Is chemically dispersed oil more toxic to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

Is chemically dispersed oil more toxic to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

14 Pages · 2013 · 1.03 MB · English

fish larvae. From these studies it appears that oil droplets characteristics do not attribute to the toxic effects of PAH and other components in crude oil to fish embryo and lar- vae, however, very little is known about whether or not chemically dispersed oil droplets have the same toxic effects a

Is chemically dispersed oil more toxic to Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) free download


R E S E A R C H A R T I C L E Open Access Is chemically dispersed oil more toxic to Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) larvae than mechanically dispersed oil? A transcriptional evaluation Pål A Olsvik 1*, Kai K Lie 1, Trond Nordtug 2and Bjørn Henrik Hansen 2 Abstract Background: The use of dispersants can be an effective way to deal with acute oil spills to limit environmental damage, however very little is known about whether chemically dispersed oil have the same toxic effect on marine organisms as mechanically dispersed oil We exposed Atlantic cod larvae to chemically and mechanically dispersed oil for four days during the firstfeeding stage of development, and collected larvae at 14 days post hatch for transcriptional analysis A genomewide microarray was used to screen for effects and to assess whether molecular responses to chemically and mechanically dispersed oil were similar, given the same exposure to oil (droplet distribution and concentration) with and without the addition of a chemical dispersant (Dasic NS) Results: Mechanically dispersed oil induced expression changes in almost three times as many transcripts compared to chemically dispersed oil (fold change >+/ 15) Functional analyses suggest that chemically dispersed oil affects partly different pathways than mechanically dispersed oil By comparing the alteration in gene transcription in cod larvae exposed to the highest concentrations of either chemically or mechanically dispersed oil directly, the chemically dispersed oil affected transcription of genes involved nucleosome regulation, ie genes encoding proteins participating in DNA replication and chromatin formation and regulation of cell proliferation, whereas the mechanically dispersed oil most strongly affected genes encoding proteins involved in proteasomemediated protein degradation Cyp1a was the transcript that was most strongly affected in both exposure groups, with a 60fold induction in the two highexposure groups according to the RTqPCR data, but no significant difference in transcriptional levels was observed between the two treatments Conclusions: In summary, dispersants do not appear to add to the magnitude of transcriptional responses of oil compounds but rather appear to lower or modify the transcriptional effect on cod larvae Keywords: Atlantic cod larvae, Exposure, Chemical, Natural oil dispersion, Transcription Background Crude oil is a complex mixture of a range of different components like aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols, and a substantial amount of unknown compounds [1] Following an acute oil spill, waves, wind and sunlight will cause weathering of the oil, altering the appearance and composition of the oil dramatically and dynamically [2] The weathering process generates oil inwater dispersions, consisting of oil droplets in the water phase Micronsized oil droplets will to a minimal degree resurface, and they will be a source of oil com pounds for marine organisms through leakage and dis solution, as the chemical equilibrium for oil compounds between the water phase and the oil droplets continu ously will vary Use of dispersants after an acute oil spill, as demonstrated by the extensive use of the dispersant Corexit 9500 during the Deepwater Horizon accident in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 [3], will increase the amounts of oil droplets in the seawater column The main purpose of using dispersant is to move the oil into the water column as oil dispersions which will dilute and biodegrade the oil more rapidly than if the oil was left on the surface [4,5] More knowledge is needed on the fate and effects of oil droplets in the water column * Correspondence: [email protected] 1National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, Nordnesboder 12, Bergen N5005, NorwayFull list of author information is available at the end of the article © 2012 Olsvik et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommonsorg/licenses/by/20), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, andreproduction

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