq mille personnes tant ;\ pied qu'il cheval ; mais h I'armde il n'augmente en rien leurs gages : de sorte qu'en guerre il ne depense pas plus qii'en paix Ses principaux officiers sont trois bascha? on visiersbichas (visirsbachas) Le visir est un conseiller ; le bacha, uiie sorte de chef ou ordonnateur Ces trois personnages sont charges de tout ce qui concerne sa personne on sa maison, et on ne i^eut lui parler que par leur entremise Quand il est en Grice, c'est le seigneur de Grfece (le gouverneur) qui a I'insjjt 'ion fur les f^ens de guerre ; quand il est en Turquie, I'est 1 3 stign r de Tn [uie II a donntJ de grandes seigneuries; mais il ;"^ut k retirer J on gr^ D'ailleurs ceux auxquels il les accord^ ,on* tonus de le servir en guerre avec un certain nonibre de troupes i leurs frais C'est ainsi que, tous les ans, ceux de Grfece lui foiiniiss,;n; trente mille hommes qu'il pet' mployer et conduire \>:v ijut cu bon lui semble; et ceux de jrquie dix mille, auxquels ii na , le des vivres k fournir Veu il former une armde plus considerable, la Grfece seule, m'aton dit, peut alors lui donner ceni vingt mille hommes; mais ceux i i, il est obligd de les soudoyer I^ paie est de cinq aspers pour un fantassin, de huit pour un cavalier Cependant j'af entendu dire quesurces cent vingt mille hommes il n'y en avoit je la moitie, c'estkdire les gens de cheval, qui fussent en bon ciat, bien arm^s de tarquais et depee; le rcsteest compose de gens de pied mal equippds Celui d'entre eux qui a une dpde n'a point d'arc, celui qui a un arc n'a ni ^p^e ni arme quelconque, beaucoi'p meme n'ont qu'un baton El il en est ainsi des pistons que fournit la Turquie : la moitie n'esi vrmeo que de bdtons ; cependant ces pistons Turcs sont plus estimes 1 lue les Grecs, et ineilleurs soldats •Ceci est une satirt • lirccte des gouvernenien? d'Europe, oil chaque jout les rois, et meme les sei^^ieurs parliculiers, vcxoient ce qu'ils appifloient leurs hommes ou leurs sujets par des Liilles arbitraires et des milliers d'impots dont \ei noms etoienl aussi bizarres que I'assiette et la perception en etoicnt abusives II » J i ill ^ [41 k I So Nautgations, Voyages, \i D'autres personnes dont je regarde le temoignage comme veri table m'ont dit depuis que Its troupes qu'annuellement la Turquie est obligde de fournir quand le seigneur veut former son crmee, montent h trente mille hommes, et telles de Grfece k vingt mille, sans compter deux ou trois mille esclaves qui sont h lui, et qu'il arme bien Parmi ces esclaves il y a beaucoup de Chretiens II y en a aussi beaucoup dans les troupes Grecques : les uns Albaniens, les autres Bulgares ou d'autres contrdes C'est ainsi que dans la dernifere armee de Grece i) se trouva trois mille chevaux de Servie, que le dcspote de cette provinc* 'nvoya sous le commandement d'un de sts fils C'est bien h regret que tous ces gensli viennent le servir ; niaia ils n'oseroient refuser 1 ,es bachas arriv^rent a Andrinople trois jours aprfes leur seig neur, et ih y amenoient avec eux une partie de ses gens et de son bagage Ce bagage consiste en une centaine de chameaux et deux cent cinquante, tant mulcts que sommiers, parce que la nation ne fait point usage de chariots Messire B(?nedict, qui desiroit avoir de lui une audience, fit demander aux bachas s'il pouvoit les voir, et ils repondirent que non La raison de ce refus dtoit qu'ils avoient bu avec leur neigneur, et qu'ils etoient ivres ainsi que lui Cependant 'Is envoybrent le lendemain chez I'ambassadeur pour le prevcnir qu'ils ^toient visibles, et il se rendit aussitot chez chacun d'eux avec des pr^sens : telle est la coutume ; on ne peut leur parler sans apporter quelque chose,_et il en est de meme pour les esclaves jui gardent leurs portes Je I'accompagnai dans cette visite Lc jour suivant, dans I'apresdtnee, ils lui firent dire qu'il p(ivoit venir au palais II monta aussitot h cheval pour s'y rendre avec sa suite, et je me joignis k elle: mais nous etions tous h pied ; lui seul avoit un cheval Devant la cour nous trouv^nies une grande quantite d'hommes et de chevaux La porte ^toit gardee par une trentaine d'esclaves sous le gouvernement d'un chef, ct armes de batons Si quelqu'un sc prt^sente i)0ur entrer sans permission, ils lui disent de se retirer; s'il msiste, ils !e chassent a coups de baton Ce que nous appelons la cour du roi, les Turcs I'appellent porte du seit^neur Toutes les fois que le seigneur re(;oit un message ou ambassade, ce qui lui arrive presque tous les jours, il fait porte Faire porte est pour lui ce qu'est pour nos rois ':',e France tenir etat royal et cour ouverte, quoique cependant il y ait entre les ars eJWSS&^BiiC 3SCr;f2??af'l, Traffii/ues, and Discoiienes i8i deux c^r^monies beaucoup ile diil'^rence, comme jc \c dirai toiit a1'heure Quand I'ambassadeur fut entre on le fit asseoir pres de la portc avec beaucoup d'autres personnes qui attcndoient (pie le niaitre sortit de sa chambre pour faire ])orie D'abord Ics trois haclias entrerent avec le gouverneur de (Irfece et autres ([u'lls apjiellent seigneurs Sa chambre donnoit sur une trcsgrande cour I,c gouverneur alia I'y attendre II parut Son vetement ctoit, selon I'usage, une robe de satin crainoisi, pardessus laquelle il en avoit, comme manteau, une autre de satin vert i figures, fourree de martre zibeline Ses jeunes garc^ons raccompagnoient ; niais ils ne le suivirent que jusqu a I'entree de la piece, et rentrbrent II ne resta pres de lui qu'un jietit nain ct deux jeunes gens qui faisoient les fous* II traversa Tangle de la cour, et vmt dans une galerie oii Ton avoit pr^pard un siege pour lui C'etoit une sorte de couche couverte en velours (un sopha), oil il avoit quatre ou cincj degres i\ rnonter II alia s'y asseoir a la nianierc Turc[ue, comme nos tailleurs ([uand ils tnivaillent, et aussitot les trois baclias vinrent prendre jjlace ;\ peu de distance de lui I,es autres officiers ([ui dans ces joursla font partie de son cortege entrerent egaicment dans la galerie, et ils alierent se ranger le long des murs, aussi loin de lui qu'ils le purent En dehors, niais en face, etoient assis vingt gentilshommes Valaques, detenus a sa suite comme otages du pays Dans I'interieur de la salle on avoit place une centaine de grands plats d'etain, cjui chacun contenoient ime piece de mouton et du riz Quand tout le monde fut place on fit cntrer un seigneur du royaunie de Bossene (Bosnie), letjuel pretendoit que la couronne de ce pays lui ippartenoit : en consequence il etoit venu en faire hommage au Turc et lui demander du secours contre le roi On le mena prendre place auprfcs des bachas; on introduisit ses gens, et Ton fit venir I'ambassadeur du due de Milan 11 i)artit suivi dc ses piesens, qu'on alia placer prl's des plats d'etain I a, des gens preposes pour les recevoir, les prirentet les levferent audessus de leurs tetes aussi haut qu'ils le purent, afin que le seigneur et si cour pussent les voir Pendant ce temps, * L'usage d'avoir des nains et des fous I'loit tresancien dans les cours d'Oricnt II avoit passu avec les croisades dans celles des princes chrt'tiens d'Kuro|,e, et dura en France, pour les fous, jus(|u'a Louis XIV i >l :« ! t8> Naui^ations Voyages, messire Bdnddict avan^oit lentement vers la galerie Un homme de distinction vint audevant de iu< pour I'y introduire En entrant il fit une reverence sans oter Tauniusse qu'il avoit sur la tetc ; arriv<5 prfcs des degres, il en fil u:ic autre trfesprofonc'i Alors le seigneur se leva : il descendit deux marches pour s'approcher de rambassadeur :;t le prit par la main C'iluici voulut lui baiscr la sienne ; mais il s'y refusa, et demandi, par la voie d'un interprete Jiiif qui savoit le Turc el I'ltalien, comment se pi toit son bon frfere et voisin le due de Milan L'ambassadeur repondit h cette question ; aprfes quoi on le mena prendre place pr^j du Kosnien, niais 5 reculons, selon I'usage, et toujours le visage tourn^ vers le prince Le seigneur attendit, pour se rasseoir, qu'il fQt issis Alors les diverses personnes de service qui (^toient dans la salle se mirent par terre, et I'introducteur qui I'avoit fait entrer alia nous chercher, nous autres qui Ibrmions sa suite, ot il nous pla^a pri;s des Bosniens Pendant ce temps on attachoit au seigneur une serviette en soie ; on pla^oit devant lui une pifece de cuir rouge, ronde et mince, parce que leur coulume est de ne manger que sur des nappes de cuir ; puis on lui apporta de la viande cuite, sur deux plats do(5s Lorsqu'il fut servi, les gens de service allferent prendre les plats d'etain dont j'ai parte, et ils les distribuferent par la salle aux personnes qui s'y trouvoient : un plat pour quatre II y avoit dans chacun un morceau de mouton et du riz clair, mais point de pain et rien a boire Cependant j'aper9us dans un coin de la cour un hauc buffet h gradins qui portoit un peu de vaisselle, et au pied duquel dtoit un grand vase d'argent en forme de calice Je vis plusieurs gens y boire ; mais j'ignore si c'^toit de I'eau ou du vin Quant a la viande des plats, quelquesuns ygoflibicnt; d'autres, non : mais, avant qu'ils fussent tous servis, il fallut desservir, parce que le maitre n'avoit point voulu manger Jamais il ne prend rien en public, et il y a trfespeu de personnes qui puissent se vanter de I'avoir entendu parler, ou vu manger ou boire II sortit, et alors se firent entendre des mdnestrels (musiciens) qui dtoient dans la cour, pr^s du buffet Ils touchbrenl des instrumens et chantferent des chansons de gestes, dans lesquelles ils celdbroient les grandes actions des guerriers Turcs A mesure que ceux de la galerie entendoient quelque chose qui leur plaisoit, ils poussoient h leur manifere des cris dpouvantables 'I Traffiques, and Diseoueries, 183 J'ignorois (juels dtoient les instrumens dont on jouoit: j'allai dans la cour, et je vis qu'ils t'toient ;\ cordes et fort grands Les mdnestrels vinrent dans la salle, oii ils mangbrent ce qui s y trouvoit Enfin on desservit ; rhacun se leva, et rambassadcur se retira sans avoir dit un mot de son ambassade : ce (jui, pour la premifere audience, est de coutume Une autre coutume encore est (jue quand un ambassadeur a €\€ prdsent^ au seigneur, celuici, juscju'h ce qu'il ait fait sa r^ponse, lui envoie de quoi fournir \ sa depense ; et cette somnie est de deux certs aspers Le lendemain done un des gens du tr(5sorier, cfluil\ meme qui dtoit venu prendre messire Benedict pour le conduire Ji la cour, vint lui apporter la sommc : niais peu aprfes les enclaves qui gardent la ])orte vinrent chercher ce (ju'en pareil cas il est d'usage de leurdonner, et au reste ils se contentent de peu Le troisifcme jour, les bachas lui firent savoir qu'ils etoient prets i apprendre de lui le sujct (jui I'amcnoit II se rendit aussitot i la cour, et je I'y acconipagnai Deja le niaitre avoit tenu son audience ; il venoit de se retirer, et les bachas seuls etoient restes avec le bd^uelar ou seigneur de drece Quand nous eflmes passe la jwrte nous les irouvames tous quatre assis en dehors de la galerie, sur un piece de bois qui se trouvoit la lis cnvoytirent dire ;\ ranibassideur d'a])procher On niit par terre, devant eux, un ta])is, et ils I'y firent asseoir comme un criniinel qui est devant son juge Cei)endant il y avoit dans le lieu une assez grande quantity de monde II leur exposa le sujet de sa mission, qui consistoit, ni'iton dit, i prier leur maitre, de la part du due de Milan, de voiiloir bien abandonner il I'empereur Remain Sigismond la Hongrie, la Valaquie, toute la Bulgarie jusqu'a So])hie, le royaume de Bosnie, et la jiartie qu'il ])ossedoit d'Albanie d^pendante d'EscKivonie Ils r(^pondirent qu'ils ne pnuvoient pour le moment en instruire leur seigneur, parcc qu'il etoit occupe ; mais ([ue dans dix jours ils feroient connoitre sa rcponse, s'il la leur avoit donni^e C'est encore la une chose d'usage, que d^s le moment oil un ambas sadeur est annoncd tel, il ne peut plus parler au jirince ; et ce rfeglement a lieu depuis (]ue le grandpt're de celuici a peri de la main d'un ambassadeur de Servie L'envoye etoit venu solliciter auprfes de lui quelque adoucissement en faveur de ses compatriotes, que le prince vouloit reduire en servitude Desespere de ne « ! i ( 184 i/auigations, Voyagts, pouvoir ricn obtenir, il le tua, et fut luimeme massacr^ & I'instant* I^ dixifcme jour, nous allinies h la cour chcrcher rdponse I^ seigneur (!toit, comme la premibre fois, sur son sid^e ; mais il n'y avoit avec lui dans la galerie que ceux do scs gens qui lui servoient ^ manger Je n'y vis ni bufTet, ni mdnestrels, ni Ic seigneur dc Uosnie, ni les Valaques; mais seulemcnt Magnoly, fr^re du due de Chifalonie (Ct^phalonic), qui se conduit envers le prince commc un serviteur bien rcspectueux Les bachas eux meme dtoient en dehors, debout et fort loin, ainsi que la plupart des personnes que j'avois vues autrefois dans rint(5rieur; encore leur nombre dtoitil beaucoup moindre On nous fit attendre en dehors Pendant cc temps, le grand cadi, avec scs autres associds, rendoit justice I la porte extdrieure de la cour, et j'y vis venir devant lui des Chretiens etrangcrs pour plaider leur cau^e Mais quand le seigneur sc leva, les juges leverent aussi leur seance, et se retirJjrcnt chez eux Pour lui, je le vis passer avec tout son cortege dans la grande cour ; ce que je n'avois pu voir la premiere fois 11 porloit une robe de drap d'or, verte et peu riche, et il me parut avoir la dmarche vive •Le gramlpere d'Amurnlh II est Bnjszst I", qui niourut prisonnier de Tamerlun, suit qu'il ait i\& trnlte avec cgards par son vainq''ciir, cunima le veulent certains ecrivuins, suit qu'il ait peri dins une cage de fer, comme !e prelendent d'nutres : ainsi I'historiette de I'ambassndeur de Servic ne pent le regarder Mais on lit dons la vie d'Amuralh Ic, pirr de Bajazet, et par con sequent hisaieul d'Amurath II, un fait qui a pu donner lieu k la fabi? de I'assassinat Ce prince, en 1389, venoit de remportcr sur Ic despute de Servie une vicloire signalde dans laquelle il I'avoit fait prisonnier, et il par couroit le champ de bataille quand, passant aupres d'un soldat Treballien blcssc k mort, celuici le reconnott, ranime ses forces et le poignarde Selon d'autres auteurs, le despote, oui se nonimoit Lazare ou Eluazar Bul cowitz, !e voit attaque par une puissante arm^e d'Amurath Hors d'(!tat de resister, il emploie la trahison : il gagne un des grands seigneurs de sa cour, qui feint de passer dans le parti du sultan, et I'assassine (Ducange, Familix Bisant p 334) Knfin, selon une autre relation, Amurnth fut tu^ dans le combat ; mais Lnzare, fait prisonnier par les Turcs, est par eux coupe en morceaux sur le cadavre sanglant de leur mattre II paruit, d'apris le it^cit de la Brocquiere, ^ue la version de I'assassinat du sultan par le Servien A la veritable C'est au nioins ce que paroissent proHver les precautions prises i la cour Ottumane centre les ambassadeurs etrangers Aujourd'hui encore, quand ils paroissent devant le souverain, on les tient par la manche f;, TVaffii/ues, and Diseouenti, 18S Dfes qu'il fut rentr^ dans sa chambre, les hachas, assis, ronime la fois prtfcddente, sur la piece dc bois, firent vcnir i'ambassadeur Ieur r^ponse fut que leur niaitre Ic chargeoit de salucr pour lui son frtre le due de Milan ; (ju'll dcsircroit faire beaucoup en sa faveur, mais cpie sa demandc en ce moment n'tJtoit point raison nable ; que, par tjgard |)our lui, leur dit seigneur s'etoit souvent abstenu de faire dans le royaume de Hongrie de grandes con quotes, qui d'ailleurs lui cusscnt |)eu coQte, et (|uc co sacrifice devoit suffire ; ([ue ce seroit pour lui chose fort dure de rendre ce (lu'il avoit gagn^ par I't'piJe; (pie, dans les circonstanccs |)ri;sentes, lui et ses soldats n'avoient, |)our occuper leur courage, (pic les possessions de rcmpereur et ([u'ils y renon(^oient d'autant moins ([ue jusqu'alors ils ne s'etoient jamais trouves en presence sans I'avoir baltu ou vu fuir, comme tout le mondc le savoit En effet, i'ambassadeur 6loit instruit de ccs details A la dernifcre d^faite qu'<5prouva Sigismond dcvant Couloubath, il avoit dt^ temoin de son desastre; il avoit niijmc, la veiile dc la bataille, (iuitt(5 son camp pour se rendre aupres du Turc Dans nos entreliens il me conta sur tout cela beaucoup de particularitcs Je vis ^galement deux arbaltitriers (itnois ([ui s'etoient trouv(;s i\ ce combat, et qui me racontercnt comment I'empereur et son armi^e repassferent le Danube sur ces galeres Aprfcs avoir re(,u la r^po'ise des bachas, I'ambassadeur revint chez lui ; mais h peine y »5toitil arrivi; (ju'il re(,ut, de la part du seigneur, cinq mille aspres avec une robe de camocas cramoisi, doubl^e de boccassin jaune Trentesix aspres valent un ducat de Venise ; mais sur les cinq mille le tr('sorier qui les d(;livra en retint dix par cent pour droits dc sa charge Je vis aussi pendant nion s^jour ;\ Andrinople un pr(5sent d'un autre genre, fait (^galement par le seigneur \ une mariee, le jour de ses noces Cette mari('e etoit la fille du beguelarbay, gouver neur de la Grfcce, et c'^toit la fille d'un des bachas qui, accom pagnt^'C de trente et quelques autres fenimcs, avoit i\i charg^e de le presenter Son vetement etoit un tissu d'or cramoisi, et elle avoit le visage couvert, selon I'usage de la nation, d'un voile tres riche et ornde de pierreries Ies dames portoient de nieme de magnifiques voiles, et pour habillement les unes avoient des robes de velours cramoisi, les autres des robes de drap d'or sans fourrures Toutes ^toient il cheval, jambe de^a, jambe de la, comme des hommes, et plusieurs avoient de superbes selles En avant et K la tete de la troupe marchoient treize ou VOL X z t n IMAGE EVALUATION TEST TARGET (MT3) 10 II lli|M IIS itt lii |22 Hi wm Ui ts& I 20 L25 114 116 ^4' Photographic Sdences Corporation 23 WeST MAIN STMET WnSTII,NY 14SM (716)t724S03 1 86 NauigatioHS, Voyages, quatorze cavaliers et deux m^nestrels, ^galement k cheval, ainsi que quelques autres musiciens qui portoient une trompette, un trbsgrand tambour et environ huit paires de timbales Tout cela faisoit un bruit afTreux Apr&s les musiciens venoit le present, et apr^s le pr^nt, les dames Ce present consistoit en soixantedix grands plateaux d'etain charges de diff^rentes sortcs de confitures et de compotes, et vingthuit autres dont chacun portoit un mouton ^orch^ Les moutons etoicnt peints en blanc et en rouge, et tous avoient un anneau d'argent suspendu au nez et deux autres aux oreilles J'eus occasian de voir aussi d?ns Andrinoplc des chatnes de Chretiens qu'on amenoit vendre lis demandoient I'aumone dans les rues Mais le cceur saigne quand on songe k tout ce qu'ils soufTrent de maux Nous quittames la ville Ic 1 2 de Mars, sous la conduile d'un esclave que le seigneur avoit donn^ h I'ambassadeur pour I'accom pagner Cet homme nous fut en route d'une grande utility, sur tout pour les logemens ; car partout oil il demandoit quelque chose pour nous, ^ I'instant on s'empressoit de nous I'accorder Notre premibre journee fut II travers un beau pays, en remontant le long de la Marisce, que nous passdmes h un bac I^ seconde, quoiqu'avec bons chemins, fut employee h traverser des bois Enfin nous entrames dans le luys de Macedoine Lu je trouvai une grande plaine entre deux montagnes, laquelle i^eut bien avoir quarante milles de large, et qui est arrosee par la Marisce J'y rencontrai quinze hommes et dix femmes enchatn^s par le cou C'etoient des habitans du royaume de Bosnie que des Turcs venoient d'enlever dans une course qu'ils avoient faite Deux d'entre eux les menoient vendre dans drinople Peu aprts j'arrivai ii Pheropoly,* capitale de la Mac<^doine, et batie par le roi Philippe EUe est sur la Marisce, dans une grande plaine et un excellent pays, oti Ton trouve toutes sortes de vivres et h bon compte Ce fut jadis une ville considt^rable, et elle Test encore, Elle renferme trois montagnes, dont deux sont ^ une extr^mit^ vers le midi, et I'autre au centre Sur celleci etoit construit un grand chdteau en forme de croissant allong^ ; niais il a ^te detruit On me montra I'emplacement du palais du * C'est une erreur de copiste : luimvme, (|»elques lignes plus bas, a ecrit I'hclippopoly, et en eflet c'est de Philippopoli qu'il est mention I II Traffigues, and Discoueries 187 roi Philippe, qu'on a de mSme ddmoli, et dont les niurs subsistent encore Phiiippopoli est peuplfe en grande partie de Bulgares qui tiennent la loi Gr^goise (qui suivent la religion Grecque) Pour en sortir je passai la Marisce sur un pont, et chevauchai pendant une journde toute entiere i travers cetle plaine dont j'ai parl^ ; elle aboutit \ une niontagne longue de seize \ vingt milles, et couverte de hois Ce lieu ^toit autrefois infestd de voleurs, et tr^sdangereux ^ passer Le Turc a ordonn^ que quiconque y habiteroit fut Franc, et en consdcjuence il s'y est dlevd deuxVillages peupl^s de Bulgares, et dont I'un est sur les conf^ns de Bulgarie et de Macddoine Je passai la nuit dans le premi^i Apres avoir traverse la montigne, on trouve une plaine de six milles de long sur deux de large ; i)uis une for^t qui peut bien en avoir seize de longueur ; puis une autre grande plaine totalement close de montagnes, bien peuplee de Bulgares, et ou Ton a une riviere i traverser Enfin j'arrivai en trois jours h une ville nomm^e Sophie, qui fut autrefois trtsconsid^rable, ainsi qu'on le voit par les d(Jbris de ses murs rases jusqu'i terre, et qui aujourd' hui encore est la meilleure de la Bulgarie Elte a un petit chateau, et se trouve assez prbs d'unc niontagne au midi, niais situee au commencement d'une grande plaine d'environ soixante milles de long sur dix de large Ses habitans sont pour la plupart des Bulgares, et il en est de meme des villages Les Turcs n'y fer ment que le trfcspetit nombre ; ce qui donne aux autres un grand desir de se tirer de servitude, s'ils pouvoient trouver qui les aiddt J'y vis arriver des Turcs qui venoient de faire une course en Hongrie U n G^nois qui se trouvoit dans la ville, et qu'on nomme Nicolas Ciba, me raconta qu'il avoit vu revenir ^galcment ceux qui repassferent le Danube, et que sur dix il n'y en avoit pas un qui eit \ la fois un arc et une ^pde Pour moi, je dirai que parmi ceuxci j'en trouvai beaucoup plus n'ayant ou ([u'un arc ou ([u'une dpee seulement, que de ceux qui eussent les deux amies ensemble Les mieux fournis portoient une petite targe (bouclicr) en bois En v^rit^ c'est pour la chrt^tient^ une grande honte, il faut en convenir, qu'clle se laisse subjuguer par de telles gens lis sont bien audessous de ce qu'on les croit En sortant de Sophie je traversal pendant cinquante milles cette plaine dont j'ai fait mention Le pays est bien peupM, et les habitans sont des Bulgares de religion Grecque J'eus ensuite un pays de montagnes, qui cependant est assez bon pour le cheval; puis je trouvai en plaine une trespetite ville nommee i i I a 188 Nauigaltons, Voyages, Pirotte, situ^e sur !a Nissave Elle ii'est point ferm^e ; mais elle a iin petit chdteau qui, d'une part est defendu par la riviere, et de I'autre ]>ar un mantis Au nord est une montagne U n'y a d'habitans que quelques Turcs Audelil de Pirotte on retrouve un pays montagneux; aprt:s i|Uoi I'on revient sur ses pas |JOur se rapprocher de la Nissave, qui traverse une belle valine entre deux assez hautes montagnes Au pied d'une des deux etoit la ville d'Vsvouri^re, aujourd'hui totalement d^truite, ainsi que ses niurs On cotoie ensuite la riviere, en suivant la valine ; on trouve une autre montagne dont le passage est difficile, quoiqu'il y passe chars et charrettes Enfin on arrive dans une xa\\€c agreable qu'arrose encore la Nissave ; et apres avoir traverse la riviere sur un pont, on entre dans Nisce (Nissa) Cette ville, qui avoit un beau chAteau, appertenoit au despote de Servie Le Tare I'a prise de force il y a cinq ans, et il I'a entibrcment detruite ; elle est dans un canton charmant qui pro duit bcnuccup de riz Je continuai pardel^ Nissa de cotoyer la riviere ; et le pays, toujours egalement beau, est bien garni de villages Enfin jc la ])ajsai il un bac, oii je I'abandonnai Alors <;omniencerent des montagnes J'eus a traverser une longue forC't fangcuse, et, apres dix journees de marche depuis Andrinople, j'arrivai h Corsebech, petite ville h un iiille de la Morane (Morave) La Morave est une grosse riviere qui vient de Bosnie Elle separe la IJulgarie d'avec la Rascie ou Servie, province qui porte egalement ces deux noms, et que le Turc a conquise depuis six ans Pour Corsebech, il avoit un petit chateau qu'on a detruit II a encore une double enceinte de murs ; mais on en a demoli la partie supcrieure jusciu'audessous des creneaux J'y trouvai CcnaminBay, capitainc (commandant) de ce vaste pays frontiere, ([ui s'etend depuis la Valaquie jusqu'en Esclavonie II ;;a3se dans la ville une partie de I'annee On m'adit qu'il etoit n^ Grec, qu'il ne boit point de vin, comme les autres Turcs, et (jue c'est un homme sage et vaillant, qui s'est faitcraindre et ob^ir Le Turc lui a confix le commandement de cette contr^e, et il en possbde en seigneurie la plus grande partie II ne laisse passer la rivibre qu'i ceux qu'il connoJt, h moins qu'ils ne soient porteurs d'une lettre du maiire, ou, en son absence, du seigneur de la Grece Traffiquts, and Discoueiits 189 Nous vfmes W une belle personne, gentifemme du royaume de Hongrie, dont la situation nous inspira bien dc la piiic Un ren^gat Hongroi?, honime du plus bas clat, I'avoit enlcvec dans une course, et il en usoit comme de sa fenimc Quand elle nous aper^ut elle fondit en larmes ; car elle n'avoit pas encore renonje h sa religion Au sortir de Corscbech, je traversal la Morave Jl un bac, ct j'entrai sur les terrcs du dcspote de Rassie ou de Scr\ie, pays beau et peuple Ce cjui est endc(,a de la rivilre lui apparticnt, ce qui se trouvc audcl;! est au Turc ; mais le despote lui paie annuellement cinquante niillc ducats de tribut Celuici possl'de sur la riviere et aux confms comniuns dc Bulgaria, d'Esclavonie, d'AU)anie et de Bosnie, une ville nominee Nyeuberge, qui a une mine jicrtant or et argent tout i la fois Chaque annce elle lui donne plus dc deux tent inille ducats, ni'ont dit gens qui sonl bien instruiis : sans cela il ne seroit pas long temps ;i etre chasse de son pays Sur ma route je passai pros du chiteau d'Fiscalaclic, qui lui appartenoit C'etoit une furte place, sur la pointe d"uiie monta^ne au pied de laquelle la Nissane se juitc dans la Morave On y voit encore une partie des murs avcc une lour en forme de donjon ; niais c'est tout ce qui en teste A cette embouchure des deux rivieres le Turc tient habiiueile nicnt quatrevingts ou cent fustes, galiottes et gripperies, jwur ])asser, en temps de guerre, sa cavulcrie et son armee Je n'ai pu les voir, ])arce qu'on ne jiermet point aux chretiens d'eii approclicr ; mais un liomme digne de foi m'a dit (ju'il y a toujours, jiour les garder, un corps de trois cents homines, et que ce corjis est renouvele de deux en deux mois I VEscalachc au Danube il y a bien cent milles, et neaumoins, dans toute la longueur de cct espace, il n'existe d'autre forterese ou lieu de que'que defense qu'un village et une maison (jue CenaymBay a fait construire sur le penchant dune montagiie, avec une mosquee Jc suivis le cours de la Morave ; et, a I'exception d"un passage trfesboueux qui dure pres d'un mille, et que forme le resserre nient de la riviere par une montagne, j'eus beau chemin et pays agreable el bien peuple II n'en fut pas de meme i\ !a seconde journde : j'eus des bois, des montagnes, beaucoup de fange ; nean moins le pays continua d'etr' aussi beau (jue peut Tetre un pays 190 NauigatioHS, Foyages, de montagnes li est bien gami de villages, et partout on y trouve tout ce dont on a besoin Depuis que nous avions mis le pied en MactSdoine, en Bulgarie et en Rassie, sans cesse sur notre passage j'avois trouv^ que le Turc faisoit crier son ost, c'est2ldire qu'il faisoit annoncer que quiconquc est tenu de se rendre h I'armee, se tint pret h marcher On nous dil que ceux qui, pour satisfaire d ce devoir, nourrissent un cheval sont exempts du comarch ; ({ue ceux des chr^tiens qui veulent etrc dispenses de service paient cinquante aspres pat tete, et que d'autres y marchent forces ; mais qu'on les prend pour augnicnter le nombre L'on me dit aussi, h la cour du despote, que le Turc a prtage entrc trois capitaines la garde et defense dc ces provinces frontibres I'un, nomme DysemUay, a depuis les confins de la Valaquie jusqu'il la mer Noire ; CcnaymBay, depuis la Valaquie jusqu'aux confms de Uosnie ; et VsaacIiay, depuis ces conlins jusqu'^ I'Esclavonie, c'est^dire tout ce ()ui est par del^ la Morave Pour rcprendre le r^cit de ma route, je dirai que je vins h une ville, ou plutot h une maison de campagne nonimec Nichodem C'est 1^ que le despote a fixe son sejour, |)arce (|ue le terroir en est bon, et qu'il y trouve bois, rivieres et tout ce (]u'il lui faut pour les plaisirs de la chasse et du vol, qu'il aime beaiicoup II etoit aux champs et alloit voler sur la rivii;re, accompagne d'une cinquantaine de chevaux, de trois de ses enfans et d'un Turc qui, de la part du maitre, ^toit venu le sommer d'envcyer k I'armt^e un de ses fils avec son contingent Indei)endamment du tribut qu'il paie, c'estU une des conditions qui lui sont impos^es Toutes les fois que le seigneur lui fait passer ses ordres, il est oblig^ de lui envoyer mille ou huit cents chevaux sous le com mandement de son second fils II a donn^ h ce maitre une de ses lilies en mariage, et cependant il n'y a point de jour qu'il ne craigne de se voir enlever par lui ses Etats ; j'ai meme entendu dire qu'on en avoit voulu inspirer de I'envie h celuici, et qu'il avoit rtSpondu : "J 'en tire plus que si je " les poss^dois Dans ce cas je serois oblige de les donner h I'un " de mes esclaves, et je n'en aurois rien" I^stroupesqu'illevoit^toient destinies contrerAlbanie,disoiton Deja il en avoit fait passer dans ce pays dix mille ; et voil^ pour quoi il avoit prbs de lui si peu de monde h I^ss^re quand je I'y vis : mais cette premiere arni^e avoit ^t^ di^truite* • C'est en effet dans celle meme annee 1433 que le celebre Scanderberg, aprei etre rcntre par ruse en possession de I'Alhanie, dont ses ancetres etoicnt iouverains, commenfa contre Amurath cette guerre savnnte qui le couvrit de gloire et qui ternit let dernleres annces du sultan TrafjUques, and Discoutrits 191 I^ seigneur despote est un grand et bel homnie de cin<)uanle huit ^ soixante ans ; il a cimj enfans, trois i^ari^ons et deux fillcs Des gur^ons, I'un a vingt ans, I'autrc (|uatorzc, et lous trois soiu, comme leurs p^re, d'un exterieur trfcsagreahle Quant aux filles, I'une est marine au Turc, I'autre au comte de Seil ; mais je nc les ai point vues, et ne puis rien en dire* I^rsque nous le rencontrdines aux champs, ainsi (lue je i'ai uit, I'ambassadeur et moi nous lui primes la main et je la lui baisai, parce que tel est I'usage I^ lendemain nous alldmes Ic salucr chez lui Sa cour, assez nombreuse, »5toit composcc de trtsbeaux hommes ((ui jjortent longs cheveux et longue barbe, vu (ju'ils sont de la religion Grecque II y avoit dans la ville un eve(|ue et un maitre (docteur) en theologie, qui se rendoient il Constantinople, et qui etoient envoy^s en ambassade vers I'empereur i)ar le saint concile de Balet De Coursebecb j'avois mis deux jours pour venir a Nicodem ; de Nicodem a liclgrado j'en mis un demi Ce ne sont juscju'a cette derniere ville que grands bois, niontagncs et vailccs ; mais ces valees foisonnent de villages dans lesqueis on trouvc beaucoup de vivres, ct specialement de bons vins Belgrade est en Kascie, et ellc appartcnoit au despote ; mais depuis quatre ans il I'a ced^e au roi de Hongrie, parce (|u°on a craint qu'il ne la laissdt prendre au Turc, comme il a laiss^ prendre Coulumbach Cette perte fut un grand malheur pour la chretiente L'auire en seroit un plus grand encore, parce que la place est plus forte, et qu'elle [leut loger jusqu'a cinq i six mille chevauxt Le long de ses niurs, d'un cote, coule une grosse rivifere qui " Le despote dont il s'njjit se noninioit George Urancoviti ou Wkoviiz On trouve dans Ducange (Familhe Bisanl p 336) queUpies details sur lui et sa famille f Ce saint concile, (|iii finit par citer h son trilmnal et dcposer le pape, tandis que le pape lui ordonnit de se dissoudre et en convo<|uuit un autie a Ferrare, puis hi Florence, avoit entrepris de reunir IVulise (jrcc(|uea la Litiiic ; ct c'est dans ce dessein <|u'il dcputoit vers I'lnipereur Celuici se rendit fflcclivenient en Italie, et il signa dans Florence cette reunion politique et siinulcc dont il a etc parle plus haul J On sera I'tonne de voir I'auteur, en parlant de la garnison d'une place de guerre, ne faire mention que de chevaux Cidessus, lorsqu'il a specific le contingent que le despote ctoit oblige de fournir i I'arnu'e Turque, il n'a park que de chevaux Sans cesse il parle de chevaux C'est qu'alurs en Kurope on ne faisoil cas que de la gendarmerie, et que Tinfanterie ou pictaille, presipie toujours nial composee et inal armoe, eloit comptce pour trespeu ;] I9> NayigalioHs, Voyaxtt, vient de Hosnic, et qu'on nommc la Sanne ; de I'autre elle a un chi^tcau pros ququel passe le Danube, et \ii, dans ce Danube, sc jctte h Sannc C'est sur la |X)inte formec ]>ar les deux rivieres qu'est baiie la ville Dans Ic poiirtour de son enceinte son terrain a une certaine haut<:ur, cxceptc du cote de terre, oil il est tellement uni qu'on |)eu( par \h vcnir de ]>lnin pied jusqu'au bord du foss^ De ce cbxi encore il y a un village qui, s'etendant depuis la Sanne jus(|u'au Danube, cnveloppe la ville ik la distance d'un trait d'arc Ce villajje est habit^ par des Rascicns I>e jour de Pdquesj'y entendis In nicsse en langue Sclavonnc II est dans I'obedience de I'tjlisc Romainc, et leurs ceremonies ne different en rien des nolrcs I«i place, forte i)ar sa situation et par ses fosses, tous en glacis, a unc enceinte de doubles nnirs bicn entrctcnus, et qui suivent trbsexactemeiu les contours du terrain Kile est coniposee de cinq fortcresscs, donl trois sur le terrain (Sieve dont je viens de paricr, et deux sur la rivifere De ces deuxci, I'une est fortifiee contre I'autre ; mais toutcs deux sont conimandees par les trois premieres II y a aussi un petit i)ort qui pcut contenir (juinze h vint;t gallres, et qui est defcndu par une tour construite h chacune de ses extrcmites On le ferme avec une chalne qui va d'une tour Jl I'autre Au moins c'est ce qu'on m'a dit ; car les deux rives sont si eloignees (jue moi je n'ai pu la voir Je vis sur la Sanne six galores et cinq galiottes Elles ^toient pres I'une des cintj forteresses, la moins forte de toutes Dans cette forteresse sont beaucoup de Rasciens ; mais on nc leur permet |)oint d'entrer dans les quatre autres Toutes cinq sont bien garnies d'artillerie J'y ai remarque sur tout trois bombardes de mt5tail (canons de bronze) dont deux ^toient de deux pieces,* et I'une d'une telle gro3seur que jamais je n'en ai vu de parcillc : elle avoit quarantedeux jiouces de large dedans ou la pierrc entre (sa bouche avoit quarantedeux pouces de diametre) ; mais elle me parut courte pour sa grosseurt * La remarque que raiiteur fait ici sur ces trois canons sembleroit annoncer que ceux tie bronze I'tuient rares encore, et qu'on les regnrdoit coniine une sorte >lc merveille Louis XI en lit fondre une J Le capitaine (commandant) de la place dtoit mcssire Mathico, chevalier de Aragouse (d'Arragon), et it avoit pour lieutenant un sien fr^re, qu'on appeloit le seigneur frere Stir le Danube, deux joumdes audessous de Belgrade, le Turc poss^de ce chdteau de Coulombach, (ju'll a pris au despote C'est encore une forte place, diton, (juoique cejx'ndant il soit aise do I'attaquer avec de rartillerie et de lui fermcr tout sccours ; re ({ui est un grand d^savantage II y entreticnt cent fustcs [lour passer en Hongrie quand il lui plait I^ capitaine du lieu est ce Ceynani Bay dont j'ai parli5 cidevant Sur le Danube encore, mais Jl ropix)site de Belgrade, et dans la Hongrie, le despote possede egalement une ville a\cc chdteau Elle lui a ^te donn^e i>ar I'empereur,* avec plusieurs autres, qui lui font un revenu de cinquante mille durats, et c'etoit i condition qu'il dcvicndroit son hommet ; mais il obeit plus au Turc qua I'empereur Deux jours aprbs monarrivt'e dans Belgrade j'y vis entrer vingt cinq hommes armds h, la manibre du pays, que le gouvcrnenr comte Mathico y faisoit venir pour demeurcr en garnison On nie dit que c'dtoient des Allemands pour garder la place, tandis qu'on avoit si prfes des Hongrois, et des Scrviens On me rci)ondit que les Serviens, ^tant sujets et tributaires du Turc, on se garde roit bien de la leur confier ; et que quant aux Hongrois, ils le redoutoient tant que s'il paroissoit, ils n'oseroient la dcfendre contre lui, queUiue forte qu'elle fut II falloit done y apix:ler des Strangers ; et cette mesure devenoit d'nutant plus necessaire que c'etoit la seule place que I'emijereur possni<|ue Scjnur commencer par leur personnel, je dirai que ce sont d'assez beaux hommes, portant tous de longues barbes, mais de moyenne taille et de force mediocre Je sais bien que, dans le langngc ordinaire, on dit fort comme unTurc; cependant j'ai vu una infinite de Chretiens (|ui, dans les choses 011 il faut de la force, I'cmportoient sur eux ; et moimemc, i|ui ne suis pas des plus robustes, j'en ai trouvd, lors(|ue les circonstances exigeoient quelque travail, de plus foibles que moi encore lis sont gens diligcns, sc Icvent matin volontiers, et vivent de pcu en com|rc, s'ils iu |)eu>wnt Dans cctte dernitrc circonstance ils les laisscnt brides encore pendant une hcurc, commc Ics mules Enfin vient un moment ou chacun fait mnngcr le sicn Pendant la nuit ils Ics couvrcnt dc feutre ou d'autrcs cHofTcs, ct j'al vu dc ces couvcrtures qui t'toient trlisbcllcs ; ils en ont memo pour leurs Icvricrs,* es|)cce dont ils sont tr^scurieux, ct (|ui che/ eux est belle ct forte, ({uoiqu'clle ait dc lungucs orcillcs pcndantcs ct dc longucs queues fcuillt^cs (touflucs), que ccpcndant cllc porte bien Tous leurs chevaux sont Hongrcs: its n'en gardcnt d'cnticrs ((ue quel(iucsuns pour scrvir d'ctalons, mais en si |)utit nombre (|ue je n'en ai pas vu un scul iJu rcstc ils Ics scllent ct brident ^ la jenneltet Ixsurs selles, ordinaircment fort riches, sont trcs creuses Ellcs n'ont qu'un art^on devant, un autre dcrricre, avec de courtes dtrivi^rcs et de targes «Stricrs Quant h leurs habillemens de guerre, j'ai i\i deux fois dans Ic cas de les voir, a I'occasion dcs Orccs rendgats qui renom^oicnt h leur religion pour embrasscr Ic Mahometisme : alors Ics Turcs font une grande fete ; ils prcnncnt leurs plus belles amies ct parcourent la ville en cavalcade aussi numbrcuse qu'il leur est possible Or dans ces circonstances, je les ai vus porter d'asse/ belles brigandines (cottes d'armes) parcilles aux notres, \ I'cxcep tion que les failles en tftoicnt plus pclites Leur gardebras (brassarts) dtoient de m£me En un mot ils resscmblcnt ^ ces [)eintures oil Ton nous reprdsente les temps de Jules Cesar I a * Le mot Idvrier n'avoit pat alors t'acception exclusive i|u'il a aujourd'hui ; il M prenoit pour le chien de chaie ordinaire fLet mors et les selles k la genette avoient etc ndoptcs en France, et jusqu'au dernier siecle ils furent dSisige dans nos maneges On disoit niuntcr ii la genette quand les jamlies ctoient si courlcs ()ue Teperon portoit visavis les flancs du cheval Le mors ,\ la genette etoit celul (|ui avoit sn gourmette d'une seule piece et de la forme d'un grand anneau, mis ct arrilc au tiaut du la libertc de li langue • t i I A ^ i 196 NoHtgatioHS, Voyagtt, 1 J ' i brigandine descend presqu'^ micuisse ; mail \ son exlr*!mittf est attacl)cc circulaircmcnt une as supporter le moindre coup de lance sans etre jctcs bas L'arme de ceux (|ui ont quelque fortune est un arc, un tarquais, une c'pec et une forte masse \ manche court, dont le gros bout est taille u plusieurs carncs Ce b4ton a du danger quand on I'ass^ne sur dcs ^|»ulcs ou des bras degarnis Je suis meme convaincu qu'un coup bien appuy^ sur une tetc arm^e de sdade dtourdiroit I'homme Plusieurs portent de petits pavois (boucliers) en bois, et ils savent trt:sbien s'en couvrir \ cheval quand ils tirent de Tare C'est cc que m'ont assurt^ gens qui les ont longtemps pratiques, et ce que j'ai vu par moimeme Ix:ur obeissance aux ordres de leur seigneur est sans bornes Pas un scul n'oseroit les transgressor quand il s'agiroit de la vie, et c'est principalemcnt ^ cette soumission constante qu'il doit les grandes choses qu'il a cx^cutees et ces vastes conquetes qui I'ont rendu maitre d'une ctendue de pays beaucoup plus considerable ({ue n'est la France * Ilarnois, dans la langue du temps, ctoit un terme general qui signifioit k la fois habillement et armure ; ici il deslgne une sorte de bonnet devenu arme defensive t Salades, sorte de casque leger alors en usage, et qui, n'ayant ni visiere ni gorgerin, avoit besoin de cette bande de fer en saillie pour dcfendre le visage \ t s Traffii/uts, auii /)ii(u>iifnVi •97 On in'a ccrtific ({uc (|uand Ics iiuinnancca clucticnncs ont prii lei amies contro cux, ils ont toiijuurH etc avcrtis a tLiiips Hann cc cas, Ic seigneur fait epicr Icur nurchc par dcs lioniincs (lui »ont propres ;i cctlc fonition, et il vi Ics nttinilrc avcc ndh nriuce h deux uii trois journces du lieu oil il sc propose dc Ics < oinlnttlrc Croitil I'ocrasion favorable, il fond sur eux tout A coup, ct il» ont pour res circonstanccs unc sortc de niarche (|ui leur est propre Ix signal est donne par un gros tambour Alors reux (jui duivent etre en tctc partent Ics premiers et sans bruit ; les autres suivent de mi'me en silence, sans ()uc la file soit jamais interrompue, parcc cjue les chevaux et les hommcs sont dresses ;\ ret exerc ice l)ix millc Turcs, en pareil cas, font moins de tapage int Coulumbach, oil peril niessire Advis, chevalier de I'oulainc (I'ologne) Leur nianiere de combattre varie selon les circonslances Voientils un lieu et une occasion favorables jwur atta(|uer, ils se • (ciiii, coinle dc Xevcrs, suinummu Sans()eur, n (iU ilc I'liilippe L llirdi, iluc dc lluurgogne SiijlMiiond ayaiil forme unc liijue pour arrettr Ics cuii (liictcs dc rajizct, notrc rui Charles VI lui cnvoya un C(ir|i« dc Iroupis dnns le<|Hcl il y avoit ait (lu'avant la l>ataillc, pour se dtliarrasscr de captifs Turcs ipiils avoicnl rcyus i ranyon, ils curcnt lindignile dc Ics i^gorger, ct ciu'apics la vicloiro le sultan n'ayanl acconle la vie i|u'aux prin cipaux d'cnlrc eux, il fit par rcpresailles massjicrcr devani cux Icurs camuradt s Jean, devenu due de Ilourgoyne, fit lachcmcnt assissincr dans I'aris Ic due d'Orleans, frere du roi II fut tuc 'i sun lour par Tannet;ui du ('halcl, ancicn olficier du due On voit par ces fails ipic la lirocipiierc avoit grandc raison, en parlani dc Jean, dc dcuiander que Dieu lui pardonnil ! 11' 1 i •5 ' > I 198 Nauigations, foyages divisent en plusieurs ]}elotons, selon la force de leur troupe, et viennent ainsi assailir par difT^rens cot^s Ce moyen est surtout celui qu'ils emploient en pays de bois et dc montagnes, parce qu'ils ont I'art de se r^unir sans peine D'autres fois ils se mettent en embuL:ade et envoient In la d^ouverte quelques gens bien months Si le rapport est que I'ennemi n'est point sur ses gardes, ils savent prendre leur parti surle champ et tirer avantage des circonstances Le trouventils en bonne ordon nance, ils voltigent autour de I'artn^e h la port^e du trait, caeine de Belgrade h Constantinople II leur su*iSroit, ainsi que je I'ai remarque, d'une armure l^gfere, attendu que le trait Turc n'a poini de force De prbs, leurs archers tirent juste ct vite ; mais ils ne tirent point a beaucoup prbs aussi loin que les rolres I^urs arcs sont gros, mais courts, et leurs traits courts el minces Le fer y est enfonc4 dans le bois, et ne pent ni supporter un grand coup, ^i faire plaie que quand il trcuve une partie ddcouvertc D'aprls ceci, on voit qu'il suffiroit h nos troupes d'avoir une armure l^gfere, c'estidire un l^ger harnois de jambest, uae l^g^re brigandine ou blanchamois et une salade avec bavifere et visifere un peu large§ Le trait d'un arc Turc • Cranquiniers, c'etoit le nom qu'en Autriche et dans une partie de I'Alle magne on don''>~ aux archers \ Ribaud^^uins, sottes de troupes legeres qui servoient aux escarmouches et representoient nos tirailleurs d'aujourd'hui X Harnois de jainbes, sorte d'armure defenive en fer qui embottoit la janibe, et qu'on nommoit jambards ou gieves § J'ai dtfja dit que 'la salade etoit un casque beaucoup moins lourd que le heaume II y en avoit qui laissovent le visage totalement dccouvert ; d'autres qui, pour le garantir, portoient en avant une lame de fer ; d'autres qui, comme le heaume, le cauvroient en entier, haul et bas : ce qu'on appeloit visiere ot baviere Trajffii/ues, ana Discoueries 301 pourroit fausser un haubergeon;* mais il sdmoussera contre une brigandine ou blancharnois J'ajouterai qu'en cas de besoin nos archers pourroient se servir des traits des Turcs, et que les leurs ne pourroient se servir des notres, parce que la cochc n'est pas assez large, et que les cordes de leurs arcs ^tant de nerfs, sont beaucoup trop grosses Sale A moi, ceux de nos gens d'armes qui voudroient etre i che val devroient avoir unc lance Idgfere h fer tranchart, avec une forte dp^e bien affil^e Peutetre aussi leur seroitil avantageux d'avoir une petite hache i main Ceux d'entre eux qui seroient ii pied porteroient guisarnie, t ou bon ^pieu tranchant \ \ mais les uns et les autres auroient les mains armies de gantelets Quant a c&s gantelets, j'avoue que pour moi j n con nois en /llemagne qui sont de cuir houilli, dont je ferois autant de cas que de ceux qui sont en fer Lorsqu'on trouvera une plaine rase et un lieu pour combattre avec avantage on en profitera ; mais alors on ne fera qu'un seul coips de bataille L'avantgarde et I'arrieregarda seront employees il former les deux ailes On entrenielera parci parlJi tout ce qu'on aura de gens d'armes, \ moins qu'on ne preferat de les placer en dehors pour escarmoucher ; mais on se gardera bien de placer ainri les hommes d'armes En avant de I'armee et sur ses ailes seront epars et semes ^k et li les ribaudequins ; rnais il sera de fendu \ qui que ce soit, sous peine de la vie, de poursuivre les fuyards Les Turcs ont la politique d'avoir toujours des armies deux fois plus nombreuses que celles des chretiens Cette superiority de nombre augmente lour courage, et elle leur permet en meme temps de former differens corps pour attaquer par divers cotes h la fois S'ils parviennent i percer, ils se pr&ipitent en foule innombrable par I'ouverture, et alors c'est un grand miracle si tout n'est pas perdu Pour empecher ce malheur on placera la plus grande quantite de ribaudequins vers les angles du corps de bataille, et Ion tilchera de se tenir serrd de manifere \ ne point se laisser entamer Au • lUubergeon, cotte de mailles plus It'gere que le haubett Etant en mailles, elle pouvoit ctre faussee plus aisement que la brigandine, qui Jtoit de fer plein ou en ecailles de fer + Guisarnie, hache a deux 'ctes % Epieu, lance beaucoup plus forte que la lance ordinaire VOL X B a '1' I ill in encore ojoiitc, (|iic s'ils no sc soiinictloicnt i\ la loi dc Jtsus Christ, jamais, lant (juil Bcroit en vie, 11 nc fcroil avcc cux ni paix ni trevc Kn elTcl, au lenips on il leur parloii il Ics avoit deja battus deux fois II avoit rcpris sur cux toutc la Moranu (Moravie), ct, par sa conduite ct sa vaillantc, s'cioit agrandi ?i kurs dcpcns Au soriir do son audience jc fus conduite a (cllc dc la duchcsse, grandc ct belle fcnuiie, fillc dc rcni|iercur, et par lui heritilre du royaume dc H oniric ct dc llohcme, et dcs autrcs seigneuries ijui en dciiendcnt Kile venoit tout rt'cenimcnt d'atcouchcr d'unc fillc ; cc (jui avoit occasicnnc dcs fetes et dcs joutes d'auiant plus courucs, (juc jus(iuch\ elle n'avoit point eu d'cnfans Lc lendeniain mondit seigneur d'Autrichc m'envoya invitcr i diner jwr messire Albiech, et il me fit manger i sa table avec un seigneur Hongrois et un autre Autrichien Tous ses gens sont il gages, el personne ne mange avec lui que tjuand on est en pre venu ]>ar son maltre d'hotel La table etoit carr^e La coutume est ([u'on n'y apportc qu'un plat h la fois, et que celui qui s'en trouve le plus voisin c! goOtc le premier Cet usage tient lieu d'essai* On servit chair et poisson, et surtout beaucoup de difTerentes viandcs fort epicc*cs, mais toujours plat h plat Apr^s le diner on me mena voir les danses chez madame la duchcsse Elle me donna un chapeau de fil d'or et de soie, un anneau et un diamant pour mettre sur ma tete, scion la coutume du pays II y avoit 1^ beaucoup dc noblesse en hommes et en femmes ; j'y vis dcs gens tr^saimables, et les plus beaux cheveux qu'on puisse porter Quand j'eus ete U\ quelque temps, un gentilhomme nomme Payser, qui, bien qu'il ne fflt qu'ecuyer,t ^loit chambellan et garde des joyaux de mondit seigneur d'Autrichc, vint de sa part me prendre pour me les montrer II me fit voir la couronne de Bohiime, qui a d'assez belles pierreries, et entr'autres un rubis, le plus considerable que j'aie vu II m'a paru plus gros qu'une * Chez les souvernins on faisoit I'essai des viandes & metute qu'on les leur servoit, et il y avoit un oflicier charge de cetle fonction qui, dans rori|;ine, avoit ^te une precaution prise contie le poison f Qui n'ctoit pas encore chevalier VOL X C 2 i II • 10 JVamgafiOHs, Voyagtt, r i •I \ * ! "' 1 m \ i i4i prosse dattc ; mais il n'cst jwint net, ct ofTre At rontcnir plus dc vingt honimes ; mais on me dit (|u'il y on avoit un ([ui en portcroit truis cents, et auquel il ne falloit [lour Ic trainer (|ue dixhuit chcvaux Je trouvai h la cour monscigncur de Valse, gentil chevalier, ct le plus grand seigneur dc rAutrichc a, es le due : j'y vis mcssire Jac(iucs Trousset, joli chevalier de Zoavc (Souahe) : mais il y en avoit un autre, nommtJ le Chant, ^chanson ne de lEmpirc, (jui, ayant perdu i la hataille de liar un sicn frerc et plusicurs de scs amis, et sachant que j'ctois h monseigneur Ic due, me fit epier pour savoir le jour de mon depart et me saisir en ISaviere lors(iue j'y passerois Hcureusement pour moi monseigneur d'Autriche fut instruit de son projet II le cong«dia, ct me fit rcster il Vicnne plus (\ue je ne comptois, pour attendrc le depart de monseigneur dc Valse ct dc mcssire Jaciiucs, avec Icsquels je partis Pendant mon sejour j'y vis trois dc ces joutcs dont j'ai parl(5, h pctits chevaux et h selles basses L'une cut lieu h la cour, et les deux autres dans les rues ; mais h cellesci, plusicurs de ceux qui furcnt renvcrsds tomblrcnt si lourdement (lu'ils se blcsst:rcnt avec danger Mondit seigneur d'Autriche mc fit ofTrir en secret de I'argcnt Je rc(;us les memc offrcs de messire Albert et de mcssire Robert Daurestof, grand seigneur du jiays, Icqucl, Tannic d'auparavant, dtoit all^ en Flandre ddguis<5, ct y avoit vu mondit seigneur le due, dont il disoit beaucoup dc bicn Enfin j'en re^us de trls vives d'un poursuivant Lrelonbrctonnant (IJasBreton) nomm^ Toutseul, qui, apres avoir etd au service dc I'amiral d'Espigne, etoit h cclui de mondit seigneur d'Autriche Ce Breton venoit tous les jours me chercher jjour aller a la messe, et il m'accom pagnoit partout oil je voulois aller Persuade que j'avois dfl depcnser en route lout ce que j'avois d'argent, il vint, peu avant mon depart, m'en presenter cinquante marcs qu'il avoit en cmaux II insista beaucoup pour que jc les vendisse a mon profit ; ct comnie je refusois egalcment de recevoir et d'em prunter, il me protesta que jamais personne n'en sauroit rien • Waguelwnne, sorte de chariot ou de tour ambulante pour les combats TVaffii/uts, and Diuoutritt i\\ Vicnnc est unc villc aillcs tju'cn Honnric, iiuokiu'iIh |)urtcnt tous dc gros potiriHjints liicn c|)ais ct liicn lar^cs Kn guerre, ils nieitcnt pardcssus Ic pourpoint un hon haubcr geon, un nla(,on,* un grand thai»cau dc fcr ct d'auircs harnois a la mode du pays Ils ont l)cauci)up dc doule cloit glacce Je s(iup;tjnne s deux mannscrits inti'rcssans (|u'il avoit apporlcs d'Asie, il devoit en avoir, Cependant Germain sen otcupa ; niais ce ne fut que pour irav'iller a les refuter, A sa niort, arrivt'e en 1461, il laissa en manuscrit deux ouvrages dont on trouve des copies din, quelques bibliotl'equcs, I'un intitule, De conceplione lieato Marix viri;inis, adversus mahonielanos et infidelcs, libri duo; I'autrc, Adversus Alcuranuin, lihri (piinque * London, iinptinled by iohn wolfe, 1598, ir tf; s ti6 Nauigaltons, Voyages, (I • W' t Bona Sperance, in Anno 1591, as also M John Newbery, and Raphael l'icli ouer land through Siria from Aleppo vnto Ormus and Goa, and by the said Raphael Fitch himselfe to IJengala, Malocca, Pegu, and other places in Anno 1583, as at large appeareth in a booke written by M Richard Hacl»'te a Gentleman very studious therein, and entituled the English voyages) I thought it not vnconuenient to translate the same into our mother tongue, thereby to procure more light and encouragement to such as are desirous to trauell those Countries, for the common wealth and commoditie of this Realnie and themselues And knowing that all men are not like affected, I was so bold to shrowd it vnder your worships protection, as being assured of your good disposition to the fauoring of trauell and Irauellers, and whereby 'l liath pleased God to aduante you to that honourable tit)?;, which at this present you bearc) and so not fitter for thi: protection of any then your selfe : and as a poore friend wishing all happines and prosperity in all your valiant actions Which if it please your worshippe to like and accept, it may pro cure the proceeding in a more large and ample discourse of an East Indian voyage, lately performed and set forth by one lohn Hughen of Linschoten, to your further delight Wherewith crauing your fauor, and beseeching God to biesse your worship, with my good Ladie your wife, I most humbly take my lean<1 J , ,_ how the snips ten iron peeces, and sixe jieeces for stones, tlie Mayster sc, saile lohn lacobson Schellinger, the Factor Reginer van Hel : The fourth being a Pinnace called the Done, of the burthen of 50 tunnes, with twenty men, the Nfayster Simon I„mihertson : Which 4 ships vpon the 21 of the same moneth came vnto the Tassel, where they stayed for the sjiace of 1 2 daies to take in their lading, and the seconde of Aprill following, they set saile with a North east winde and following on their course the fouith of the same moneth the passed the heades ; The sixt they saw Heyssant, the 10 of April they passed by the IJarles of Lisbon : With an East and North East wind, the 1 7 of Aprill tliey dis couered two of the Islands of Canaries: The 19 Palm, and Pic, Los Romeros, arid Fero: The 25 of Aprill they saw liona visita, the 16 they ankered vnder Isole de May : The 27 they set sayle againe and held their course South Southeast The 4 of May, we espied two of the King of Spaines ships, that came from Lisbone, and went for the East Indies, about 1000 or 1200 tunnes each ship, with whom we spake, and told them that we were bound for the straights of Magellanes, but being better of sayle then they wee got presently out of their sight The 1 2 of May being vnder fiue degrees on this side the Equinoctiall line, we espyed fiue ships laden with Sugar, comming from the Island of S Thomas, and sayled for lisbone, to whome we gaue certaine letters, which were safely deliuered in Holland Departing from them and keeping on our course, vpon the fourth of lure we passed the Equinoctial line, where the extreame heat j^^^^ of the ayre spoyled all our victuailes : Our flesh and vicmailes fishe stunke, our Bisket molded, our Beere sowred, ''"Jjl^^'j^^lJ''^ our water stunke, and our Butter became as thinne as Oyle, whereby diuers of our men fell sicke, and many of them uyed ; but after that we learned what meat anu drinke we should carrie with vs that would keejie good Tle 28 of jj,cy pissed lune we passed the sandes of Brasill, by the Porlin the sindes galles called Abrolhos, which are certaine places «' » "^i la V'l 313 Nauigations, Voyages, ,i ,,, i ' which men must looke warely vnto, otherwise they are very dan(;erous These sandes lie vnder i8 degrees, and you must i>assf betwcene the coast of (iuine and the sandes aforesaid, not going too neer eyther of them, otherwise close by the Coast there are great calmes, thunders, raines and lightnings, with great stormes, haidc by the sands men nre in daunger to be cast away: and so sayhng on their course, first Kast South East, then East and East and by North Vpon the seconde of luly wee passed Tropicus Cancri, vnder 33 degrees and \ The 13 of the same Month, we espied many blacke birdes The 19 great numbers of white _ , , birdes, ;;nrt the 30 a bird as bigge as a Swan, whereof the Cipc (le fourc Or iiue together is a good signe of being neere Ijona the Cape de bona Si>erance These birdes are alwaies ''" ' abou^ the said Cape, and are good signes of being before it The second of August we saw the land of the Cape de bona S|)erance, and the fourth of the same Month we entered into a haucn called Agne Sambras, where wee ankered, and found good depth at 8 or 9 fadome water, sandy ground The 5 day we went on shore to gather fruite, therewith to refresh our sicke men, that were thirty to 33 in one shippe In this bay lyeth a smal Islande, wherern are many birdes called Pyncuius and sea Wolues that are taken with mens handes : we werit into the countrey and spake with the inhabitantes, who brought diuers fresh victuailes aborde our shippes, for a knife or small peece of Iron, etc giuing vs an Oxe, or a sheepe etc The sheepe in those Countries haue great tayles, and are fat and delicate Their ozen are indifferent good, hauing lumps of flesh vpon their backes, and are as fat as any of our good brisket beefe: the inhabitantes are of small rtature, well ioynted and boned, they goe naked, couering their members with Foxes and other beastes tayles : they seeme cruell, yet with vs they vsed all kind of friendship, but are very beastly and stinking, in such sort, that you may smell them in the wind at the least of a fadome from you : They are apparelled with beastes skinnes made fast about their neckes : some of them, being of the better sort, had their mantles cut and raysed checkerwise, which is a great ornament with them : They eate raw flesh, as it is new killed, and the entrailes of beastes without washing or making cleane, gnawing it like dogs, vnder their feet they tye peeces of beastes skinnes, in r! Traffiques, and Discoutrits "3 steed of shoocs, that they trauel in the hard waycs : We could not see their habitations, for wee saw no houses they had, ncitlicr could wee vnderstande them, for they spcake very stranj>eiy, much like the children in our Counlrey with their pipes, and clocking like Turkey Cockes : At the first wee saw about thirtie of them, with weajions like pikes, with broade heades of Iron, about their armes they ware ringes of KIpen bones : I here wee collide finde neyther Oriniies nor Ix;mons, which we purjjosely sought for The II of August we hoysed anker, sayling towards the Island of S Laurence, and the 22 of the same month we had „ , • I I LI vT • i< 1 Wnh whnt a contrary wmd that blew North bast : the 25 a West wj,, ihcy winde, and so held our couise Kast North Fast: The , *>'"^^'' '" 28 there blew a South East wind, and the 30 a South ' ' '""'•"'^*'" West winde, and our course lay North North Kast to sayle to the Isle of S Iaurence The first of Sei)tember wee discouered the point of the Islande of S Laurence, vnder 16 degrees, and the third day we saw the Island being very desirous to go on land, for that many of our men were sicke, whereby wee coulde hardly rule our shippes, or bring them farther without healing or refreshing of our men The 9 of Seinember lohn tichellinger sent out his boate to rowe to lande, where they founde three Fishermen, of whome for two or three kniues they _, , , , , , , 1 11 1 • They nail had great store of fishes Ihe 13 we entered mto a prcai siore small Bay, but because wee founde no good anker "f ''»h U>x 2 ground, as also being very foule we sayled out againe "' ^ The 14 we sayled vnder a small Island about a mile or 2 great, by the Hollanders called their Church yarde, or the dead Island, because many saylers dying in that place, were buried in the African earth, and the 29 of the same Month died lohn Dignums/, Maysterof the Lyon of Holland, and was buried the next day after There lohn Peters of Delft Sayler of the Hollandia, and Kcelken van Maidenblick of the Amsterdam were set on shore vpon the Island of S Laurence, where they were left because they had committed certaine notorious crimes Meane time the Pinnace was sent out to looke for fresh water, which hauing found, the boat returned to bring vs newes, and therewith the fleete sayled thither, and the 10 of October the shippes ankered before the Riuer, and went on shore, where we found good prouision of all necessaries, the inhabitants being very willing thereunto, bringing vs of al things that we needed, where for a Pewter Spoone wee had sn Oxe, or three sheepe ii 1 li f< h • > '1 tt |: •M ^auigalwHs, Voyages, The II of October wt went on shore with a boat full of sicke men, and the next day we were assayled by a company Willie men of Wild men, agamst whom our weapons little pre tHHaileil uayled, for they hurt one of our men and tooke all fiuccr ihi'm ''^''*' ^''' ''"'^ '^'''''" *"' *''crel)y vpon the thirteenth of 1(1 imconce the same Month, wee were forced to insconse our thcmsclues ggi^g^ ^j(i, pieces of wood and braunches of trees, making C!abins within our Sconse, for that the 15 of October they came againe, but tiien we tooke one, and slew another of them The 19 of Nouembcr our Pilot Claes lanson was intrapped and murthered by the wild {leople, although we vsed all the means we could to helpe him, but they feared no wca|)ons, about ten or twelue dayes after we tooke one of them that paide for his death The first of December our men hauing for the most part recouered thei' healthes, were all carryed aborde the ships : in that parte of Madagascar the people are ot The niancr ', , , , ^, and cusionie good condition, and goe naked, onely with a Cotton of ihe Willi cloth before their priuie members, and some from '' ' ' their breasts downward : Their ornaments are Copper ringes about their armes, but Tin rings are more cstecinud with them, and therefore tinne with them is good marchaundise Their Oxen haue great lumpes of fat vpon their backes : Their shee|>os tayles way at the least twelue pound, being of an elle long, and two and twentie inches thick They gauc vs six of those sheepe for a tinne Spoone : They dwel in cottages and liue very poorely : they feare the noyse of a peece, for with one Caliuer you shall make an hundred of them runne away : Wee coulde not perceyue any religion they had, but after wee were informed that they helde the law of Mahomet, for the two boyes that wee tooke from of the land, shewed vs their circumcision : There we found no fruit of Tambaxiumes, but great numbers of Parrats, Medicals, and Turtle Doues, whereof we killed and eat many The second of December we burned our sconse, and fourteene of our men going further into the Islande brought certaine of the countreymen prisoners, and being abord our ships taught them what they shoulde doe The thirteenth of December wee hoysed anker, minding to holde on our course for the Islands of laua, and for that by reason of the pleasantnesse of the ayre we had in a manner all recouered our healthes, we set our course East and by North, and East Northeast The nineteenth of the same Month wee were separated by foule weather, and the 22 i\ TrafjUqutf, and DiitOHtritt 3>S wiih great ioy we met againe The tenth of lanunrie Vcchter Willemson dyed, l)cing a vcrie honest man, and Pilot in Molenaers shipin:, for whomc we were much grieucd, and the same day we determined to put l)ackc againe for the Islande of S I^urcncc, for as then wee began againe to hauc a great Kouring among our men, and many of them fell sicke : But presently therev|>on we espied the Islande „,en ZIkIXx of Saint Mary, and the next day being arriued there, ihin|;s aUude some of the inhabitants came abord our ship|H's with '""""'"" a basket of Ryce, Sugar canes Citrons, Lemons, and Hens, whereof we were very glad, as bei:'ig phisickc for vs The 13 14 15 16 and 17 dayes we were on land, where we bought Kyce, Hens, Sugarcanes, Citrons and Ixmons in great aboundance, and other kinde of fruitcs to vs vnknownc, also good fish, and greene Ginger : There we tookc a Fish, which thirteen men could hardly pull into our shippe, and because the Island was little, and we had many men, wee entred into the Bay of the firme land with our Pinnace, where for a string of lieadts of small value we had a tunne of Kyce : The King came abord our Pinnace to see it, and was as blacke as a _ , Deuill, With two homes made fast vpon his heade, lionofonc and all his body naked like the rest of the countrey "' their ' Wingj people This Island lyeth about a small mile from Madagascar, about 19 degrees Southward from the Equinoctiall line (Madagascar or S Iaurence is an Islande belonging to the Countrey of Africa, and lyeth Southwarde vnder 26 degrees, ending Northwarde vnder 11 degrees by the inhabitants it is called Madagascar, an I by the Portingalles the Islande of S Laurence, because it was discouered on S Laurence day: The riches of this Island is great, it aboundeth in Ryce, Honnie, Waxe, Cotton, Lemons, Cloues, etc The inhobitanls are blacke and go naked, but the haire vpon their heades is not so much curled as those of the Mosambique, and they are not ful so blacke) The 23 of lanuary we ankered before a Riuer where likewise we had all kind of necessaries, and after that we went to lie vnder a small Islande within the same Bay The 25 lanuarie there came some of the wild people 1^^ ^iu^ aborde our ships, making signes to haue vs go on people came land, which we did, and there we had good Ryce and ,hei,1hips other fruits in great abundance On the left side of ami seemed the entry of the Riuer lyeth one of their Townes, and ve'yf'i'^n'lly VOL X E 2 :h )! I »»6 Nauigations, Voyages, on the right hand two townes, where we had most of our trafique The 26 of lanuarie wee had interpreters, whom we made to drink wine, wherewith they were as drunk as beastes The manner and condition of th« people inhabiting in the great Bay of Antogil,on this side the Equinoctiall line vnder 16 degrees, on the South side of the Island Madagascar IT is a very great Bay, about ten mile broade, behind it lyeth a a high Island, and three small Islands : there is good harbour against all windes The Island is inhabited, and therein groweth all kindes of fruites, it hath a great fall of water that commeth down out of the hilles, where we laded all our water, and haife a mile from thence within the land, there runneth a great Riuer, wherein likewise there is much water to be had, when you enter into the Riuer about a quarter of a mile inward on the left hand, ther is a smal towne or village, not closed nor fortified, in it there is about aoo houses, and on the right hand where the Riuer diuideth it selfe, there is two other such Townes : They were all compassed with palies, and the houses were placed about two foote aboue the ground, vpon foure or fiue palies or stakes of wood, and all the vpper partes of reede and strawe The cause why their houses 'stand ^ouses are made so high from the ground is to auoide so high the danger of venemous beastes that are there in great aboundance, as Serpents, Snakes, Camelions, and other kindes of beastes The people are very blacke, but their hayre and beardes are not so much curled as the right Mores, nor their noses nor lippes so great nor flat They are subtill and strong people, much addicted to drinking, for they will bee as drunke as Swine, with a kind of drinke made of Honie and Ryce They go naked, onely that about their midles they weare a cloth made of the barke of a tree, drawne in small threedes: '''Th "*' ^^^ make and vse very fine Mats to sitte vppon : They wfiJe men haue no great store of weapons, for that halfe of them are vnprouided, and that they vse is a speare of nine ten foote long, with a great wooden Target : They are very fearefull of our Caliuers, for 5 or sixe men with Caliuers will cause great numbers of them to flie away : We taught them what our peeces ment for wee perceyued that they knew them not, before they had proued them : at the first they thought they coulde carry no further then their owne lengthes, for they knew not what aboue the eirth in that countrey ^/"^"V Traffigues, and Discoueries 227 they were : Their Kinges ornamentes were ten or twelue Copper Rings about his armes : if we had had such Ringes with vs, wee might haue sold them at what prices wee woulde They likewise vse beades of Glasse, which they weare about their armes and neckes, by them esteemed for great ornaments : for a boxe of beades of small value, we had an Oxe, or three or foure Sheepe ; rounde about this Bay are townes and villages, where you may haue of all things to refresh your selues Lemons and Citrons are there greater and bette' then in Portingall: Likewise Oringes, Ryce, Hennes, Goats, Honie, and many other sortes of fruites, and to conclude it is the best Bay in all the world to refresh ships Being on land we were wel entertayned, and must of force drink with them of their drinke made of Hony and Ryce : There we trafiqued with them, and had sufficient of euery thing, but euery night we went aborde our shippes The third of February we had so great a storme, that most of our ankers were lost, and we ran vpon the land in great daunger to cast our ships away, but God holpe vs, for the storme ceased, and then we went to hoyse vp our lost ankers, and so againe went to anker vnder the Island, glad that we had so well escaped that daunger The fift of February we went to seeke for our boats, but the wild men had smitten them in peeces, and taken out the nailes, thinking likewise that our shippes woulde haue beene cast away vpon the shore, which they still expected : and when we came thither, they stood vpon the shore with their weapons in hand and threw stones at vs, and we perceyuing them in that minde, made towardes our shippes, for we desired not to reuenge our selues, nor once to fight with them without commission from our Generall, whom we certified thereof The eyght of February we rowed into the Riuer to buy cattle, and other things, but they were become our enemie", threatning and casting stones at vs, wherevpon we put out two shalops to run a shore close to the land, and made our Caliuers and other weapons ready Wherewith we shut at them, but they feared not our shot, for they knew not what they ment, they thought likewise that the peeces coulde carrie no further then they were long : but when they sawe eight or nine of their fellowes dead, they fled into the woodes, and wee entering vpon the lande set fire on their houses, whereof we burnt about twentie or thirtie The 9 of Februarie we sailed on the other side to buy cattle, and other necessaries, ( (i n i^i ; M 228 NauigationSy Foyages, ! , • I 'J' but they seemed vnwilling to deale with vs, but we threatning to burne their houses, they brought vs Cattle and fruiter inough, with all things else to our desires The 1 2 of Februarie wee hoised anker, and set sayle out of the great Bay of Antongill, being well prouided of all necessaries, we put out with a North wind, the Bay stretching Northeast and Southwest : The 2 of March we had a West winde, our course being East and East and by North towards laua In March and Aprill about the Islande of Brandawe, we found that our Com passes helde two Strikes to farre Northwarde, and we coulde not perceiue the sands that are set downe in the Portingalles sea Cards, but we saw many turnings of streames, and we were much troubled with calmes, but with the new Moone we had winde enough out of the West and North West The 27 of May we found the water abord our shippes to bee much lessened, and therefore euery mans portion was but halfe as much as he was wont to haue ; so that each man was allowed but foure draughts euery day, which was but a small quantitie Whereby through the extreame heat we endured great thirst, so that at that time a draught of water abord our ship was worth a Riall of 8 The first of luly we saw the Islande of Emgano, whereat we much reioyced, because of the great thirst wee endured in our shippe, and when wee made ncerer to it, we perceyued it to be an Islande lying before the straightes of Sonda, vnder 9 degrees on the South side of the line The sixt of luly we put somewhat nearer to the land, and there we saw sixe or seuen canoes lying vnder the shore, but farre off, and durst not make toward vs : in the end we manned out a shalop and rowed to land, but they made from vs, and when our men were hard by the shore, there we saw about 40 or 50 of them standing vpon the shore with their bowes ; wherewith our men durst not land, for they seemef" to be a cruell kind of people, and altogether wild, for they went all naked, not hauing any thing before their priuy members They were of a reddish colour, but when our men saw no aduantage they turned again vnto their shippes The seuenth of luly we saw the point of the land of Sumatra, which is a verie high land descending downewarde with a long end The II of the same Month we were close vnder the land, where there lay an Island, and there we ankered The 12 of luly in the morning we saw certaine ships, whereoi Traffiques, and Discoueries 229 one came vnto vs, wee rowed vnto it with a shalop, and spake with it, but we could not vrierstand them, but they shewed vs where we should haue water, which made vs glad, that wee might once againe haue our bellies full of water : it being almost foure Monthes that wee had not scene any land, nor taken in any fresh victuailes We sent our Pinace to the firme land of Sumatra, there to seeke for some reliefe : for that where we lay there dwelt not any man The 13 of luly the xha maner Captain or princijiall ruler of Sumatra came abord o( the our ships to see them, which was done with great ^""•^'""f "f , , ° Sounu'ras solemnitie, hee bemg apparelled after the Turkish comming manner, with a wreath about his heade, and a fenre "" ''""'• full countenance, small eyes, great eye browes, and little beard, for a man might tell all the haires vpon his chinne : he brought vs a present of Betele, which are leaues which they continually chaw, and eat it with chalke This Island of Sumatra or Taprobana (as it is saide) is the greatest of all the Orientall Islandes, it is diuided from the firme land of Malacca by a straight and dangerous sea, by reason of many Islandes and cliffes inat are within it : Out of this Island as some men are of opinion, Salomon had his Gold wherewith he beautified the Temple, and his owne pallace, and then in the Bible it should be named Orphir, for certainly Sumatra is rich of mynes of Golde, Siluer, and Mettall, and the inhabitants thereof are very expert in melting of brasse peeces : Therein is a fountaine of pure Balsame, the Portingalles haue no fortresse therein, yet they traffique in certaine hauens, specially in Pedir and Campar : There is also in this Island a place called Manan cabo, where they make poinyardes and daggers, by them calde cryses, which are much esteemed in those Countries, and those of Malacca and laua, hold them for their best weapons, and with them are very bold The same day our Pinnace returned againe vnto vs, bringing vs good news, that wee were welcome vnto the Countrey peojjle, and brought vs certaine Indian Nuttes or Cocus, Melons, Cocombers, Onions, Garlicke, and a sample of Peper and other spices, which liked vs well The fourteenth of June we laded in some fresh water Right ouer against Sumatra, on the South side of the Equinoc tiall lyeth the Islande of laua Maior, or great laua, and these two Islandes are deuided by a straight commolny called the straight of !l * 230 Namgations^ Voyages, Sunda, which lyeth between these two Islands, bearing the name ot the principall hauen of laua called Sunda : In this channel there runneth a great streame, and course of narrow waters, through this straight M Condlish an Englishman passed with his ship, comniing out of the South sea from new Spaine laua beginneth vnder seuen degrees on the South side, and so stretcheth East and South 1 50 miles long, it is very fruitfuU, specially of Rycc, Catle Hogges, Sheepe, Hennes, Onions, Garlike, Indian Nuttes, and all kinde of Spices, as Cloues, Nutmegges, Mace, etc Which they carrie to Malacca The chiefe hauen in the Islande is Sunda Calapa, there you have much Pepper, better then that of India, or of Malabar, and there you may yearely lade 4 or 5000 Quintales of Pepjier Portingall waight, there likewise you haue great store of frankencense, Camphora, and some Diamants : but they haue no other kinde of money but a certaine peece called Caixa, as bigge as a Hollands Doibt, but not so thicke, with a hole in the middle to hang it vpon a string, in which manner they commonly hange hundrethes or thousandes together, and with them they know how to make their accountes, which is two hundred Caixas make a Sata, and iiuc Satas make a thousand Caixas, which is as much as one Cru!:ado of Portingall, or three Carolus Gilderns, Flemish money : Pepper is solde by the sacke, each sacke waying 45 Catten waight of China, each Catte as much as 20 ounces Portingall waight, and each sacke is worth in that Country at the least 5000 Caixas, and when it is highest at 6 or 7000 Caixas ; Mace, Cloues, Nutmegs, white and blacke Beniamin, Camphora, are sold by the Bhar, each barre waying 330 Catten of China : Mace that is faire and good is commonly worth from 100 to 120 thousande Caixas: Good Cloues accordingly, and foure Cloues called Bastan are worth 70 and 80 thousand Caixas the Bhar : Nutmegs are alwaies worth 20 and 25 thousand Caixas the Bhar : White and blacke Beniamin is worth 150 and 180 thousand Caixas, and sometimes 200 thousand The wares that are there desired and exchanged for spices, are diuers sortes and colours of Cotton Linnen, which come out of seuerall Prouinces ; and if our Cambricke or fine Hollande were carryed thither, it would peraduenture bee more esteemed then the Cotton linnen of India The 15 of lune there rowed a scute called ^ ^rawen harde vnder the lande by vs, wee called him, but not ag 1st his will, and shewed him siluer, and other wares that liked him well, he iyaffiques^ and Discoueries S3I bad vs make towards the strand, and told vs of Bantam, siying that there we should haue al kinds of Marchandise Then we made signs vnto him that if he wold bring vs to Bantam, we w> Id pay him for his labor, he asked vs 5 rialles of 8 and a red cap, which we graunted vnto, and so one of the men in the scute came on bord the Mauritius, and was our Pilot to Bantam, where we passed by many Islandes The nineteenth of luly as wee sailed by a towne, many Por tingalles borded vs, and brought vs certaine Cocus and Hens to sell, which wee bought for other wares The 22 of the same Month wee came before the lowne of Bantam, within three miles of it, and there ankered vnder an Island The same day about euening a scute of Portingals borded vs that were sent by the Gouernour to see what ships we were, and when we shewed them that wee came thither to traficke with them, they told vs, that there was the right Pepper country, and that there we might haue our lading, that new Pepper was readie to be gathered, and would be ripe within two Monthes after, which pleased vs well, for wee had already beene fifteene Monthes and twelue daies vppon our voyage, hauing endured great daungers, miseries and thirst, many of our men by sicknesse being dead The 23 of lune wee hoysed our ankers, and went close to the towne of Bantam, and ankered harde by 4 small Islands, that lie ri^ht North from the Towne : the same day the Sabander (who is there one of the greatest officers next the King) came abord our shippes, asking vs what we would haue, we said we were come to buy Pepper and other spyces, and that wee had readie money, and certaine wares, whireof we shewed him some parte, which bee liked well, saying that there wee might haue lading enough, shewing vs great countenance The same day likewise there came a great number of scutes vnto our ships, bringing all kinds of victuailes to sel, as Hennes, Kgges, Cocus, Bonanas, sugar canes Cakes of Ryce baked, and many other thinges The 24 of lune there came many men aborde our ships, bringing diuers wares to sell, shewing vs great friendshippe, and as it seemed were very glad of our arriuall there, telling vs that there we might haue Pepper enough, and new Pepper within two Monthes after, and that Pepper was then as good cheap as it had beene any time within ten yeares before, that wee might buy 5 or 6 sackes for one Catti, (being about il 232 Nauigattons, Voyages^ ^ \ \[\ 20 Guilderns) which was ordinarily sold but one sacke for that price : cuery sacke wayeth 54 pounde Hollandes waight, so that a pounde would be worth about a brasse penie Hollands money The same day about noone the Sabander horded vs once againe, willing Cornelis Houtman to go on land to speake with the Gouernour, for as then there was no King, for about a Month before our arriuall there, the King was gone with a great armie before the towne of Palimbam, which hee thought to take, and had almost gotten it, but there he was stricken with a great Peece by a Renigado of the Pcrtingalles, and so wis slaine His death was much lamented by the straungers that dwelt at Bantam, for he was a good king, being about 25 yeares of age : he left behind him foure wives, whereof the eldest was not aboue 15 yeares of age, and a yong sonne of three Monthes olde, that was to succeed him in his Kingdome, and they had chosen a Protector or Gouernor to rule in his minoritie, whom they call Kipate, and when the Kipate by the Sabandar sent to our Sargeant Maior to come vnto him into the towne, he made hmi answer that he had no such commission, but he desired the Gouernor first to come abord his ship, and then he would go on shore, he likewise desired vs to go neerer to the towne with our shippes And therevpon wee sayled somewhat neerer to the Island that lay next vnlo the towne, within halfe 1 mile from it, and there we ankered at 4 fadome clay grounde, 'he towne lying South from vs, where wee had a good roade : The next morning the Gouernor sent aborde, and the men that came spake not onely good Portingal, but other languages : he let our Sargeant Maior vnderstand that he would come aborde, and desired that hee would with a shalop meet him halfe the way, which nor of*' *^^ done about noone, and the Gouernour came Bantam aborde with a great company of men, where we th'"'' w"!** s*^^*^*^ ^™ ^'' o""^ wares, which liked him well, desiring vs to come on land, saying that we should be wekoine, promising vs much fauour, wherewith he returned to the land with certaine rich presents that we gaue him The 26 Barent Heijn Factor of the ship called the Mauritius, died very sodainly The 27 and 28 great numbers of people horded our shippes bringing all sortes of necessaries and victuails to sell The 29 there came an Emperour abord our shippe, whose \ Traffii/ues, and Discoueries »33 father in time past had beene Emperour of all laua, and commanded all the Kinges of laua, but this Kmpctour man because of his badde life was not much accounted came aborHe of : he spake good Portingall, for his mother was a ""^ secretly Portingall woman borne in Malacca : This Emperour with the had conspired against vs with the PortinBalles, but as fo'i'ngals , , ° , o 1 against them, then we knew it not ^ The 30 of lune Cornelis Houtman tookc a boate and went into the towne, and there spake with the Gouernour ibout certaine affaires, touching a contract to bee made with him The first of luly Houtman went again into the towne, and when he returned he brought with him a certaine contract made and signed by tne Gouernor himself, who most ,0 buy and willingly consented therevnto, and saide vnto him Go sell in the now and buy what you will, you haue free liberty j '°*"*' which done, the said Houtman with his men went to see the towne, apparelled in the best manner they coulde, in veluet Satin, and silkes, with rapiers by their sides; The Captaine had a thing borne ouer his head to keep him from the Sun, with a Trumpet before him, which certaine times he caused to bee sounded : There the Emperour bad them to a banket after the Indian manner : From thence we went to the Portingalles, that made much account of Houtman, and made him a banket, saying that they had scene him in Lisbone The 2 of luly many Marchants came abord, profering vs Pepper verie good cheape, but because we were vnskilfuU in the waight and other thinges wee tooke respite to answere them The 3 of luly the Sabander came abord, and he was our great friend, for that after we found it so, hee tolde vs what waight the sackes of Pepper were, and what prises they bare, counselling vs to buy The 7 of luly the Gouernour sent vs a man secretly by night willing vs to looke vnto our selues, and not to trust the Emperour, with whom all the Marchantes conspired, and went to inuac''* our ships, and that hee ment to rob vs, as being verj licentious and euill minded The 8 of luly the Emperour sent vnto our ships, and offered to make them a banket, bidding all the Cap our mem to taines, maisters Pilots, Gentlemen, Officers, Trumpets, fall vpon the and Gunners to come into the towne to him, and there '''"^hem'"' he woulde make merrie with them : This was done by VOL X V 2 |f1 »34 lYauigalions Voyages, im the Portingalles aduise, thereby to haue all the chiefe and princi |iall men out of our ships, but we perceiund their intent The II of luly the Emperour perc^yuing that his deuise would not take place, hee went from Bantam to lacatra The 13 of luly wee had a house offered vs within the tcwne The 13 of the same month Reyner van Hel with eyght Gentle men went into the towne, taking ce/taine wares with him, ofeuery thing a little, and laid it in the house appointed for the purpose : there to keep a ware house and to sel our marchandise, and pre sently both Gentlemen and Marchants came thither to buy and to sell vs Pepper The 15 and 16 many Gentlemen, Marchants, Chinars, and Arabians came to our warehouse and into our ships, offering vs Pepper, but our Factor offered them to little a price The 25 of luly the Gouernour came againe aborde our shippes, and there looked vppon certaine of our wares, whereof hee bought some, and counselled vs to buy Pepjier : About the same time the Portingalles made great sute vnto the Gouernour, promising him many giftes to deny vs traffike, and to constraine vs to of the depart from thence, saying we were no marchantcs, Portingalles but that we came to spie the countrie, for they said again;, em ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ seene many Fleminges in Lisbone, but nonelike vs Among the Portingalles there was one that was borne in Malacca, of the Portingalles race, his name was Pedro Truide, a man well seene in trauayling, and one that had bcene in all places of the world : He was our good friend, and euey day came to talke with our Captaines, saying, you do not well that you make no more haste to take in your lading, you shall haue no better cheape wares, and withall shewed vs many other things : wherevpon the Portin galles hated him, and not long after he was murthered in his bed In August we did little, and tooke no great store of lading in seeking to haue Pepper better cheape, which the Portingalles liked not well of, and saide vnto the Gouernour, that we desired not to buy ; which the Gouernour began to hearken vnto, for they offered great summes of money that hee shoulde not permit vs triffique, so that in the end hee commaunded that no man shoulde Carrie any Ryce aborde our shippes, whereby we were abashed, and thereupon we sent vnto the Gouernour for our money which hee ought for the wares hee had bought, which moued him The 26 of luly hee sent one of our Gentlemen with some of his men and nine slaues abord our ships Trajti/uti and Ducouerks >35 The situation of the lowne of Bantam, the principall towne of traflfique in the Island of laua, their strength and manner of building, with their traffique, what people come thither, what wares are there most desired, what nations bring them thither, or come to fetch them, together with their religion, customes and manner of house keeping BAntam lyeth in the Islande of laua maior, about 35 miles to sea ward within the Isle, between Sumatra and laua : On both sides of the Towne there runneth a Riuer, about 3 foot and a half deep, so that no shippes can enter into them : 'Ihe towne is com passed about with a Riuer : The towne is almost as great in com|)asse as the olde towne of Amsterdam : The wals are mad with flankers : They haue great numbers of Peeces ihfrcm, but they knowe not how to vse them, for they feare them much : all their Peeces are of brasse, and they haue many brazen bases Their walles are not aboue two Ibote thicke made of brickes : euery flanker hath diuers mastes and peeces of wood, which they vse when they are besieged by their enemies The houses are nnrade of straw and reedes, standing vpon 4 woodden postes The rich haue their chambers all hanged with silken Curtins, or els with cotton linnen : Their houses are most placed vnder Cocus trees, whereof the towne is full ; Without the walles are many houses, wherein strangers for the most part haue their dwellinges The towne hath three great market places, wherein dayly there is markets holden, where you may buy all kindes of wares, and where there commeth a great number of people, very strange tc beholde : Within the towne there is a great church or muske of wood, wherein they obserue the law of Mahomet : Gentlemen and men of any qualitie haue their ownc muskes in their houses The towne is not built with streetes, nor the houses placed in order, but very foule lying full of filthy water, which men must passe through, or leape ouer, for they haue no bridges : In ;he towne there is great resort of diuers Countries and nations, as of Malacca, Bengala, Malabar, Guihereters of Pegu, Sani Malicas, Banda, China and of many Kingdomes that haue great traffique for Peppier, that groweth rounde about Bantam, which in August and September is ripe, there you haue nutmegs, out of the Island of Banda, and Cloues from Moluca, which the Portingalles doe most buy vp: Wee bought Nutmegs there for a blank a pound : All victuailesand necessaries 236 Nauigalions, Voyages, M H are there in great iboundance to be had, as Hennas, Hartes, Fish, and Kyce, and diuers kinilcs ul Iruites, as Auanas, Cocus, Bonanas, Manges, Doroyens, lucca, I'runa, (irapes, Oranges, Lemons, Poniegarnets, Cocombers, Melons, Onions, Garlicke : but breade tiiey haue none, but in steade of it they eate Ryce : Beefe is there the dearest victuaile, for an Oxe in that place is worth 7 8 or 9 Rialles of 8 The Chinars have the greatest and most trafficke in that towne They come thither in the Month of lanuarie, with 8 or 9 great shippes, bringing all sorts of Porseline, silks, Damaske, gold thread, Iron pannes, and lauas money called Caixas, whereof 1 2000 make a Ryall of eight : They are hanged vpon stringes by two hundred together, for the which they both buy and sel al kinds of marchandises, and there they lade Pepper which they carrie into China : Without the towne they haue a great place wherein they commonly vse to sell their wares, and there they dwell, and haue greater and better houses then any aie within the towne, all made of reedes, onely that in euery house they haue a square place made of stone, wherein they put their wares to keepe them from burning, as some riche men in the towne likewise haue : The Chinars are very subiill and industrious people, and will refuse no labour nor paynes to yearne money, there they make much Aqua vitse of Ryce and Cocus, and trafficke much therewith, which the lauars by night come to buy, and drinke it secretly, for by Mahomets law it is forbidden them The Chinars liue there with free libertie : When they come to remaine there for a yeare or more as they thinke good, they buy themselues a wife or two, or more as they thinke good, and liue together like man and wife, and when they meane to depart, they sell their wiues again, but if they haue children they take them with them and so returne to China : They haue no special religion, but pray vnto the Deuill, that he would not hurt them, for they know that the Deuill is wicked, and that God is good, and hurteth no man, therefore they thinke it needlesse to pray to God They acknowledge not the resurrection of the deade, but when a man dyeth they thinke he neuer riseth again : In their houses they have great painted Deuils, before the which they place wax candles, and sing vnto them, praying them not to hurt them, and the more monstrous that their shapes be, the more they honour them These people liue very hardly and poorely within Bantam, for there is not any work or labour how filthy soeuer it be, but they will do it to get J'niffii/ues, ami /hsrufriei *37 money, and when ihcy haii' ^{otitii something; ihcy rofurne againe to China They are vcric like Icwus in our country, for they neuer goe without a i)aire of l)allances, and all thingcs is good wares with them, and are ready to do any pcruice When we came first before Hantam, they came euery day in great companies into our shippes, and there set out their wares to sel, as silkes, sowing silkes, and porselines, so that our vpper deckes were full of pedlers, that wee could hardly walke vpon the hatches The manner, condition, customc, going, standing, apparell, housekeeping, wares, and behauiour of the lauars in Hantam THc lauars and inhabitants of liantam, are proudc and obstinate, with a very stately pace, they hold the law of Mahomet, which they haue not had aboue 35 yeares, for as yet there are many heathens among them that neuer were made Mores : it is a very lying and theeuish kind of pcojjje, not in any sort to bee trusted Their apparell both of rich and poore is a cotton cloth, and some of silke about their middles, which they tie about them with a girdle, the vpper i)arte and from the knees downeward all naked: most of them goe bareheadd, but the principallest of them haue a wreath or Turkish roule about their hcades, and some little cappes : Their priestes come out of Meca in Arabia, and are yellowe of colour : Their weapon is a ^v],^, poinyard, which they call Crisis: it i: made with hilts, weapons and the handle is a Deuil cut out of wood or bone : '*"> *^"'* the sheathes are of wood : with them they are very bolde, and it is accounted for a great shame with them if they haue not such a Dagger, both yong, old, rich and poore, and yong children of fiue or sixe yeares olde, and when they go to the warres they haue targets, and some long speares, but most of them such poin yardes : The vse neyther great shotte nor caliuers when they go against their enemies : for a small matter one King wil make warre against another When we came firnt before Bantam, we offered to make a contract with the Gouernour and the counsell of the towne, that they should deliuer vs a certaine ciuantitie of Pepper, and wee would goe with our shippes before Palimbam, and he'lpe them to reuenge the death of their Kings vppon their enemies, for (as they said) we might goe within a bowe shot of , I ajS NauigttlioHS, foyages the townc with our shippes, and the Townc is l)ut of wood without walles, so that we would presently hauc beaten it downc to the ground They ofliered vs some of their principall (lOuer nours to be left for pledges in our shi|)pes, and their men woulde saylc in their fustes, such as shoulde go on land, and we should doe nothing els but shoote out of our ship|)es, but our Captaines would not do it, considering our small number of men The lliiw many I<>usirs take as many wiues as they will and are able wiues ihakc water, presenly one of the women washeth their number, and so they sit playins all the day with iliL'ir women ; Many of them hane slaues that play vppon instrunjentes much like our Shakelwis,* they haue likewise great basons whereon they strike, and therewith know how to make good musickc, whereat the women daunce, not leaping much, but winding and drawing their bodies, armes and shoulders, which they vse all night long, so that in the night tine they make a great noyse with bascms and other instruments, and the man he silteth and looketh vpon them, eucric one of the women striuing to doe her best that she may get her husbands fauour and her secreat pleasure The ("entlemen, Citizens, and mar chantcs haue their (Jirdens, and fieldcs without the towne, and slaues for the purpose to labour in them, and bring their maisters all kindes of fruit Rice and Hennes in the towne, also the Pepper that groweih there, which runneth vp by another tree, as Hoppes with vs, and groweth in long bunches like Grapes, so that there is at the least zoo graines in one bunch : it is first greene, and after it becommcth blacke, and is there in great aboundance, so that it is the right Pepper countrey ; for when we came thither they said vnto vs, Aqui ai tanta Pimienta, como terra, that is, here is as much Pepper as earth, and so we found it, and yet we departed from thence by our owne follies, without our lading of Pepper : Wee siaide for new Pepper, meane time the Portingalles sent their letters into euery place seeking to hinder our trade : At the first we might haue sufficient, for theie we founde enough both to buy for money or to barter We likewise had money and wares sufficient : we might easily have had sixe or eight hundred tunnes, as we were aduertised by some of the countrey, that we should presently buy, for that the Portingalles sought by all the meanes they could to hinder vs, as after it appeared ; and there • Musical instruments mentioned in Nichol's Coronation of Anne lioleyn, p 2 Probably Sackbuts IldU IVpper groweth in that cuuniri')' 'I i( \ \\\ i ! Ml ' 1 i 1 '•; ' \ 240 Nauigatwns, Voyages, that were kept prisoners fore he that thinketh to come soone enough, commeth oftentimes too late, and we vsed not our time so ^vcll as it fell out The 29 of August we ha(3 '' letter sent vs by night A Utter sent |,q,j, ^^^ j^g^ t[,at were if the towne, that lay in a by our men ,, , , j in the town nianer as prisoners, to will vs to let our pledge go a shore, otherwise they feared they shoulde hardly escape with their Hues, and great danger might fall vpon them : this pledge came aborde with the 9 slaues The 30 of August we sent the pledge and the rest of our lauars to land, with promise that he would do the best he might to get our men leaue to come aborde : about euening of the same day wee had newes from our men by foure of our saylers that as then they were better vsed, saying they thought they should come aborde when two shippes were gone that ment to saile for Malacca, being laden with Nutmegs and other things The first of September, and the 2 3 and 4 wee sent many letters to the Gouernour and hee to vs, and likewise to our men that were in the towne, being nine in number, all our best marchants and captains, hauiijg with them about 6 or 7000 Guildernes in marchandise, and they againe to vs The 5 of September when wee perceyued that delayes were They went dangerous wee went close to the towne with all our nearer to 4 shippes, and SO neere that we had but two fadome the town, ^^uddie grounde, and presently with two of our boates for our securitie wee set vppon three lauan shippes, whereof two were laden with fish and Cocus, wherein wee founde a man of China, being of some account The third ship was laden with 20 tunnes of Cloues, 6 tunnes of Pepper, and some Benioni, and Piementa da Rauo, wherein we founde fiue Mala bardes slaues to the Porlingalles, whom wee likewise tooke, and they were very willing to goe with vs, thereby to bee eased of the slauery wherevnto the Portingals put them, and perceyuing that the Portingalles went often to and from another shippe that lay not farre from vs, we took our Pinace and made towardes it, and being harde by it, the Portingals left it and set it o:^ fire : This ship had the richest wares in it as the Portingalles slaues tolde vs, for it was laden with fiftie tunnes of Cloues, which were burnt in it The sixt and seuenth of Sei)tember we hearde no newes, so that wee went close to the Towne agayne, shooting with our great Traffitjues, and Discoueriei 241 A skirmish betwcciie ihe I'iiiact; nnd 24 boats Peeces into it, slaying diuers of the people (as after we were informed:) They likewise shot with their Peeces agaynst vs, which the Portingalles did, for that the lauars haue little or no skill at all therein, and are very fearefuU of them, and although they hid many peeces in the towne, yet they did vs n> other hurt then onely shot one of Molenares halfe masts in peeces The seuenth of September wee had a skirmish, which was in this manner, we perceyuing a lauan ship vnder sayle, sent our Pinace with sixe and twentie men in her to fetch it in, which the lauan shipi)e perceyuing fledde behinde an Islande, where our Pinace followed him so fast that shee fell a grounde, which the townes men perceyuing, made them readie with foure and twentie boatcs full of men, all armed after their manner, and set forwarde in good order, being diuided in two companies, seuen on starre bord, and 17 on lardde bord of the Pinace, in order like a halfe Moone, threatning vs with great speares, they thought by reason of their great number of men that they had already taken it, but it fell out otherwise, for they in the Pinace, perceyuing them comming, shotte among them : and when they were harde by the Pinace, shee golte a flote, as they thought to lake her, hauing cast out an anker in good time, and thereby wounde themselues ofl" the grounde, but for haste they were forced to cutte their Cable, because they had not time enough to windc it vpjie, and with all they shotte one of their boates vnder water The Pinace drawing her boate after her, the lauans presentl) leapt into it, and cutte a sunder the roajje that helde it, which they immediately stole from vs, thrusting with their Speares in at the loope holes Seuen of their Boates being round about vs were so sharpely paidc with the iron peeces, stone peeces, and Caliuers, that the 17 others durst not come so neere vs : I thinke there were at the least 100 of them that neuer carryed newes how they sped in that skirmish, for euery boate had at the least 60 men in it, and they were so thickc in them, that they could not help themselues, nor did any thing els but shake their speares, and they shot but one base : their arrowes hurt vs not, and so the Pinace returned agayne vnio our shippes, sayling close before the towne, and shooting into it with her ordinance : They shot out of the towne, but it hit her not, because they shot with stone pellets, wherewith you cannot shoote so certainly as with iron bullets The 8 9 and 10 of September we had letters from our men VOL X c; 2 I i ' M sas^ 242 Nauigations, Voyages^ \\ out of Bantam, by the wliich they willed vs not to shoot any more, for that the Gouernour threatned to set them vpon stakes : Houtman wrote they were in good hope that they shoulde bee put to raunsome, which wee counselled them to doe as well as they might The II of September we had a letter from Houtman, and one _, from the Gouernour, wherein hee wrote that he would The contents ,, • i ^ i • i / of the set our men at libertie, so we would be quiet, but if Gouornors ^e desired warre, he would once againe come and visite vs in another sort: wee lunswered him that there he should find vs, that wordcs were but wind, and that he should set our men at a reasonable ransome, and thereof send us an answere the next day The 12 and 13 of Seplember wee had no answere out of the townc, and we had want of water, and could get none thereabouts but that which came out of the towne, for that the Gouernour had taken order that we should get no water about the towne, so that we hoised ankers to go seeke some The 17 of September we came before 3 or 4 Islands which Molenare and Shellenger sayled bctweene, and for that the streame ranne so strong there, they were forced to goe so nigh the shore, that they might almost leape on lande, whereby they escaped great danger, but the other sliippe and the Pinace sayled about the Islands, and so met with the other two, and casting forth their ankers went on shore, where wee spake with men that •saide they would shew vs where wee shoulde haue water, so we would giue them two Caliuers The 1 3 19 2c 23 and 24 we sayled to lade water, for it was hard to get, and we v/ere forced to keep good watch, which done hoysing ankers againe, wee sayled towardes Bantam, holding our course Eastwarde The 27 we sayled Northeast towardes the lande of laua maior The 28 setting sayle agayne, we kept East Northeast along by by the coast of laua, and about noone because of the great streame that runneth in the straight, wee were forced to anker, nd the 30 day wee set sayle againe The first of October in the euening wee came to a great Islande, being three miles from the towne, and there we ankered finding good clay ground The 2 of October wee had a letter from our men, how they Trajfiijues, and Discouerics 243 were separated one from the other, and kept by the Gentlemen of the towne, and their wares parted among them The 3 4 and 5 when wee were againe before the towne, we had other letters, that by our comming they were better vsed, and hoped to bee set at a reasonable ransonie, and that they promised that one of our men should come aborde, so he would rcturne againe into towne, that shoulde by worde of mouth certifie vs what hope they were in, and the cause thereof, that we might the better believe it The 6 of October in the night one of our men came aborde, and shewed vs what had past, when we shotte into the towne, how they were separated and kept close prisoners, and cruelly threatned by the lauars, whereby they still lau'iJ^^ vsed expected when they should bee put to death, and howe our they sought all the meanes they coulde to make them "'^"op '"'^ to deny their faith, and become Mores, but they remayned constant, and saide they woulde rather die, and that they had by force shauen three of our men after the Morish manner, and how the Portingals had sought all the meanes they coulde to buy them for slaues, offering money for them that ihey might sende them to Malacca, how they were set at libertie againe, and might goe where they woulde within the towne, and so they hoped all would be well, and that they shoulde bee set at libertie for some small ransome, and that the Gouernour asked them 3000 Rialles of 8 but they hoped to bring him to 2000 whereat we much reioyced The 8 9 and 10 of October we passed ouer to make some agreement with them that we might be quiet The II of October they agreede vppon a ransome of 2000 Ryalles of eyght, and were content, that what goodes, soeuer we had taken from them, wee shoulde keepe as our owne, and for our goodes that they had stolen, and forcibly taken from our men within the towne, they would keepe them, and so exchange one for the other, they likewise were content to quit vs of ji^^ ^^^^^^ all our debts, that we ought within the towne eyther of the to the Gouetnour or to any other man, and that from ">"some thence forwarde we should be free, and traffique in the towne, both to buy and sell when it pleased vs, and with their good willes as we had done, and before we paide our money, the towne was to sende two men aborde our ships, which done we were to pay the halfeof our ransome, which was 1000 Ryalles ofeyglit; which I I ' »1 ^ li : ' hi 1 I I 244 Nauigatiom, yoyagts Why Ihf Gmuriiuur forljai vs Iraflicke being performed, their two men, and their other halfe of our men were on both sides to bee deliuered and sette free, and without contradiction it was performed The 12 and 13 this agreement being ended, diuers victuailers came aborde our shippes to sell vs Hermes, Eggcs, and all other kind of victuailes The 14 we gaut certnine presentes in signe of good will, to such as had shewed vs fauour when we were in contention with them The 15 16 17 and 18 some of our Factors went into the towne, where they bought ccrtaine Pepper, and brought it abord our ships The 19 they went again into the towne, and bought a greater quaiititie at 5 sickes for one Catti, minding in that sorte euery day to take in our lading, but it fell not out as wee desired, for the Portingalles thnl coulde not brooke our company, made such means to the (louernour, that he gave commandment that we should buy no more Pe[)per, before we had paide 1400 Rialles of 8 wliich he challenged of vs because we had cast anker within his streame, whtrevpon our Marchantes wcntand agreed with him, which done wee thinking to buy Pepper as we did before, the Goucrnour againe commanded to the contrarie, whereby we perceyued their deceipt, in ihat he wold not hold his word The countrymen would gladly haue solde their Pepper, as also the Chinars, Arabians, Maho metitians, and secretly some Portingalles, but when we saw wee ( ould not get it out but with great daunger, wee thought it not conucnient to buy : and when we sjvake vnto the Gouernour, touching the holding of his worde, he made vs answere, that he had no bones in his tongue, and that therefore l:e coulde not speake that which he ment not to doe : and to say the truth most part of the lauars are a kind of deceitful! people, for whatsoeuet they say and ])resently performe, that shall you be sure of and no more The 25 of October there camo an Ambassador into Bantam sent froin Malacca to the Gouernour with a present of loooo Rials of ? desiring him to forbid vs both his towne and streame, that wee might not traffique there Whereof wee were aduerlised by the Sabander and other of our friendes counselling our men to get them out of the towne, and not to returne againe, otherwise they would be in daunger to be stayed againe, and we hauing sent a man into the tovv*ne to saue him from being holden jirisoner, our host where we lay being on shore was forced to bring him out couered with certaine mattes ; so that vppon the 26 of the same Traffiipies, and Discoiieries, «4S month all our trafficke and friendship wiih them ceased : hut our hoast being our friende, came secretly ahorde our ships, and shewed vs that he and his company had two ships lying before the towne, laden with Nutmegges and Mace that came from Jianda, for the which hee agreed with vs at a price, vpon condition that we should seeme to take them by force, that thereby he might colour his dealing with vs : wherevjjon the first of Noueniber we sailed close to the towne with all our ships, and set vpon to two lauan shii)pes, wherein we foimd to the number of 30 sialics, that knew nothing of their maisters bar^aine made with vs, so that they began to resist vs, wherewith we shot among them, and presently slew 4 or 5 ()f ihem, the rest lea[)t ouer borde, and swamnie to land, which clone »e tooke the two ships, and put I'owtlicy , , , ,,„ ,, ,, , 1 lookc twii their ladmg mto ours ; Ihe I'ortmgalles shii)pe that lauan ship^ brought their Ambassadour, lay dose vnder the shore, wherevnto we sent two of our boats, but the Portingals that were in her shot so thicke with their peeces vppon our men, that our boates were forced to leaue them with losse of one of our men, but our shinpes shot in such sorlewith their ordinance _, , , I hey loucht vp])on the Portingall shippe, that they sjioyled and with a brake it in peeces, wherein their Ca[)taine was slaine, ''''ftmyall and the victuallers that stil brought vs victuailes to sell, "" "'''"" told vs that with our peeces we had slain three or foure men within the towne, and tiiat the townes men began to make an armie of ships to set vpon vs 'The 2 of Nouember we espyed a shippe that can^; towards Bant:im, which we ioyned vnto with our boats, and ii,^,j, f,,,,^),, being neere vnto it, they spread their fights, which wiih^i laimn were of thicke mattes, and began to defend them '" "''''^" selues ; our men shot among them with stone peeces and Caliuers, and they defended ihemselues with great courage, hauing balfe pikes wherewith they thrust at vs, and that serued liliewise to blow arrowes out ot them, for they were like trunkes, out of the which trunkes they shot so great numbers of arrowes, that they fell as thick as hayle, and shot so certainely, that therewith they hurt at the least eyght or nine of our men, but the arrowes are thinne and light, so that their blaste coulde not make them enter into the flesh aboue the thicknp, of two fingers, onely the head of the arrowe (which is iiade of reede, ail loose stayeth in the flesh) when we shot with our Caliuers iliey ranne behind their fightes, but when they perceiued that their matted J ' it *H 24^ Nauigations, Voyages, figlits could not defende them, and that they were killed through them, they entered into their boate, and by strength of oares rowed from vs, leauing their shippe, wherein we founde two dead men, and we slew three more of them as we rowed after their boat, so that in all they lost fiue men, as we after heard, and that they were to the number of 40 which done, wee brought their shippe to ours, wherein we found good store of Ryce and dryed fish The 6 of Nouember, perceyuing not any hope of more trafficke for vs with those of Bantam, wee hoised anker and set sayle, setting our course towardes the straight of Sunda The seuenth of Nouember wee came and ankered before a _, Riuer of freshe water, about sixe miles from Bantam, The mnr ' 1 • 1 chanisfollow wnere wee tooke in our prouision of water: thuner them with certaine Merchants followed vs with Porseline, telling vs that they were sory for our departure, and that they longed for our returne againe The thirteenth of Nouember we set sayle, and about eucning wee came before lacatra, in time past called Sunda Calapa, which hath beene a rich Towne of marchandise, but vppon some occasions and by reason of their hard vsagc the Marchants had wilhdrauen themselues from thence, therefore at this present there is little or nothing to doe lohn Hughen in his booke saith this to be the principal towne of trafficke, but that is long sithtnce, for now there is not any trade of marchandise The fourteenth of Nouember wee sent two of our men into the towne, hauing some of theirs in pawne, who tolde vs that many of the inhabitants were gone out of the towne with all their goodes, being in great feare of our peeccs, and there wee had great store of victuailes, and much more then wee required brought abord our shi[)' The 18 wee set saile (rom lacatra, and being about two miles from the towne, our shippe called Amsterdam fell vppon a cliffe, but it got offie again without any hurt, and therewith wee presently made towardes the straight The 2 of December we passed by 3 lownes which we might easily perceiue, we likewise passed by Tubam, and ankered vnder Sidaya The 5 of December there came men out of the towne, and desired vs to stay, saying that there we might haue Clones and Nutmegs as many as we woulde, bringint; certaine banketting stufTe (as a present from their king) vnto Schelengers ship, because it lay nearest to the land, and they came most abord it Traffiques, and Discotieries »47 The 4, of December they came again into Schellengers ship, bringing certaine presentes with them, and among the rest a ccrtayne birJe that coulde swallowe fyer, which is a very strange fowie, and was brought aliue to Amsterdam, which after was giuen to the Slates of Hollande lying in the Hage, and some good fruites, willing vs to sende a man on shore, to see their si'ices, whereof they said they had great store : wherevpon we sent a man out of ilie Amsterdam, and with him an interpreter, one of the I'oiijiigalles slaues, they leaning three firfoure of their men ahorde our shippes, for pawnes till his returne ; when our men came to lande hee was well vsed, and there they shewed him fortie or fiftic hals of Cloues ; which done they brought him before the King, that [iroinised him great fauor, and told liim that the next day he wold himselfe come ahord our ships, and deale with our Captaines, and with that he let our man depart The 5 of December we expected the Kings comming aborde, putting out all our flagges and strenniers, and about noone there came 8 or 9 indifferent gr:at shippes full of men from off the bhore, wherein wee thought the King to bee, but when they were almost at vs, they diuided themselues, three of them rowing to Shellengers ship, and when they horded him, they thinking the King had been there, Rcymer van Hel as Factor and the Maister came forth to receyue him, und the lauars entering all at once, Reymer van Hel said, What will all these people do aborde the shippe, for there was at the least two hundred men, who all at one time drewe out their poinyardes, and stabbed our men that neuer suspected them, so that presently they had slaine twelue of the shi|)pe, and two sore wounded, that boldly withbtoode them : the rest of our men being vnder hatches presently tooke their pikes, and thrust so fast out at the grates, that the lauars wouldc haue forced the middle part of the ship, 'Aherein was two entries, but our ^^^ ^^^ men standing at them with their swordes in hand Indians draue them out, not ceasing still to thrust vp with ''^J^''j^>'^'' their pikes, meane time they kindled fier, lighted their matches, and shot off their stone peeces that lay aboue liic hatches, wherwith they began presently to flie, most of them leaping ouer bord, and swam to their two boates, that lay harde by our shippes, whereof one with a great peece was pre sently stricken in peece: The rest of our shipps hearing vs shoote in 'hr ; manner, entered into their boats, and made towardes 1:1 ' J, tma 248 Nauixattons, Voyages, them, rowing harde to the three Indian fustes, wherein were at the least loo men, and shotte among them with their peeces, wherewith they leapt into the water, euery man swimming to shore, and we with two boates after them, hewing and killing them as our deadly enemies, who vnder pretence of friendshippe sought to murther vs, and wee handled them in such sort, that of two hundred men there got not aboue thirty of them to lande, the rest of their fustes lay farre off and beheld the fight : Three of their fustes thought to rowe to the Pinnace to take her, vhich they might easily haue done, as hauing not aboue 7 or 8 men in her, being busie to set vp a newe maste, but when they perceyued their men to bee so handeled in the Amsterdam, and that they leapt ouer borde, they turned backe againe, and in great haste rowed to land, so that at that time they got not much by the bargaine, and no small griefe to vs, for there wee lost 12 men, that were all stabbed with poinyards, their riic names r t 1 n 1 n of the men names were lohn lacobson bchellenger, maisler of thit were the ship, Reymer Van Hel Factor, Gielis Gieloson Gentleman, Barent Ilonteboter, Arent Corncdragcr, Cornelis van Alcmuer, Simon lanson, Wiltschut loos the Car penter, Adrian de Metselar, one of the Portingalles slaues, and two boyes, whereof one was but twelue yearcs olde, whereby wee perceyued them to be a kinde of cruell people, for they had giuen the little boy and all the rest of our men at the least 12 stabbes a peeca after they were dead The same day about euening we hoysed ankers, and set saile, hauing manned the Amsterdam with men out of our otlier shippes, and so helde our course Eastward The 6 of December we came to a great Island called Madura, where we ankered, and in the evening two of their men came aborde our shippes, with message from their Gouernour, saying that we were welcome, desiring vs to stay there, for he would trafficke with vs, and sell vs some Pepper, as they saide, but wee belieued them not The 7 of December there came another boat abord, bringing certaine fruites, saying that the next day their Gouernour would come to see our shippes The 8 there came a great fuste and three smal boats, from off the land all full of men, saying their Gouernour was among them : we willed them not to goe to the Amsterdam, but to the Mauritius, but they woulde not, but made to the Amsterdam, Traffiine to Bantam, wherewith the Mauritius sayled Southeastwarde, to gette about the Island of laua, and we fol lowed her The 14 of lanuary we once againe perceyued the East point of the Island of Madura, and held our course South ward : on that side of Madura there lyeth many small Islandes, through which we sayled The 16 in the morning our Pinace fell on grounde vpon the coast of laua, not far from Pannorocan, where she shotte off three peeces, at the which warn iUo' wee made thi»her with our boates, and by the hel|ie of God got her off againe : There we saw a high hil that burnt, vnder and aboue the fire hauing a great smoake, most strange to behold The 18 of lanuary we entered into the straight that runneth betweene laua and Baly, and by reason of the hard and contrary streame that ran therin, we were forced to anker v|X)n the coast of laua, where wee found good anker ground The 19 wee set sayle, and when wee came neere to the coast of Baly, we entered into a rough streame, and our shippes draue backeward, as swiftly as an arrow out of a bov, and there we found no anker ground, nor any anker could haue holden vs, but Molenaer got the coast of laua and ankered, which in the ende wee likewise did, and ankered at the least three miles from him, and so much we had driuen backe in the space of halfe an houre The 20 of lanuarie wee went and lay by our other ships The 21 of lanuarie there came two barkes to the Mauritius, wherein there was one that coulde speake good Portingall, who tolde vs that the towne of Ballaboam was besieged by a strange King, that had marryed the King of Ballaboams daughter, and after he had laine with her he caused her to bee slaine, and then came to besiege her father This towne of Ballaboam lyeth on the East end of the Islaud of laua, and is the same towne where M Candish was when hee passed that way, and the old King O 'J'rafii/uts, and Diseoueria »5« wherof he writeth was as then yet liuing, being at the least 160 yean of age There we saw great numbers of Battes, that flew ouer our shippes, and were as bigge as Crowes, which in that Countrey they vse to eat, as they say : About noone we came beforr the towne of Ballaboam, io neare vnto it, that we might easily see it, and there we lay behind a high point of landc, thinking to take in water The 33 of lanuarie we tooke our Pinace, and sayled about the shore as neere the land as possible we might, to seeke for fresh water, but wc found none, for the Riuer that ran through the towne was paled vp (by them that lay before it) so that no man might passe either out or in, but onely on the lande side, and that with great daunger : The same day there came 2 or 3 men abord our shippe, that stole out of the towne by night, and came from ihe King, to desire our help with our great shot, which wee could not doe ; because that thereabouts it was very shallow, and we might not go neere it with our shippes ; they tolde vs they had great want of victuailes within the towne, whereby many of them were already deade for hunger, and much desired our aide, but it was not in vs to doe Those that besieged the towne were Mores, but they in the towne were heathens, and as yet had not receyued Mahomets lawe, and that (as wee heard after) was the cause of their warre : There wee sawe many Storkes flying and sitting in the fielde : with vs we cannot imagine where the Storkes remaine in winter time, but here wee sawe them in the winter time The 34 of lanuarie we sayled from thence, perceyuing nothing for vs to get, and tooke our course right ouer to the Island of Bally The 35 we came to Bally, where one of their barks horded vs, telling vs that there we should And a Riuer of fresh water, and of all thinges els sufficient to serue our necessities, wherevpon we ankered The 36 of lanuarie our Pinace sent her boat to land, to see the Riuer, and there one of our men was sent on shore, but when he was on land he found nothing, but an armie of ten thousand men, that ment to relieue the towne of Ballaboam, and the Riuer was nothing wcrth to lade water, wherevpon our men came on horde againe : Their Generall thought to haue gotten some great pray out of our shippes The 37 of lanuarie we set sayle to finde a conuenient place to r »5« Nauii^lions, Voyagit^ \ refresh vs with water and other prouision, for wee were informed by a man of Bcngnla, that nf his owne will sayled with vs, and that had bcene in Bally, that there wee should finde water and other thinges to serue our necessities, so that by night wee ankered vnder a high pointe of lande on the South West ende of Dally The 38 of lanuarie one of their boates horded vs with sixe or seuen men, saying that their King was desirious to dealc with vs for si'ch wares as hee had, and sent to know from whence we came, and we said wee came out of Holland The 29 and 30 theru came more men aborde our shippes, but as wee suspected that was not the right hauen, for the jwople came rowing in great haste a far off, and the man of Dengala could not tell what to say, hut the King was thereabout, and euery day sent vs some fruit The first of February wee had two hogges brought aborde our shipjies, that wee bought for two Ryalles of eyght, and we eate them very sauerly The 2 of Februarie, we set sailc tliat wee might get aboue the point, where wee thought to finde a better place for freshe water, but by I :ason the winde was contrary, wee could not doe it, but were torced to anker againe The 3 of February we set saile againe, and then wee had a storme, so that our saile blew euery way, and because of the contrarie winde we could not reach aboue the point, but were constrained to anker, but the Mauritius and the Pinace got past it, although thereby the Mauritius was in no little daunger, but because the Pilot had laid a wager of 6 Rialles of 8 that hee woulde get aboue it, hee would passe, what daunger soeuer it might be, and sayled close along by the cliffes, whereby wee lay at anker without companie The 4 and 5 we set saile once againe to get aboue the point but could not reach it The 6 we had a letter from Rodenburgh, that certified vs how the Mauritius lay at anker at the least 7 or 8 miles beyond the point, and he that brought the letter came with it ouer land ; and at the same time there was a man sent on lande with a small present for the King, that we might winne his fauour The 7 our man came on borde againe, and brought vs newes how Rodenburgh with one of the Portingalles slaues, being on lande were against their villes led before the King, but the saylors of the Mauritius had gotten men for pledges Tiraffi^uts, and Ditenufnet, »53 The 8 of Tanunric, ihe same man wciu on land out ol our shippe with more prescntes of vcliict and a cMiiicr, the better to get the Kingcs tauour, which hked him well, and denired vs to bring the ship nearer to the towne, saying he would send vs water, and other things sufficient to supply our wants The 9 we sayled into the cheeke with our shippe, and ankered about a small halfe mile from the land, and being ankered there came at the least 70 boates of the Countrey to see our ship, and the King sent vs word that hee was di'sirous to lieare vs shoote off 5 or 6 of our great pecces, and the King stoode vppon the shore to see them The 10 we had a letter from Cornelis Houtman, to wil vs to come to them, for that there they had founde a ^ood place for water, and all other necessaries, so that about euening wee set saylc, leaning two of our men and a Portingall slaue among the Indians, whome the King promised should come vnto vs oucr land, yet that night wee could not reach alioue the point, nieane time we perreyued our Pinace that came to helpe vs The 16 we got by the Mauritius, that had already laden in her water, and hooped her vessels, whcrevpon v^c began presently to do the like, and to visite our vessels that were almost spoyled The 17 our men whome wee left with the King came ouer land vnto our shippes, and then we bought great store of cattle and fruit The 18 19 to and 21 wee imployed our time to lade water, which wee had verie easily, and refreshed our selues with Cattle, Hogges, fruit, and Lemons sufficient There came one of the Kinges principall officers with our men ouer land, to pleasure vs in all things we desired, he was very desirous to haue some present of vs The 24 of lanuarie two of our men that sayled in the Mauritius stayed on lande, but wee knewe not the cause : it should seeme some great promises had beene made vnto them, for as we vnderstoode the King was very desirous to haue all sortes of strange nations about him, but our people were therein much ouerseene, for there they liued among heathens, that neyther knewe God nor his commandements, it appeared that _ ^ , their youthes and wilde heades ^'i not remember it, men stayed one of their names was Emanuel Rodenburgh of *'••? 'he Amsterdam, the other lacob Cuyper of Delft : within aS4 A'auigations, Voyages, a day or two they sent vnto vs for their cloties, but wee sent them not The 23 34 and 2$ we made a voyage on land, and fetcht as many Hogges abord our shippes as we could eate The 25 of Februarie we hoysed ankers, minding to set saile and so go homeward, leauing our two men aforesaid on land, but because it was calme weather we ankered, and went once againe on lande, and the 26 of the same Month wee set saile and helde our course West South West, but we had a calme 11 \ The situation of the Island of Baly THe Island of Baly lying at the East end of laua, is a verie fruitfull Islande of Ryce, Hennes, Hogges, that are very good, and great store of cattle : but they are very drie and leane beastes They haue many horses : the inhabitantes are heathens, and haue no religion, for some pray to Kine, others to the Sunne, and euerie man as hee thinketh good When a man dyeth his women* *''* burneth her selfe with him : there were some of burnt them their men aborde our shippes, that told vs, that when selues with gQ^g ^^^ dyeth in that Countrey, that sometimes one man , ^, , there are at the least nfty women that will burne themselues with him, and she that doth not so is accounted for a dishonest woman : so that it is a common thing with them : The apparel both of men and women is for the most part like those of Bantam, nothing but a cloth about their middles : Their weapons is, each man a poinyarde at their backes, and a trunke wirh an iron point like a speare, about a fadom and a halfe long, out of the which they blowe certaine arrowes, whereof they haue a case full ; it is an euil weapon for naked men : they are enemies to the Mores and Portingalles This Hand yeeldeth no spice, nor any other costly ware, onely victuailes and clothes which they weare about their bodies, and slaues that are there to be solde The King went with more state then the King of Bantam : all his garde had pikes with heades of fine gold, and he sate in a wagon that that was drawen by two white BuiHes The first of March we had a calme The third we got a good wind that blew Southeast, holding our course West South West The fourteenth the wind blew stil South East, sometimes more Southwarde, and sometimes Eastward, being vnder 14 degrees, pMtN Trafiques, and Discoueries ^55 and a good sharpe gale, holding our course West Southwest * There we found that laua is not so broade, nor jhe situation stretcheth it selfe not so much Southwarde, as it is set of lauii downe in the Carde : for if it were, we should haue passed clean through the middle of the land The 22 of March the winde helde as it did, being vnder 19 degrees, holding our course West South West The 19 of April our ship had no more bread left, but for our last imrtition euery man had seuen pound, both good and badde breade, and from that time forwarde our meatc was Rice sodden in water, and euery man had a canne of water euery day, with three roiners of wine, and weekely each man three romers or glasses of oyle and that very strong, and nothing els The 20 we had a calme, the 21 a calme with a Northerne aire The 23 a good wind that blew Southwest The 24 we saw the firme lande of Ethiopia, being vnder 33, degrees, and as wee gessed, wee were then about an hundred miles from the Cape de bona Sperance, yet we thought we had been at the least three hundred miles from it, so that wee may say, that God wrought wonderfully for vs : for that if wee had fallen by night vpon the land, we had surely runne vpon it: wee had a good winde out of the West, and West Southwest The 25 of Aprill in the morning wee had a calme, with a very hollow water, and at euening we had a good winde, that came North and Northeast, and although wee had so good a wind yet our shippe bare but little sayle, although the other two shippes of our company were at the least two mile before vs, for most part of the night wee sayled with our schouer saile, holding our course Southwest and by West The 26 of Aprill in the morning we coulde not see our shippes, which pleased not our men, besides that our shippe was very weake, whereby her ribs shoke, and her ioynts with the force of the water opened and shut, so that as then our shippe was very leake, hauing the winde Northwest, holding our course as neere as wee could West Southwest, and then we put out our niaine sayles, at noone the winde camj West, with a great storme, so that most of our sayles blew in peeces, and so wee draue forward with out sayles The 27 of Aprill still driuing without sayle with a West winde, wee were vnder thirty sixe degrees, so that we found that the streame draue vs South and South West i i: ZS6 Nauigattons, Voyages^ ,1 The 28 of Aprill still driuing without sailes, wc had the height of 36 degrees and 20 minutes, and about euening we hoised saile againe, the winde being West Southwest, and we held our course Northwest with very hollow "ater The 29 of April we could not as yet see our shippes, the wind being West The 30 of Aprill we had fayre weather with a West and West Sourh West wind, and then we saw many great birdes with white billes, which is a signe not to bee far from the Cape de bona Sperance, we likewise saw certain small birdes, speckled on their backes, and white vpon their breastes The first of i^ay wee had a South winde with fayre weather hauing 34 degrees and a halfe, holding our course West South west The seconde of May wee were vnder 35 degrees, and \ holding our course West and West and by North The fourth of May wc found our selues to be vnder 37 degrees South South East winde, our course being West and by North, and West North West The 5 and 6 of May we had all one winde at noone being vnder 35 degrees, wee thought wee had passed the Cape, and held our course Northwest, towardes Saint Helena, still without sight of our ships The 8 of May with a South wind wee helde North West and by West The 9 we had a calme with a gray sky, and were vnder 31 degrees and twentie minutes, and then our portion of oyle was increased a glasse more euery weeke, so that euery man had foure glasses The 10 we had stil South winds, and were vndei* 29 deg The 14 of May twice or thrice we saw reedeSj called Trombos driuing on the wu« r, being such as driue about the iheCape Cape de bona Speranza, which wee thought verie de bona strange, for that the Portingals write, that they are seen peranza ^^^ thirtie niyles from the Cape, and wee gest our selues to be at the least 200 beyond it The 15 we still had a South East wind, and helde our course Northwest The 16 of May in the morning we saw two ships, whereat we much reioyced, thinking they had beene our companie, we made to leewarde of them, and the smallest of them comming somewhat Traffiques, and Discoueries 257 neere vs, about the length of the shotle of a great peece, shee made presently toward her fellow, whereby we perceiued them to bee Frenchmen, yet we kept to leeward, thinking they would haue come and spoken with vs, but it should seeme they feared vs, and durst not come, but held their course Northeast ; at noone we had the height of 22 degrees, and 50 minutes with a Southeast wind, holding our course Northwest The 17 of May wee were vnder 21 degrees and a halfe : the the 18 the wind being Southerly, we were vnder 19 degrees and a halfe The 19 and 20 we had a calme with a Southern aire The 21 the ayre comming Southwest, we held our course Northwest : and were vnder 1 7 degrees and f partes : There we found the compasse to decline three quarters of a strike or line North eastward, after noone we had a Southeast wind, and our course West Northwest The 22 of May we had still a Southeast winde, and were vnder the height of 16 degrees and 40 minutes, holding our course West Northwest The 23 of May, by reason of the cloudy sky, about noone we could not take the height of the Sunne, but as we gest we had the height of the Island of S Helena, and held our course West and by South to keepe vnder that height, for there the compasses decline a whole strike or line : in the euening we found that we were vnder 16 degrees The 24 of May in the morning wee discouered a Portingall ship, that stayed for vs, and put out a flagge of truce, and because our flagge of truce was not so readie as theirs, and we hauing the wind of him, therefore he shot two shootes at vs, and put forth a flagge out of his maine top, and we shot 1 or 6 times at him, and so held on our course without speaking to him, hauing a South East winde, holding our course West and by South to find the Island of S Helena, which the Portingal likewise sought The 25 of May we discouered the Island of S Helena, but we could not see the Portingal ship, still sayling with a stifle South east wind, and about euening we were vnder the Island, which is %'ery high lande, and may be seene at the least 14 or 15 miles off", and as we sayled about the North point, there lay three other great Portingal ships, we being not aboue half a mile from them, wherevpon wee helde in the weather and to scawarde Noitheast as much as we might The Portingalles perceyuing vs, the VOL X I 2 '» I * as* NauigatioHS, Voyages, i!; III _ Ai Imiral of their fleet shot ofT a peece to call their men Portingal thtt were on land to come aborde, and then wee saw ships richly foure of their shippes tot^ethe', that were worth a great summe of money, at the least 300 tunnes of gold, for they were all laden with spices, precious stones, and other rich wares, and therefore wee durst not anker vnder the Island, but lay all night Northeastwarde, staying for our company The 26 of May in the morning wee made towardes the Island ^gaine, with a good Southeast winde, and about noone or some what past we discried two shippes, and about euening as we made towards them, we knew them to be our company, which made vs to reioyce, for we had been asunder the space ol a whole Month, und so we helde together and sayled homeward, holding our course Northwest : for as yet our men were well and in good health, and we found a good Southeast winde, and had water enough for foure or iiue nionthes The 27 28 29 and 30 of May wee had a Southeast winde, with faire weather, and the 27 day we were vnder 14 degrees The first of lune we were vnder 6 degrees, with a Southeast wind, holding our course North West, but by means of the Com passe that yeelded North eastward, we kept about Northwest and by North The 6 of lune wee were vnder one degree on the South side of the line, there wee founde that the streamr draue vs fast into the West, and therefore wee helde our course more They passed Northernely and sayled Northwest and by North, with the Equi an East and South East wind The 7 of lune wee noctiall hne p^j ^^^ Equinoctiall line, with an East winde, holding our course North Northwest The 10 of lune in the euening we were vnder 5 degrees and a halfe on the North side of the line, and then we began again to see the North star, which for the space of 2 yeais we had not scene, holding our course North Northwest, there we began to haue smal blasts, and some times calmes, but the aire all South and Southeast The II of lune we had a calme, and yet a darke sky, that came Southeastwarde The 12 of lune wee had a close sky with nine, and the same euening our fore top maste fell downe The 13 we strake all our sailes and mended our ship The 14 we had the wind Northward, holding our course West Northwest as neare as we coulde, but by reason of the thick sky Traffiquts, and Discoueries 259 wee could not take height of the Sun The 13 of lune we had the wind North, and North Northwest The 16 of lune wee had the height of 9 degrees and 10 minutes, the winde being Northeast and North Northeast The 17 the winde was Northeast with fair weather, and we held Noahwest, and Northwest and by North till after noone The 15 we tooke a great fish called an ^'"^,' ^h* " Aluercoor, which served vs all for 3 meals, which wee had not tasted of long time before The 26 we had still a Northeast winde, and sometimes larger, holding our course North Northwest with large saile, and were vnder 17 degrees and \ The same day there came much dust flying into our shippe, as if we had past hard by some sandie towne, and we gest the nearest land to vs might be the Island of S Anthony, and wee were as then at the least 40 or 50 miles from it : The same day likewise there came a flying fish into our shippe, which we eat The 28 of lune wee had the height of 20 degrees, with a East Northeast wind and East and by West, with full sayle, there we saw much Sargosse, driuing on the water The last of lune we had the Sun right ouer our heades, and yet we felt no heat, for that by reason of the cold ayre we had a fine coole weather The same day we passed Tropicus Cancri, s«ill hauing the winde East Northeast, and in the euening we were vnder 24 degr The second of luly we saw Sargosse driuing vpon the water, and had the wind somewhat lower North Northeast with a calme The thirde of luly the winde came againe East North east, and wee helde oUi course North and by West The 8 of luly wee were vnder 33 decrees and \ with an East wind, holding our course North and by East, and yet we saw much Sargosse driuing, but not so thicke as it did before The 10 of luly we had a good wind that blew south and South u'd by East, and hoysted vp our maine tops, that for the space of 26 daies were neuer touched, and held our course North Northeast, there we wf x in no little feare to fall among the Spanish fleet, which at that time of the yeare keepeth about the Flemmish Islands The same day one of our boyes fell ouer bord, and was carried away with a swift streame before the wind, but to his great good fortune, the Pinace saued him, that was at the least a quarter of a mile from vs : this euening we found the height of 36 degrees ^ /^ I i i ^ 1 i 260 Nauigations, Voyages, i! The 1 3 of luly we had a Southwest wind, holding our course Northeast and by North : Our Pilot and the Pilot of the Pinnace differed a degree in the height of the Sunne, for ours had 38 degrees, and theirs but 37 We gest to be about the Islands of Corbo and Flores, but the one held more easterly and the other more Westerly The 13 of luly wee had still a Southwest winde, and after noone wee thought wee had scene land, but we were not assured thereof, for it was somewhat close The 14 of luly we had a calme, and saw no land, and then our men began to be sicke The 1 7 of luly wee had a South Southeast winde, with faire weather, and were vnder 41 degrees, holding our course East Northeast The 18 19 20 and 3i it was calme The 22 of luly the winde came North, and wee held our course East Southeast The 23 of luly the wind was North North East and Northeast, and we held as near as we could East and East Southeast, the same day our steward found a barrell of stockfish in the loming, which if we had beene at home we would haue cast it on the dunghil, it stunke so filthily, and yet we eat it as sauerly as the best meat in the world The 24 we had a West wind, and that with so strong a gale, that wee were forced to set two men at helme, which pleased vs well The 25 of luly we had a stonne that blew West and West Northwest, so that we bare but two sailes, holding nur course Northeast and by East The first of August we wjre vnder 45 degrees with a North West wind, holding our course Northeast and by East The second of August one of our men called Gerrit Cornelison of Spijckenes died, beirig the first man that dyed in our voyage homeward The 4 of August we had a Northwest wind The 5 of August in the morning the winde came Southwest, and we were vnder 47 degrees, holding our course Northeast and the North Northeast, and wee gest that wee were not farre from the channell, those dayes aforesaid we had so great colde in our shippes, as if it had beene in the middle of winter : We could not be warme with all the clothes wee had The same day we saw Sargosse driue vpon the water The 6 of August we had a West wind, in the morning we cast Traffiques, and Diuoutries 261 out our lead and found grounde at 80 fadonie, and about noone we saw a shippe that bare the Princes JJipL'^,h flagge, yet durst not come neare vs, although we made the Prince signes vnto him, and after noone wee saw the land of °f O'onge* Heissant, whereat we all reioyced The 7 of August in the morning we saw the land of Fraunce, and held our course North Northeast, and likewise we saw a small shippe, but spake not with it The 8 of August in ihe morning we saw the Kiskas, and had a South wind and somewhat West, holding our course East Northeast The 9 of August we entered the heades, and past them with a Southwest wind, sayling Northeast After noone we past by a man of warre being a Hollander, that mljn^of^' lay at anker, and he hoysed anker to follow vs, about euening wee spake with him, but because of the wind wee could hardly heare what hee said, yet hee sailed on with vs The 10 of August the man of warre horded vs with his boat, and brought vs a barrell of beere, some bread and _, , The man of cheese, shewmg vs what news he could touchmg the war gaue state of Holland, and presently wee sawe the land of '•>«'" Holland, and because it blew very stiffe and a great ^' ' storme, after noone wee ankered about Petten to stay for better weather, and some new Pilots, and that was the first time we had cast anker for the space of 5 monthes together, about euening it beganne to blow so stilTe, that wee lost both an anker and a cable The II of August we had still a Southerly winde, and there fore about noone the Mauritius set saile, and wee thought likewise to saile, but our men were so weake that we could not hoyse vp our anker, so that we were constrained to lie still till men came out to heipe vs, about euening the winde came Southwest, and with so great a storme, that we They cut thought to haue run vpon the strand, and were forced down their to cut downe our maine maste """" ""'• The 12 and 13 we had a hard South West wind, and some times West, so that no Pilots came abord our ship, but the 13 day about euening it began to be faire weather The 14 of August about breake of day in the morning, there came two boats with Pilots and men abord our ship, tha' were sent out by our owners, and brought vs some fresh victuailes, Il 1 362 NauigatioHS, Voyages v\< w which done they hoysed vp our ankers, and about noone we sayled into the Tessel, and ankered in the chann^ll, where we had fresh victuailes enough, for we were all weake This was a great noueltie to all the Marchantes and inhabitantes of Hollande, for that wee went out from thence the iiecond of April 1595 and returned home again vpor the 14 of August 1597 there you might haue bought of t!ie Pepper, ^'utmegs, Cloues, and Mace, which wee brought with vs Our saylors were most part sicke, being but 80 men in all, two third partes of their company being dead, and lost by diuers accidentes, and among those forescore such as were sicke, as soone as they were on land and at their ease presently recouered their healthes The copper money of laua commeth also out of China, and is almost as thicke, great and heauy, as a quarter of a Doller, and somewhat thicker, in the middle hauing a square hole, 2000 of them are worth a Riall of 8 but of these there are not ouer many, they vse to han^ them vpon stringes, and pay them without telling, they stand not so narrowly vpon the number, for if they want but 35 or 50 it is nothing The leaden money of laua, (being of bad Leade is ver}' rough) hath in the middle a foure square hole, they are hanged by two hundred vppon a string, the) are commonly 10 11 and 12 thousand to a Riall of 8 as there commeth great quantitie out of China, where they are made, and so as there is plentie or scarcitie they rise and fal A true report of the gainefull, prosperous, and speedy voiage to laua in the East Indies, {performed by a fleete of 8 ships of Amsterdam : which cet forth from Texell in Holland the first of Male 1598 Stilo Nouo Whereof foure returned againe the 19 of luly anno 1599 in lesse then 15 moneths; the other foure went forward from laua for the Moluccas* WHereas in the yeare of our Lord 1595 a certaine company of substantial merchants of Amsterdam in Holland did build and set forth for the East Indies four well appointed shippes, whereof three came home An 1597 with small profit (as already in sundry languages is declared)! Yet neuerthelesse the aforesaid company, • At London : printed by P S for W Aspley, and are to be sold at the signe of the Tygers Head in Taules Chuichyard, (iteo) t See above Traffiquts, and Discoueries idf in hupe uf better successe, made out the last yeare 1598 for a secohde voiage, a fleete of eight gallant ships, to wit The shippe called the Mauritius, lately returned from that former voyage, being of burden two hundreth and thirty last, or foure hundreth and sixty tunnes, or thereabouts This shippe was Admirall of the fleete The master whereof was Godevart lohnson, the Com missarie or factor Cornelius Heemskerck, and the Pilot Kees Collen The second ship called the Amsterdam, was of the burden 01 four hundreth and sixty tuns The Master's name was Claes lohnson Melcknap; The factor or commissarie lacob Heems kerck The third was named Hollandia, about the burden of sixe hundreth tuns : which had likewise been in the former voiage The Master was Symon Lambertson or Mawe, the Factor Master Witte Nijn, who died in the voyage before Bantam, and in his roome succeeded lohn lohnson Smith The name of the fourth ship was Gelderland, of burden about foure hundreth tuns Master wherof was lohn Browne, factor or commissarie Hans Hendrickson The fift was called Zeelandia, of the burden of three hundreth and sixtie tuns The Master was lohn Comelison, the Com missary or factor N Brewer The sixt ship named Utrecht of the burden of two hundreth and sixtie tuns The Master was lohn Martsen, the Factor or commissary Adrian Veen The seuenth a pinnas called Frisland, of burden about seuenty tuns The Master lacob Comelison, the Factor Walter Willekens The eighth a pinnas that had been in the former voiage called the Pidgeon, now y* Ouerijssel, of the burden of fifty tuns The Master Symon lohnson The Factor Arent Hermanson Cthis flecie was General and Admirall Master lacob Neck, Viceaauiiiail Wybrand van Warwick: and Rereadmirall lacob Heemskerck With this fleet of eight ships we made saile from Texell the first of May 1598 Stilo Nouo, being the 21 of Aprill, after the account of England and sailed with good speed vnto the Cabo de bona Speranza : as further shal appeare by a lournal annexed vnto the end of this discourse Being past the Cape, the 7 and 8 of August, by a storme of i 364 NttuigaUom, Voyages, weather fiue ships were separated from the Admirall, who after wardes came together againe before Bantam The 36 of August with three shippes wee came within the They meete ^'^^^ ^^ Madagascar, and the 39 wee met with a ship with a ship of Zeeland, called the Long barke, which had put to of Zeland ^^^ before vs, and now kept aloofe from us, supposing we were enemies : but at length perceiuing by our Aagges what we were, they sent their Pinnas aboord vs, reioycing greatly to haue met with vs, because that diuers of their men were sicke, and ten were already dead : and they had in all but seuen men aboord the shippe that were meatwhole, and eleuen mariners to guide the shippe Wee agreed to relieue them with some supplie of men : but through darkenesse and great winde wee lost them againe After this, we the Admiral Mauritius, the Hollandia, and the pinnas Ouerijssel keeping together, came to the Island ^maMatia °^ ^""'^ Maria, before the great bay of Antogil in Mauu/^;ascar : where wee got a small quantity of Rice We tooke t^ie Kiiig prisoner, who paide for his ransome a Cow and a fat calfe In this Island we found no great commodity : for being the month of September, the season was not for any fruits : the Oranges had but flowers : Lemons were scant : of Sugarcanes and Hens there was some store, but the Inhabitants were not very for^vard in bringing them out Heere we £awe the hunting of the Whale, (a strange pastime) certaine Indians in a Canoa, or boate following a great the whd'e ^^hale, and with a harping Iron, which they cast forth, piercing the whals body, which yron was fastned to a long rope made of the barkes of trees, and so tied fast to their Canoa All this while pricking and wounding the whale so much as they could, they made him furiously to striue too and fro, swiftly swimming in the sea, plucking the canoa after him : some times tossing it vp and downe, as lightly as if it had been a strawe The Indians in the meane time being cunning swimmers taking small care though they were cast ouerboord, tooke fast hold by the boat stil, and so after some continuance of this sport, the whale wearied and waxing faint, and staining the sea red with his bloud, they haled him toward the shore, and when they had gotten him so neare shore on the shallowe that the most part of him appeared aboue water, they drew him aland and hewed him TraffiijiitSf and Discoutriet 265 How long their buere continued good in pieces, euery one taking thereof what pleased them, which was to vs a strange sight It is reported that the Indians of Terra Florida vse the lilce fishing for the Whale Our men might hauc taken some part thereof, but refused it : the pieces thereof were so like larde or fat bacon From thence we made toward the great «ay of Antogill and ankered vnder the Island, where wee ^t""'y°' , , , Antogill tooke in fresh water Our Indians that were brought from thence by them of the former voiage (the names of whome were Madagascar the one, and the other Laurence) wee offered to set there on land, but they refused, chusing rather to tarry with vs and to be apparelled, then to go naked in their owne countrey : working and moyling for a miserable liuing, opposing their bare skins to the vehemency of the sunne and weather : and their excuse was, that in that place they were strangers and had none acquaintance Our beere continued good vntill we were passed the Cape de bona speranza : from thence we bcgin to mingle it with water hauing a portion ot wine allowed vs twise a day, and this allowance continued vntill our returne into Holland We went with our boates vp the riuer seeking refreshing ; but the Inhabitants gaue vs to vnderstand by signes that wee might returne, for there was nothing to be had Wee rowed into the riuer a^out three leagues, and found their reiiort to bee true The ' iuse was, that the Kings made warre there one against an other, and so all the victuals were in manner destroied, insomuch that the Inhabitants themselues many of them perished for hunger, and in one of these battailes one of their Kings was lately slaine Wherfore after fiue dales abode and no longer, we departed, and in Gods name made to sea again, directing our course the sixteenth of September for laua About the nine teenth of Nouember we came within sight of Sumatra, and the 26 of the same moneth 1598 wee in the three shippes aforesaid, to wit, the Mauritius, our Admirall, the Hollandia, and the Ouerissell, arriued before the citty of Bantam in 31''^^^""^^ lana Presently vpon this our arriuall, our Admirall and Generall Master lacob Van Neck, sought with all friendship to traffique with the people of the saide towne of Bantam, sending Master Cornells Heemskerck on land to shew them what we were, for they thought vs to be the very same men that had been VOL X K 2 NauigatiOHt, Voyagtt, there the yeare before, and al that while guarded the lea cost, ai being assuredly persuaded that we were pirates and sea rouers But we, to make them vnderstand the contrary, sent on lande one Abdoll of China, a captiue of theirs, whom we brought from ihem in our first voyage ; by whose meanes we got audience and credite: and so we presented our gifts and presents ^^ ^,^„, to the King, which was but a childe : and the chiefe their letteci gouernour called Ce|)hat, hauing the kin;^ly authority, "'' f'"*" most than! fully receiued the same in the name of his King The said i resents were a faire couered cup of siluer and gilt, certaine ve uets and clothes of silke, with very fine drinking glasses and ixcellent locking glasses, and such other gifts more Likewise we presented our letters sealed very costly with the great seale of the noble and mighty lords the Estates generall of the united Prouinces, and of Prince Mauritz, whome they termed their Prince Which letters were by them receiued with great reuerencc, creeping vpon their knees: and (the same being well perused, read and examined) they found thereby our honest intent and determination for traffike: insomuch that a mutuall league of friendship and alliance was concluded, and we were freely licensed to trade and traffike in such wise, that euen the fourth day of our arriuall we began to lade; and within foure or fiue weekes all our foure ships hauing taken in their full fraight, were ready to depart When our three shippes aforesaid had remained there welnigh a moneth, about Newycarstide arriued the other fiue shippes of our company before mentioned in very good manner, and well con _ , ditioned And so our whole fleete of eight ships The whole , „ , , , , fleet meet loyfully met together, and had none or very fewe sicke before persons among them, hauing lost by death in the "" whole fleete but 35 men in all, of which number some perished through their own negligence Vpon this happy meeting we displaied our flags, streamers and ensignes after the brauest manner, honouring and greeting one another with voUeis of shot, making good cheere, and (which was no small matter) growing more deeply in fauour with the townesmen of Bantam Vnto vs were d ily brought &boord in Prauwes or Indian boats i;reat quantity _ / hens, egs, Cocos, bonanos, sugarcanes, cakes, made of rice, and a certaine kinde of good drinke which is there made by the men of China Thus the people daily bartered with vs for Trade licensed Traffii/uts, and j, iscoutrits t«t pewter and other wares, giuing so much victuals for a pewter spoone, as might well suffice one man for an wliole weeke Wee trucked likewise for diucrs other things, as for porcellan dishes and such h'ke Howbeit, that which our Indian Abdoil declared (namely, that more ships were comming besides the three afore said, and that others b:side them were also sent out of Zeland) little tended to our commodity : for thereupon the lauans tookc occasion to inhance the price of their pepper, insomuch fhe price of that we were forced to pay for 55 pounds of pepper pepper first three, and afterward four Reals of eight : neither '""»'«=«''• did they demaund or call for any thing so much as for the said Reals of eight Mercery or haljcrdashers wares were in no such request as money Also we much marueiled, how the lauans should tell vs of more shippes to come, making signes with their foure fingers and thumb, that foure Lyma (which word in their language signifieth ship|x:s) were comming And here you are to vnderstand, that our Generall Master Van Neck, together with the commissaries or factors, thought good, besides the three forsaid ships that came first, to lade one other, to wit, the greater pinnasse called Frisland, whereof was Master lacob Cornclison, and factor Walter Will»kens These foure ships hauing receiued their ful fraigiit, and giuen "Jjen '" notice on land of their departure (to the end that none of their creditours might bee vnpaid) and also hauing well pro uided tliemselues of rice and water, departed the thirteenth oi January 599 and sayled to Sumatra, where they tooke in fresh water ; for that the water of Bantam first waxeth white, and after ward crawleth full of magots Vpon the land of Sumatra we bartered kniues, spoones, looking glasses, bels, needles and such like, for sundry fruits, to wit, melons, cucumbers, onions, garlike, and pepper though little in quantity, yet exceeding good We had to deale with a notable Merchant of BanUm, named Sasemolonke, whose father was a Castilian, which sold vs not much lesse then an hundreth last of pepper He was most desirous to haue traueiled with vs into Holland : but misdoubting the displeasure and euil will of the king, and fearing least his goods might haue bin confiscated, he durst not aduenture vpon the voiage Certaine daies before our departure from Bantam were the 468 Nauigations, Voyages, iV _ J other foure shippes dispatched to go for the Moluccas, other ships and ouer them was appointed as Admiral! and Generall sunt to Master Wy brant van VVarwicke in the shippe called Amsterdam, and lacob Heemskerck Viceadmirall in the shippe Gelderland, the other two shippes in consort with them being Zeland and Vtrecht before mentioned These foure made saile towards the Moluccas, and parted from vs the 8 of lanuary in the night, and in taking of our leaues both of vs together, mnde such a terrible thundering noise with our ordinance, that the townsemen were vp in alarme, vntill they knewe the reason thereof The people were glad of their departure, hauing some mistrust of vs, remaining there so strong with 8 ships And they asked daily when we should depart, making great speed to help vs vnto our lading, and shewing themselues most seruiceable vnto vs The II of lanuary 1599 we in the foure bliippes laden with pepper departed from Bantam homeward The 13 we arriued at Sumatra The 19 we shaped our course directly for Holland The 3 of April we had sight of Capo de buona esperanza The 8 of Aprill we doubled the said Cape, proceeding on for the Isle of Saint Helena, whither we came the twenty sixt of the same month, and there refreshed our selues for the space of eight dales In this Island we found a church with certaine boothes or tr in it, and the image of Saint Helena, as likewise a holy wafir fat, and a sprinkle to cast or sprinkle y' holy water : but we left all things in as good order as we found them Moreouer here we left behinde vs some remembrances in writing, in token of our being there At this place died of the bloody flixe, the Pilot of our Admirall Kees Collen of Munic kendam, a worthy man, to our great griefe This Island (as lohn Huighen van Linschotten describeth it) is replenished with manifold commodities, as namely with goates, wilde swine, Turkies, partridges, pidgeons, &c But by reason that those which arriue there vse to discharge their ordinance, and to hunt and pursue the saide beastes and fowles, they are now growen exceeding'y wilde and hard to be come by Certaine goates whereat we shotte fled vp to the high clifTes, so that it was impossible to get them Likewise fishes wee could not catch so many as wee needed ; but wee tooke in fresh water enough to serue vs till our arriuall in Holland Traffiques, and Discoueries 269 A man left nn lanri at Saint Helena Here we left on land as a man banished out of our society, one Peter Gisbrecht the masters mate of the great pinasse, because hee had stroken the Master Very penitent hee was, and sorie for his misde meanour, and all of vs did our best endeuour to obtain his pardon : but (the orders and ordinances wherevnto our whole company was sworne being read before vs) we were constrained to surcease our importunate suit, and he for the example of others to vndergo the seuere doome that was allotted him There was deliuered vnto him a certaine quantity of bread, oile, and rice, with hookes and instruments to fish withall, as also a hand gun and gunpowder Hereupon we bad him generally farewell, beseeching God to keepe and preserue him from misfortunes, and hoping that at some one time or other he should finde deliuerance ; for that all shippes sailing to the West Indies must there of necessity refresh themselucs Not far from this place we descried a saile which wee iudged to be some Frenchmen, by whom peraduenture the saide banished party might bee deliuered The fourth of May we set saile from Saint Helena, and the tenth of the same moneth wee passed by the Isle of Ascension The 1 7 day wee passed the line The 21 we saw the Pollestarre The 10 and 1 1 of lunewe had sight of the Canaries About the Azores wee stood in feare to meete with some Spanish Armada, because our men were growen faint and feeble by reason of their long voiage The 27 of lune we entered the Spanish sea The 29 we found our selues to be in fortie foure degrees of northerly latitude The 6 of luly our Admirall y' Mauritius had two of his mastes blowne ouerboord ; for which cause we were contrained to towe him along The 1 1 of luly we passed the sorlings The 13 we sayled by Falmouth, Dartmouth, and the Quasquets The 1 7 we passed by Douer The 1 9 meeting with some stormes and rainy weather we arriued at Texell in our owne native countrey, without any great misfortune, saue that the Mauritius once stroke on ground Thus hauing attained to our wished home, we gaue God thankes for this our so happy and prosperous voiage : because their neuer arriued in Holland any shippes so richly laden 370 Nauigations, Voyages, m li I i The par ticulars of their rich lading Of pepper we brought eight hundreth tunnes, of Cloues two hundreth, besides great quantity of Mace, Nutmegs, Cinaniom, and other principall commodi ties To conclude this voiage was performed in one yeare, two monethes, and nineteene daies We were saihng outward from Texell to Bantam seuen moneths, we remained there sixe weekes to take in our lading, and in six monethes we returned from Bantam in laua to Holland The performance of this long and daungerous voiage in so short time we ascribed to Gods deuine and wonderful! prouidence, hauing sailed at the least 8000 leagues, that is to say, twenty four thousand English miles The ioye of the safe arriuall of these shippes in Holland was exceeding great : and postes were dispatched to euery principall towne and citty to publish these acceptable ncwes The merchants that were owners of these ships went straight toward Texell for the refreshing of their men, and for other neces sary considerations The Commissary or Factor master Cornells Heemskerck together with Cornelis Knick, hied them with all speed towardes the Estates generall and prince Mauritz his excell ency, not onely to carry the saide good newes,but withal 1 ^ti'rs and *° present the letters of the King of laua importing presents fiom mutuall alliance, friendship and free intet course of the King of traffike in consideration of their honourable, liberal, Iqus* and iust dealings : They brought gifts also from the said King of great price and value The 27 of luly the Mauritius our Admirall together with the HoUandia came before Amsterdam : where they were ioyfully saluted with the sound of eight trumpettes, with banqueting, with ringing of bels, and with paales of ordinance, the Generall and other men of command being honourably receiued and welcommed by the citty The merchants that aduentured in these voyages being in number sixeteene or seuenteene (notwithstanding the foure shippes gone from laua to the Moluccas, as it is before mentioned) haue sent this last spring 1599* foure ships more to continue this their traffique so happely begun : intending moreouer the next spring 1 V i *Afjirxinal note — A new supply of foute HuUandish ships sent this last spring 1599 to the East Indies Traffiques, and Discoueri'>s 271 to send a newe supply of other ships* And diuers other Mar chants are likewise determined to enter into the same action Of them that departed from Zeland these bring no newes, otherwise then is aforesaide Neither doe they report any thing of the two fleetes or companir '»at went from Roterdam the last sommer 1598, shaping their course for the streites of Magellan Wee haue before made mention of an Indian called Abdoll, which was brought from Bantam, in the first voiage, and had con tinued an whole winter or some eight months at Amsterdam in Holland Where during that space (being a man of good obseruation and experience, and borne about China) hee was well entreated, cherished, and much made of This Abdoll vpon his returne to laua being demanded concerning the state of the Netherlarids, of Abdoll an made vnto the principall men of Bantam a full declara Indian, con t'on thereof, with all the rarities and singularities jJe[herlands which he had there seen and obserued Which albeit to the greatest part of readers, who haue trauailed those countries may seeme nothing strange, and scarce worthy the relation : yet because the report was made by so meere a stranger, and with the lauans that heard it wrought so good effect, I thought it not altogether impertinent here in this place to make rehearsall thereof First therefore he tolde them (to their great admiration in that hoat climate) That hee had seene aboue a thousand sleds drawen, and great numbers of horsemen riding vpon the frozen water in winter time, and that he had beheld more then two hundreth thousand people trauailing on foote and on horseback vpon the yce, as likewise that the said sleds were by horses drawen so swiftly, that they made more way in three houres than any man could go on foote in tenne And also that himselfe for pleasure had beene so drawen, the horses being bnuely adorned with bels and cymbals Howbeit they would hardly be induced to beleeue that those countries should be so extreamely colde, and the waters so mightely frozen, as to beare such a hugh waight Hee tolde them moreouer, that Holland was a free countrey, *Marginal nott— An intent of the matchants of Amsterdam to send more ships the next spring 1600 i!^ ?i 372 Nauigations, Voyages, and that euery man there was his owne Master, and that there was not one slaue or captiue in the whole land Moreouer, that the houses, in regarde of their beautiful! and lofty building, resembled stately pallaces, their inward rich furniture being altogether answerable to their outward glorious shew Also, that the Churches (which he called Mesquitas), were of such bignesse and capacity, as they might receiue the people of any prety towne He affirmed likewise, that the Hollanders with the assistance of their confederates and friendes, maintained warres against the King of Spaiae, whose mighty puissance is feared and redoubted of all the potentates of P^uropa And albeit the said warres had continued aboue thirty yeares, yet that during all that time the saide Hollanders increased both in might and wealth In like sort he inforuT^ " ihem of the strange situation of Holland, as being a counti aing vpon the water, the eprth or ground whereof, they vse instead of fewell, and that he had oft times warmed himselfe, and had scene meat dressc J with fires made of the same earth In briefe, that it was a waterish and fenny countrey, and full of riuers, chanels, and ditches, and that therein was an innumer able multitude of boates and small shippes, as likewise great store of tall and seruiceable ships, wherewith they sailed vnto all quarters of the world, etc This man Abdoll wee found to bee a captiue or slaue, and sawe there his wife and children in very poore estate dwelling in a little cottage not so bigge as an hogsty : but by oure meancs he was made free and well rewarded Notwithstanding he did but euil recompence vs : for he was charged tr he the cause why pepper was solde dearer than ordinary « tc vs by a penny in the pounde : for hee tolde them that certaine :;h iM t, 01 Zeland and of other places were comming thitherwardes And here the reader is t > vnderstand, that some foure moneths before the ruid tnre" shijs arriued at Bantam, ilie Portugales cane "Si av Attnada oi gallies £nd lustes, being set glK'abou't ' ^''^ ''>• t' v;reroy of Goa and the gouernour of to hinder the 'uducca, 'o intercept the traffique ot the Hollanders trade of the ^,,^jq those ,0 'e^ and io make them loose all their Hullanders ,,,,, 1 expel scs, i,l (i, uid tmie which they had bestowed: Trafjiques, and Dtscoueries »75 and also that their great and rich presentes which they gaue vnto the lauans the yearc hjfore, to bring ihem into vtter detestation of the Hollanders, might not be altogether in vaine The Generall of them that came from (loa was Don Luis, and of those that came from Molucca Don Emanuell : who brougiit their Armada before Bantam, intending to surprize the citty, vnder |)retence that the same preparation was made to resist certaine pirates that came thither out of Holland the last yeare, and were determined this yeare also to come againe Vnder these colours they sought to take the towne and to fortifie the same, and they built certaine sconces in the counlrey, committing great outrages, rauishing the Women, with many other villanies Hereupon the townsemen of Bantam very Lecretly prouided certaine gallies and fustes in great hast, and sodainly assailed the Potugales before they were well aware of them ; for which cause finding but small resistance, they tooke 3 Portugale The gallies with certaine shippes, and slewe about 300 of vamiiisli'efl them, taking 150 Portugales prisoners, of which we daily saw some going vp and downe the streetes of Bantam like slaues and captiues Besides these they tooke about 900 galli slaues prisoners Vpon this hard succesje the rest of the Portugals betooke themselues to flight : but whither they bee arriued at Goa cr Molucca, or what is become of them since, we are not able to auouch The foresaid attempt and ouerthrowe, bred greater enmity belweene the Portugales and them of Bantam, and gaue an especiall occasion for the aduancement of our traffique The flue ships (whereof we haue before signified that foure were dispatched by the whole companie for the Moluccas) being seuered beyonde thi Cape of Buona Speranza ' from the other three (i their compaay, and hauing quite lost them, came all of them shortly after vnder an Island called (as it is thought) by the Portugals Isola de Don Galopes : but they named it the Island of Mauritius Here they entered into an hauen, calling the same Warwicke, after the name of their Viceadmirall, wherin they found very good harborow in twenty degrees of southerly latitude This Island being situate to the East of Madagascar, j^^ j^j^ ^^ and containing as much in compasse as all Holland, Mauriiius is a very high, goodly and pleasant land, full of green described * Marginal Note — The course which the fine ships tooke after they were separated from their three consorts about the Cape ot bouona esperanzn t««***^«HW»MOW 274 NautgattOHS, Voyages, and fruitful! vallies, and replenished with Palmitotrees, from the Great store ^^^^^ droppeth holesome wine Likewise here are of Eben very many trees of right Ebenwood as black as iet, wood ,,„f^ j,g smooth and hard as the very luory : and the ([uantity of this wood is so exceeding, that many ships may be laden herewith For to saile into this hauen you must bring the two highest mountaines one ouer the other, loauing sixe small Islands on your right hand, and so you may enter in vpon 30 fadomes of water Lying within the bay, they had 10 12 and 14 fadomes On their left hand was a litle Island vhich they named Ilemskerk Island, and the bay it selfe they called V, arwick bay, as is before mertioned Here they taried 12 daies to refresh themselues, finding in this place great quantity of foules twise as bigge as swiinN which they called Walghstocks or Wallowbirdes being ver)' good meat But finding also aboundance of pidgeons and popiniayes, they disdained any more to eat of those great foules, calling them (as before) Wallowbirds, that is say, lothsome or fulsome birdes Of the said Pidgeons and Popiniayes they found great plenty being very fat and good meate, which they could easily take and kil euen with lttle sti :kes : so tame they are by reason y' the Isle is not inhabited, neither be the liuing crcr> tares therein accustomed to the i'ght of men Here they found rauens also, riid i^M aL'indance of fish, that two men were able to catch enou;;;li tc: ail iiae s«iips Tortoises they found so huge, that ienne mt ' might sit and 4ine in one of their shelles, and one uf them woulu creepe away, while two men stood vpon the backe thereof Here was founde waxe also whiter then any of ours, lying about the strande, bleached (as it is like) by the sunne : and in some of this waxe there were Arabian letters or charav':ters printed : whereby it is probable, that some Arabia^) ship might bee cast awny there about, out of which the said « u might be driuen on land They found likewise ComU on this land, and many trees which we call Palmitos, whereoui iroppeth wine as cat of the Coco tree: which wine being kept hath his operation as our new prest wine, but after some timr it comraeth vnto the ful vertue and perfection The said Palmitos they esteemed to bee akinde of wilde datetrees We sought all the Island ouer for meiv, but could find none, for that it was wholly destitute of Inhabitants Traffiques, and Discoueries 275 Vpon this Island we built an house with a pulpit therein, and left behind vs certaine ivritings as a token and remembrance of our being there, and vpon the pulpit we left a Bible and a psalter lying Thus after 12 daies aboad at this Island, being well refreshed, they tooke in excellent fresh water being easie to get, y „,„„| and very sweet and sauory to drinke, and then set wnicrin;; saile, meeting the three other ships their consorts at ' "" the time and place before mentioned \ briefe description of the voiage before handled, in manner of a lournall THe first of Maie 1598 with the eight shippes before men tioned, we set saile in the name of (lod from Texell in Holland The third of May we passed along the coast of England, descrying some cjf her Maiesties ships, and they vs, whom we honoured with discharge of our artillery The fourteenth we had sight of the Isle of Porto Santo lying in thirty two degrees The sixteenth, wee came within sight of the Canaries The twenty two, we first saw flying fishes The twenty tbiee, we passed by the Isle Dell Sail The thirty one, we had a great storme, so that we lost sight one of another : but by night we came together againe The eighth of luie wee crossed the Equinoctiall line The twenty foure we sayled by the sholdes of Brasile lying vnder eighteene degrees of Southerly Latitude The twenty one of luly we got to the height of the Cape of buona esperanza From the thirtith of luly till the second of August, we con tinually s;iyled in sight of the land of the afo«resaid Cape The seuenth and eighth of August wee had such foule and stormy weather, that fiue ships of our company were separated from vs, whom we saw no more vntill they came to vs before Bantam The twenty sixt we descryed the Island of Madagascar The twenty nine came by us the ship called the Long barke of Zeland, hauing in her but nine sound men, tenne dead, and the rest all sicke : but the same night we lost the sight of her againe 376 Nauigahons, Voyai;es, The seauenth of September, we came before the Island of Santa Maria, and afterward wee put into the great bay of Antogill The sixteenth of September, wee set saile from thence, directing our course for laua The first of October, wee got to the height h of Hantain i le fifteenth, died the first man in our Admirall The nineteenth of Nouember, we came within sight of oumatra The twentyninth, we road before the citty of Bantam : And the thirtie:h, we payed our toll to the gouernour And vpon Newyeares daie 1599 Stilo Nouo, we began to take in our lading Then came vnto vs before Bantam, with great ioie and triumph, our fiue separated shippts, all the people standing vpon the shore gazing, and suspecting soma harivi^ intended against them The eighth of laniiary, foure i/* the said 5 newcome shippes (God send them a prosperous voyage) set saile toward the Moluccas Moreouer our foure shippes being weil and richly laden at Bantam made saile homewarde the eleuenth of January, and the thirteenth, wee were shot as farre as the Isles of Sumatra The nineteenth, we proceeded thence on our voiage, and the same day, to the great griefe of vs all died the Pilot of our Admirall The third of Aprill, we descried the land of Capo de buona esperanza The eighth, wee doubled the same Cape, thence shaping our course for the Island of Saint Helena, where the twenty sixt we happily arriued, and departed from thence vpon the fourth of Male The tenth of Maie, wee sailed by the Isle of Ascension The seuenlcenth, we passed the Equinoctiall line The twenty one, we saw the North starre The ninth and tenth of lune, we had sight of the Canaries The twenty seauen, wee say led vpon the Spanish Sea The twenty nine, we were in fortie four degrees The fourth of luly, we saw behind vs two sailes, one before the other, which were the first that we had scene for a long time The sixt of July our Admirall had both his foremast and maine mast blowne ouer boord The eleuenth, we passed the Sorlings, the thirteenth, Falmouth^ Plimmouth and the Quasquets The seauenteentb, we came before Douer Traffi/ues, and Dneouerits, »n The ninetecntl), woe had foulc and stormy weather, at \shat time tjy (lO Is good blessing wee arriucd in our natiue countrey at Texell in Holland, hauing performed in the short s[>ace of one yeare, two moncths and nineteene dales, almost as long a voiage, as if we should haue compassed the globe of the earth, and bringing home with vs our full fraight of rich and gainful! Marchandize END OF VOL X ,J

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