ROLE OF BENZENE, TOLUENE AND XYLENE TO ACID GAS DESTRUCTION IN THERMAL ...

ROLE OF BENZENE, TOLUENE AND XYLENE TO ACID GAS DESTRUCTION IN THERMAL ...

255 Pages · 2015 · 3.08 MB · English

plant, allowing an overall sulfur recovery in excess of 99.5% (El-Bishtawi &. Hairmour, 2004). aesthetics. Syngas can be used as a fuel for gas engines, or to produce valuable chemicals, such as ammonia and liquid fuels. Note that Siemens energy gas plants require syngas ratio of H2 to CO 

ROLE OF BENZENE, TOLUENE AND XYLENE TO ACID GAS DESTRUCTION IN THERMAL ... free download


ABSTRACT Title of Document: ROLE OF B ENZENE, TOLUENE AND XYLENE TO ACID GAS DESTRUCTION IN THERMAL STAGE OF CLAUS REACTORS Salisu Ibrahim , Ph D Directed By: Ashwani K Gupta , Distinguished University Professor, Department of mechanical Engineering Crude oil and natural gas often contain acid gases (H 2S and CO 2) and trace amounts of benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) and these are all harmful to human health, environment and industrial equipment Acid gases in chemical industry and vehicles cause corrosion to parts of engines, refinery equipment and catalysts deactivation in catalytic process es Human exposure to H 2S, even in low concentrations , causes burning of eyes, headache, dizziness, dyspnea, and skin irritations Inhalation of high doses of BTX may cause skin and respiratory tract irritation Increased energy demand and exploitation of sourer feedstock have made regulatory agencies worldwide to promulgate stricter regulations on sulfur emissions US EPA requires a reduction of sulfur in gasol ine from 30ppm to 10ppm by 2017 Crude oil and gas must be subjected to more efficient desulfurization processes The separated acid gases and BTX is further processed in Claus process for chemical and energy recovery Currently, BTX poses several techni cal and operational problems that result in higher operational costs and increased toxic gas emissions in Claus plants BTX destruction in the thermal stage of Claus process was identified as the solution Acid gas and BTX combustion in thermal stage of Cl aus reactor, which provides simultaneous recovery of both sulfur and thermal energy, is the subject of this research Effect of BTX in H 2S fueled flames on sulfur chemistry in thermal stage of a Claus reactor was characterized Reactor conditions that prom ote BTX destruction are presented Oxygen enriched combustion air for the destruction of BTX and acid gas is examined Chemical kinetic pathways of BTX destruction under high temperature conditions of the Claus reactor are evaluated Intermediate radicals and stable species formed during the combustion process are characterized using flame emission spectroscopy and gas chromatography (GC) Role of multiple contaminants, CO 2 and benzene, toluene or xylene in H 2S combustion is also investigated Chemical kine tic pathways and reactor conditions that promote/hinder the formation of mercaptans (such as COS

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