Skills Worksheet Problem Solving - Welcome to Mole Cafe

Skills Worksheet Problem Solving - Welcome to Mole Cafe

10 Pages · 2007 · 107 KB · English

Holt ChemFile: Problem-Solving Workbook 1 Conversions Conversions One of the aims of chemistry is to describe changes—to tell what changed, how it

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Copyright ? by Holt, Rinehart and Winston All rights reserved Holt ChemFile: ProblemSolving Workbook 1 Conversions Conversions One of the aims of chemistry is to describe changes?to tell what changed, how it changed, and what it changed into Another aim of chemistry is to look at matter and its changes and to ask questions such as how much, how big, how hot, how many, how hard, and how long did it take For example, chemistry asks the following: ?How much energy is needed to start a reaction? ?How much will the volume of a gas increase if you heat it? ?How long will a reaction take? ?How much can a reaction produce? ?How much of the reactant is needed to produce a required amount of product? ?How much energy does a reaction release? ?How high will the temperature of the solution get as a reaction occurs? To answer these questions, chemists must make measurements Measurements in science can never be treated as just numbers; they must always involve both a number and a unitWhen you use measurements to calculate any quantity, the unit must always accompany the number in the calculation Sometimes the unit given is not the most appropriate unit for the situation or calculation In this case, a conversion can change the impractical unit into a more useful one For instance, you would not want to measure the distance from New York City to San Francisco in inches A simple conversion can transform the number of inches between the two cities to the much more practical number of miles General Plan for Converting Measurements State the relationship between the unit given and the unit sought as an equality Apply each conversion factor successively so that the units cancel properly Quantity and unit given Quantity and unit soughtConversion factor Use the equality to write possible conversion factors 1 Relationship between units given and units sought 2 4 3 Name Class Date Problem Solving Skills Worksheet Copyright ? by Holt, Rinehart and Winston All rights reserved Holt ChemFile: ProblemSolving Workbook 2 Conversions Name Class Date Problem Solving continued CONVERTING SIMPLE SI UNITS Sample Problem 1 A small bottle contains 455 g of calcium chloride What is the mass of calcium chloride in milligrams? Solution ANALYZE What is given in the problem? the mass of calcium chloride in grams What are you asked to find? the mass of calcium chloride in milligrams A table showing what you know and what you do not know can help you organ ize the data Being organized is a key to developing good problem solving skills PLAN What steps are needed to convert grams to milligrams? Determine a conversion factor that relates grams and milligrams Multiply the number of grams by that factor Arrange the factor so that units cancel to give the units sought 1 g or Possible conversion factors:Relationship between units: 1 g  1000 mg 1000 mg 1 g1000 mg possible conversion factors: write the relationship between g and mg multiply by conversion factor Mass of calcium chloride in g 1 1 g  1000 mg 2 1 g or 1000 mg 1000 mg 1 g Mass of calcium chloride in mg 4 1000 mg 1 g 3 Items Data Quantity given 455 g calcium chloride Units of quantity given grams Units of quantity sought milligrams Relationship between units 1 g 1000 mg Conversion factor ? Quantity sought ? mg calcium chloride Copyright ? by Holt, Rinehart and Winston All rights reserved Holt ChemFile: ProblemSolving Workbook 3 Conversions Name Class Date Problem Solving continued The correct conversion factor is the one that when multiplied by the given quan tity causes the units to cancel COMPUTE 455 gcalcium chloride  100 10 g mg  45 500 mg calcium chloride EVALUATE Are the units correct? Yes; milligrams are the desired units Grams cancel to give milligrams Is the answer reasonable? Yes; the number of milligrams is 1000 times the number of grams Practice 1 State the following measured quantities in the units indicated: a 52 cm of magnesium ribbon in millimeters ans: 52 mm b 0049 kg of sulfur in grams ans: 49 g c 160 mL of ethanol in microliters ans: 1600 L d 00025 g of vitamin A in micrograms ans: 2500 g e 0020 kg of tin in milligrams ans: 20 000 mg f 3 kL of saline solution in liters ans: 3000 L g 3 mg conversion factor quantity sought 1000 mg mg

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