Operating- System Structures - Wiley: Home

Operating- System Structures - Wiley: Home

40 Pages · 2004 · 319 KB · English

The Apple Macintosh Mac OS X operating system uses a hybrid structure. Mac OS X (also known as Darwin) structures the operating system using a layered technique where one layer

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2 CHAPTER Operating - System Structures An operating system provides the environment within which programs are executed. Internally, operating systems vary greatly in their makeup, since they are organized along many different lines. The design of a new operating system is a major task. It is important that the goals of the system be well de?ned before the design begins. These goals form the basis for choices among various algorithms and strategies. We can view an operating system from several vantage points. One view focuses on the services that the system provides; another, on the interface that it makes available to users and programmers; a third, on its components and their interconnections. In this chapter, we explore all three aspects of operating systems, showing the viewpoints of users, programmers, and operating-system designers. We consider what services an operating system provides, how they are provided, and what the various methodologies are for designing such systems. Finally, we describe how operating systems are created and how a computer starts its operating system. CHAPTER OBJECTIVES To describe the services an operating system provides to users, processes, and other systems. To discuss the various ways of structuring an operating system. To explain how operating systems are installed and customized and how they boot. 2.1Operating-System Services An operating system provides an environment for the execution of programs. It provides certain services to programs and to the users of those programs. The speci?c services provided, of course, differ from one operating system to another, but we can identify common classes. These operating-system services areprovidedfortheconvenienceoftheprogrammer,tomaketheprogramming task easier. 39 40 Chapter 2Operating-System Structures One set of operating-system services provides functions that are helpful to the user. ? User interface. Almost all operating systems have auser interface ( UI ). This interface can take several forms. One is acommand-line interface ( CLI ), which uses text commands and a method for entering them (say, a program to allow entering and editing of commands). Another is abatch interface, in which commands and directives to control those commands are entered into ?les, and those ?les are executed. Most commonly, a graphical

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