Plumbing Fixtures

Plumbing Fixtures

21 Pages · 2017 · 612 KB · English

Enameled cast iron plumbing fixtures are heavy, strong, ductile, and long lasting. Fixtures made of enameled cast iron include sinks, lavatories, bathtubs, and showers. Porcelain Enameled Steel. Porcelain enameled steel is created by bonding porcelain enamel, a substantially vitreous or glossy 

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CEU 251 Plumbing Fixtures Continuing Education from the American Society of Plumbing Engineers September 2017 ASPEORG/ReadLearnEarn Plumbing fixtures are designed for specific functions to maintain public health and sanitation, such as discharging potable water or carrying away waste Common plumbing fixtures include water closets, urinals, showers, bathtubs, faucets, drinking fountains, bidets, floor drains, and emergency showers Fixtures are connected to the plumbing system piping by different types of fittings that help regulate flow or perform some other function to ensure that the fixture and the entire system work properly FIXTURE MATERIALS The surface of a plumbing fixture must be smooth, impervious, and easily cleanable to maintain a high level of sanitation Common plumbing fixture materials include the following Vitreous China This is a unique, extremely strong material that is specially suited to plumbing fixtures Unlike other ceramic materials, vitreous china does not absorb water because it is not porous Because vitreous china is nonporous, it has a very high shrinkage rate when fired in a kiln, which accounts for the slight differences among otherwise identical plumbing fixtures Exposed vitreous china plumbing fixture surfaces are typically glazed, which provides an appealing finish that can be easily cleaned However, the glazing is not required to keep the fixture watertight The glazing of a vitreous china fixture also provides the color of the fixture Vitreous china is a common fixture material for water closets, urinals, bidets, drinking fountains, sinks, and lavatories Nonvitreous China Nonvitreous china is a porous ceramic that requires glazing to prevent water absorption The advantage of nonvitreous china is its low shrinkage rate, which allows the fixture to be more ornately designed Nonvitreous china typically is used for sinks and lavatories Enameled Cast Iron The base of enameled cast iron fixtures is a highgrade cast iron The exposed surfaces have an enameled coating, which is fused to the cast iron, resulting in a hard, glossy, opaque, and acidresistant surface Enameled cast iron plumbing fixtures are heavy, strong, ductile, and long lasting Fixtures made of enameled cast iron include sinks, lavatories, bathtubs, and showers Porcelain Enameled Steel Porcelain enameled steel is created by bonding porcelain enamel, a substantially vitreous or glossy inorganic coating, to sheet steel by fusion Porcelain enameled steel is used for bathtubs and showers Stainless Steel Many types of stainless steel are used to produce plumbing fixtures, including 316, 304, 302, 301, 202, 201, and 430 One of the key ingredients in stainless steel is nickel, and a higher nickel content tends to produce a better finish in the stainless steel Higher nickel content also produces a shinier surface Types 302 and 304 have 8 percent nickel, and Type 316 has 10 percent nickel Any fixture can be made with stainless steel; however, the most common use of stainless steel is for sinks and drinking fountains Stainless steel water closets and urinals are used for severe service such as in highway rest areas and correctional facilities Plastic Plastic is a generic category for a variety of synthetic materials used in plumbing fixtures The various plastic materials used to produce plumbing fixtures include acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), gelcoated fiberglassreinforced plastic (FRP), acrylic, cultured marble, castfilled fiberglass, polyester, castfilled acrylic, gelcoated plastic, cultured marble acrylic, and acrylic polymer Plastics used in plumbing fixtures are subject to numerous tests to determine their quality, including the ignition (torch) test, cigarette burn test, stainresistance test, and chemicalresistance test The common fixtures made with plastic are bathtubs, showers, whirlpool bathtubs, sinks, and lavatories Glass Tempered glass fixtures can be ornately

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