OCEANOGRAPHY: Significance of the Oceans - Career Account Web Pages

OCEANOGRAPHY: Significance of the Oceans - Career Account Web Pages

33 Pages · 2015 · 3.14 MB · English

1 OCEANOGRAPHY: Physical (Currents, waves, ocean basins) Biological(MarineBiology)Biological (Marine Biology) Chemical (Ocean waters, marine

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1 OCEANOGRAPHY: Physical (Currents, waves, ocean basins) Biological (Marine Biology)Biological (Marine Biology) Chemical (Ocean waters, marine pollution) Marine Geology (Ocean basins, marine geology processes) Significance of the Oceans 1. Abundant Life 2. Sediments/Ores (iron, salt, gypsum, limestone) 3Ctli( llh tl )3.Coas tline (sea leve l changes, coas tal processes ) 4. Ocean – Atmosphere Interaction (weather) 5. Ocean – Climate effects (CO 2storage) Waters of the Oceans: 1. Oceans are 3 billion years old (de- gassing of Earth) 2. Salty because of dissolved elements from continents (today in equilibrium) continents (today ,  in equilibrium) 3. Composition of seawater: H 2O + 3.5% (35 o/oo; parts per thousand) salts (Na, Cl, SO 4, Ca, K, Mg) 4. Properties of water, H 2O -- Dipolar molecule -- Good solvent -- Expands on freezing -- High surface tension -- Exists in solid, liquid and gas form on Earth The reason for the 105 degree angle in the water molecule 0o (ice) 2 o 4o As water freezes, the dipolar water molecules begin to arrange themselves into hexagonal patterns because of the electrical bonds formed by the positive and negative sides fth l l Density = 1.0Density = 0.917 15o 20o C o f the mo lecu les. This explains the hexagonal symmetry of snowflakes and ice crystals and the unusual property that ice is less dense than water.Density = 0.998 2 Photos of single ice crystals showing hexagonal symmetry Ocean Waters – Relative proportions of water and dissolved salts in seawater Figure 9.3, text Salinity: o/oo= Parts per Thousand; 35 o/oo= 3.5% Polar views contrasting areas covered by oceans Figure 9.1, text Distribution of Land and Water, Graph and Map Figure 9.2, text Differences in surface salinities partially caused by variations in precipitation (also see Figure 9.4, text) Fluctuating location of shoreline due to glacier formation or melting (also see Figure 4.19, text, 2014) 3 Estuaries (were river valleys during ice age) along East Coast Figure 10.22, text Figure 10.20, text Ocean Basin Morphology 1. Shape of Earth – Ellipsoid (within 50 m) 2. If no continents, 2500 m water depth all over Earth 3. Shape of ocean basins due to continental geography (plate tectonics) 4. Main features of Ocean Bathymetry: -- Shelf -- Slope -- Abyssal PlainAbyssal

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