Proteomics and Protein Analyses of Ovine and Caprine Body Fluids

Proteomics and Protein Analyses of Ovine and Caprine Body Fluids

11 Pages · 2014 · 890 KB · English

1Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania; Although the proteomes of body fluids have been described in detail for some animal species, there are few equivalent . by the identification and application of specific protein bio

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Send Orders for Reprints to [email protected] Current Protein and Peptide Science, 2014, 15, 4555 45 13892037/14 $5800+00 © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers Proteomics and Protein Analyses of Ovine and Caprine Body Fluids: Current Studies and Future Promises Jani Mavromati 1,* , Phillip Cash 2, Laura Restelli 3 and Laura Soler 4 1Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania; 2Division of Applied Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK; 3Dipartimento di Scienze Veterinarie per la Salute, la Produzione Animale e la Sicurezza Alimentare, University of Milan, Italy; 4Division of LivestockNutritionQuality, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Belgium Abstract: Our knowledge of the physiology and health of small ruminants, specifically sheep and goats, is frequently ob tained by extrapolating information from other species, for example the cow However, there are important genetic, physiological and anatomical differences between small and large ruminants that cannot be ignored This review considers the advances that have been made in the investigation of sheep and goat physiology through the use of proteomic tech nologies Proteomics is widely used to analyze clinically relevant body fluids for a number of animals to define productive traits and health status biomarkers as well as to monitor therapeutic interventions for infectious and metabolic diseases Although the proteomes of body fluids have been described in detail for some animal species, there are few equivalent studies for sheep and goats Nevertheless, the data now available for the proteomes of a range of body fluids in small ru minants have helped define new diagnostic and prognostic markers for these species Moreover, these data are beneficial in studies wh ere th ese small ruminants serve as models for human disease However, d espite the progress ach iev ed to date, comprehensive data on the specific proteomes for many tissues and body fluids for sheep and goats remain scarce The aim of this review is to describe the current status of small ruminant proteomic research and to demonstrate the poten tial benefits, as well as highlight the difficulties, of working with these animals Keywords: Biomarkers, caprine, milk, ovine, proteomics, saliva, seminal plasma, serum, small ruminants 1 INTRODUCTION Sheep and goats are important livestock species, both in developed and developing countries The world population of these small ruminants in 2011 was estimated at 1,043 bil lion live sheep and 875 million live goats [1] The goal of sheep and goat farming is to maximize protein production in the form of meat, skin, wool and milk It seems logical, therefore, to focus small ruminant research in the study of proteins In the past, research on these animals has focused on other areas, including their genomics, to identify and pre serve relevant production and disease resistance genetic traits However, despite progress on the genome sequencing of these small ruminants, the detailed annotation of the ge nome sequences is lacking [2, 3] The availability of high quality genome sequences for sheep and goats is very impor tant for advancing proteomic studies in these animals in or der to explore and describe the mechanisms governing cellu lar responses to the environment at the protein level Pro teomics is the field of research that studies the proteins pre sent in tissues and cells on a global scale, and includes the analysis of transcriptional regulatory factors, post transcriptional and posttranslational modifications, protein interactions and protein abundance The combined data thus *Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Agricultural University of Tirana, Albania; Mobile: 00 355 69 20 63 696; Fax: 00 355 42 415 325; Email: [email protected] reflects the true biochemical output of

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