The ACCENT-VOCBAS field campaign on biosphere-atmosphere interactions in a Mediterranean ...

The ACCENT-VOCBAS field campaign on biosphere-atmosphere interactions in a Mediterranean ...

16 Pages · 2009 · 1.67 MB · English

22 January 2009. Revised: 27 May 2009 – Accepted: 3 June 2009 – Published: 18 June 2009. Abstract. Biosphere-atmosphere interactions were investi- gated on a sandy dune Mediterranean ecosystem in a field campaign held in 2007 within the frame of the European. Projects ACCENT and VOCBAS.

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Biogeosciences, 6, 1043– 1058 , 2009 wwwbiogeosciencesnet/6/1043/2009/ © Author(s) 2009 This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 30 License Biogeosciences The ACCENTVOCBAS eld campaign on biosphereatmosphere interactions in a Mediterranean ecosystem of Castelporziano (Rome): site characteristics, climatic and meteorological conditions, and ecophysiology of vegetation S Fares 1,2 , S Mereu 3 , G Scarascia Mugnozza 1 , M Vitale 3 , F Manes 3 , M Frattoni 4 , P Ciccioli 4 , G Gerosa 5 , and F Loreto 1 1 CNR (National Research Council) – Istituto di Biologia Agroambientale e Forestale, Via Salaria km 29, 300, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo, Rome, Italy 2 Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, 137 Mulford Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA 3 Department of Plant Biology, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy 4 CNR (National Research Council) – Istituto di Metodologie Chimiche, Via Salaria km 29, 300, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo, Rome, Italy 5 Universit  a cattolica del sacro cuore, Via Musei 41, 25121 Brescia, Italy Received: 17 November 2008 – Published in Biogeosciences Discuss: 22 January 2009 Revised: 27 May 2009 – Accepted: 3 June 2009 – Published: 18 June 2009 Abstract Biosphereatmosphere interactions were investi gated on a sandy dune Mediterranean ecosystem in a eld campaign held in 2007 within the frame of the European Projects ACCENT and VOCBAS The campaign was car ried out in the Presidential estate of Castelporziano, a peri urban park close to Rome Former campaigns (eg BEMA) performed in Castelporziano investigated the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) These cam paigns focused on pseudosteppe and evergreen oak groves whereas the contribution of the largely biodiverse dune vege tation, a prominent component of the Mediterranean ecosys tem, was overlooked While specic aspects of the campaign will be discussed in companion papers, the general climatic and physiological aspects are presented here, together with information regarding BVOC emission from the most com mon plant species of the dune ecosystem During the cam paign regular air movements were observed, dominated by moderate nocturnal land breeze and diurnal sea breeze A regular daily increase of ozone concentration in the air was also observed, but daily peaks of ozone were lower than those measured in summer on the same site The site was ideal Correspondence to: F Loreto ([email protected]) as a natural photochemical reactor to observe reaction, trans port and deposition processes occurring in the Mediterranean basin, since the sealand breeze circulation allowed a strong mixing between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions and secondary pollutants Measurements were run in May, when plant physiological conditions were optimal, in absence of severe drought and heat stress Foliar rates of photosyn thesis and transpiration were as high as generally recorded in unstressed Mediterranean sclerophyllous plants Most of the plant species emitted high level of monoterpenes, despite measurements being made in a period in which emissions of volatile isoprenoids could be restrained by developmen tal and environmental factors, such as leaf age and relatively low air temperature Emission of isoprene was generally low Accounting for the high monoterpene spring emission of the dune ecosystem may be important to correct algorithms at re gional and ecosystem levels, and to interpret measurements of uxes of volatile isoprenoids and secondary pollutants 1 Introduction The Mediterranean ecosystems represent 1% of the Earth's land surface, and are concentrated mainly in the Mediter ranean basin, with coastal ecosystems playing consequently Published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union 1044 S Fares et al: Biosphereatmosphere interactions in the Mediterranean an important role Coastal sand dunes are natural structures which protect the coast by absorbing energy from wind, tide and wave action, and host ecosystems made by pioneering species which are adapted to life at the interface between see and land The typical dune vegetation communities are part of the larger “macchia” or “maquis” ecosystem, which in its degraded state is referred to as “garrigue” In Italy, the mac chia covers 2–3% of the territory (INFC, 2003) and is made primarily of evergreen shrubs This vegetation stabilizes coastal sand dunes, and shelters inland

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