Soil Quality in Organic Agricultural Systems - Iowa State University

Soil Quality in Organic Agricultural Systems - Iowa State University

8 Pages · 2003 · 3.21 MB · English

Organic Agriculture Series1 Building and maintaining soil quality is the basis for successful organic farming. PM 1882 April 2002 Soil Quality in Organic

Soil Quality in Organic Agricultural Systems - Iowa State University free download


IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS Soil Quality PM 1882 August 2003 B Organic Farming Requires Quality Soil Building and maintaining soil quality is the basis for successful organic farming However, before developing a soil management plan focused on soil quality in organic systems, farmers should become knowledgeable regarding the overall philosophies, legalities, and marketing opportunities in organic agriculture A brief overview of organic agriculture follows, but for further details, see Iowa State University Extension publication Organic Agriculture (PM 1880) (See page 8 for ordering instructions) Building and maintaining soil quality is the basis for successful organic farming Periodic soil testing will help determine soil quality USDA NRCS 2 PAGE I IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS Soil Quality N F What Is Organic Agriculture? In order to sell your crop as certified organic, you must follow USDA National Organic Program rules, and be certified by one of the accredited agencies listed in Organic Agriculture(PM 1880) State of Iowa organic certification rules will require the following: ?No synthetic fertilizers for 36 months prior to the certified organic crop?s harvest ?No synthetic pesticides (fungicides, insecticides, herbicides) for 36 months prior to the certified organic crop?s harvest ?Crop rotations, including a soilbuilding legume or small grain/legume mix following row crops, to break weed, insect, and disease cycles and maintain soil fertility ?No synthetic hormones or antibiotics for livestockmay be used, and organic feeds and pastures must be fed ?Soil fertility in organic systems is maintained primarily through crop rotations (usually corn soybeansoatalfalfa or some variation of this system) and through applications of composted or raw manure Seaweed, fish emulsion, or plant/animalbased products, such as alfalfa and feathermeal, can be applied as soil and foliar amendments in organic systems Crop Rotations For an organic crop to be certified, a crop rotation plan must be in place to protect against pest problems and to maintain soil health A good general rule is that no more than four out of five years should be in row crops, and it is required that the same row crop cannot be grown in consecutive years in the same field Legumes (eg, alfalfa, red clover, berseem clover, and hairy vetch) alone, or in combination with small grains (eg, wheat, oats,and barley), should be rotated with row crops (corn, soybeans, amaranth, and vegetables) to ensure a healthy system A typical sixyear rotation in Iowa is corn (with a cover of winter rye)soybeansoat (with an underseeding of alfalfa) alfalfacornsoybeans Soybeans fix nitrogen and can generally be grown without fertilizer in the first year Subsequent crops must include rotations of grain crops and nitrogenadding cover crops to maintain adequate fertility Horticultural crops should be rotated with a leguminous cover crop at least once every five years Soil Amendments Naturally mined lime products are used to adjust the soil pH to within a range of 60 to 70 (depending on crop requirements) In addition to lime, manure and composted manure are the most common forms of soil amendments in organic operations Raw manure may be obtained from organic or conventional farms, provided the manure is applied at least 3 months prior to the harvest of an agronomic crop, or at least 4 months prior to the harvest of a horticultural crop These rules were developed in order to provide adequate time for decomposition of manure and avoid bacterial con tamination of produce To prevent contamination of waterways, raw manure cannot be applied to frozen or snowcovered ground Organic certification agencies recommend manure should be composted prior to land application (see photo on next page) Composting is the preferred method of stabiliz ing manure Composting is a controlled process in For an organic crop to be certified, a crop rotation plan must be in place to protect against pest problems and to maintain soil health 3 PAGE Compost can be made in a 50gallon barrel, with a frontend loader or with a commercial windrow turner which nitrogencontaining materials (eg, manure, yard waste, or kitchen waste) are mixed with a carboncontaining source (eg, corn stalks or cobs, straw, and wood chips) to produce a mixture prefer ably with a carbonto nitrogen ratio (C:N) of 30 to 1 The

------------- Read More -------------

Download soil-quality-in-organic-agricultural-systems-iowa-state-university.pdf

Soil Quality in Organic Agricultural Systems - Iowa State University related documents

Morgan State University

49 Pages · 2013 · 503 KB ·

state and the special needs of Baltimore City Executive Assistant to the President, and Associate and Assistant Vice Presidents. Persons appointed to academic administrative positions serve at the pleasure of the The immediate supervisor shall record occurrences of sick leave used because of.

A Typology of Victim Characterization in Television Crime Dramas

33 Pages · 2010 · 278 KB · English

her analysis of one season of Law & Order, NYPD Blue, and The Practice. She found that only

Immigration and Economy in the Globalization Process

236 Pages · 2002 · 1.63 MB · English

will need employees with the right skills and motivation. Switching to an active im- Finland by analyzing the development of the volume of foreign-born and foreign na- tionals and direct foreign . In the globalization trend of corporations, competition has shifted from natural re- source and expen

International Student Guide for Employment in the US

19 Pages · 2012 · 741 KB · English

Problem- If you do not speak English as a native language, you are at a distinct disadvantage communicating with recruiters. Solution- Consciously make an effort to talk with Americans: • Make presentations, take English courses, and work tirelessly at improving your English skills. • Ask a fel

Assistance and Accountability in Externally Managed Schools

37 Pages · 2008 · 263 KB · English

Edison Schools, Inc., is the largest and most visible among a growing number of. Education Management profit EMOs were managing 521 public schools serving nearly 240,000 students across the United . educational services; and management consulting under the “Edison Alliance” flag, through 

Using Geographic Locations in BIM Models

22 Pages · 2016 · 2.58 MB ·

Configure Building Location in Architectural Revit Model coordinates file (in XML format) from Autodesk® AutoCAD® Civil3D®. The XML file is then As we said earlier, you can set up two different Revit family types for spot 

Word-Level Language Identification and Predicting Codeswitching Points in Swahili-English ...

9 Pages · 2016 · 136 KB · English

Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Computational Approaches to Code Switching, pages 21–29,. Austin, TX, November 1, 2016. cO2016 conveys meaning (Myers-Scotton, 1993b). A model should be able to see this Solorio and Liu look at English-Spanish codeswitching in a relatively small 

A Socioeconomic Portrait Of Prince Hall Masonry In Nebraska, 1900-1920

14 Pages · 2013 · 1.18 MB ·

craft of stone masons), who demanded moral and ethical conduct, and who promoted "self- help" and . names-e.g., the 1920 Omaha City Directory listed nine .. cement contractor( 1) trained nurse. 2 . can Dilemma (1944; rpt.

Original Article Effects of icariin on orthodontic tooth movement in rats - Semantic Scholar

9 Pages · 2015 · 1.28 MB · English

Icariin, the active ingredient isolated from Herba Epimedii which is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) commonly used for Keywords: Icariin, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), bone remodeling. Introduction ever, the effect of this herb on OTM has not.

New York State Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental

22 Pages · 2004 · 1.04 MB · English

For standard twin beds: 15. Yes-No- The bed frame, consider using high-quality mattresses, hospital bed mattresses with foam notch cutouts,