Internet Protocol (Version 4)

Internet Protocol (Version 4)

35 Pages · 2006 · 102 KB · English

Internet Addresses • 32-bit addresses assigned to interfaces (not hosts) • Routing protocols (therefore forwarding tables) identify next-hop with an IP address

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Internet Protocol (Version 4) CS 571 Fall 2006 © 2006 Kenneth L. Calvert All rights reserved History • Developed in late 1970's – early 1980's – DARPA Internetworking Program • Goal: create a "catenet" = network of networks – LAN technologies were coming on the scene – Several wide-area packet networks already existed ARPANet, Tymnet, Telenet, DataPAC – Needed: Common global address space • IP Specification: RFC 791, September 1981 •"Flag Day" cutover to TCP/IP: January 1, 1981 – Note: Originally (late 70's) TCP and IP were one protocol What IPv4 Provides • Unified global, hierarchical address space – 32-bit addresses • depicted as "dotted quads":128.113.23.44 • Datagram service: each packet forwarded independently – Gateways (routers) can be "stateless" (not really) – Requires little from underlying link layers •"Best-effort" service • Runs over everything • Fragmentation and Reassembly – Datagrams can be up to 64K bytes can be sent – IP layer will • Bounded Packet lifetime – Packets will be dropped instead of delivered after long time • Different Types of Service(never implemented) IP Version 4 Header Destination Address Frag Offset Protocol TTL Version Source Address Identification Header Length Type of Service Total Length Options Flags Header Checksum 32 bits 16 bits IP Version 4 Header Destination Address Frag Offset Protocol TTL Version Source Address Identification Header Length Type of Service Total Length Options Flags Header Checksum Valid Version Values: 4, 6 IP Version 4 Header Destination Address Frag Offset Protocol TTL Version Source Address Identification Header Length Type of Service Total Length Options Flags Header Checksum Offset of first byte of data (in 32-bit words) IP Version 4 Header Destination Address Frag Offset Protocol TTL Version Source Address Identification Header Length Type of Service Total Length Options Flags Header Checksum 16-bit total length: up to 65,535 bytes can be sent in one datagram IP Version 4 Header Destination Address Offset Protocol TTL Version Source Address Identification Header Length Type of Service Total Length Options Flags Header Checksum Time-to-Live: 8 bits Original semantics: # seconds datagram can remain in the network (≤255) Current semantics: hop limit IP Version 4 Header Destination Address Offset Protocol TTL Version Source Address Identification Header Length Type of Service Total Length Options Flags Header Checksum "Address" of higher-level protocol, e.g.: 6 = TCP 17 = UDP 4 = IPv4 (See IANA) IP Version 4 Header Destination Address Offset Protocol TTL Version Source Address Identification Header Length Type of Service Total Length Options Flags Header Checksum 16-bit 1's complement of the 1's complement sum of all 16-bit words in the header IP Version 4 Header Destination Address Frag Offset Protocol TTL Version Source Address Identification Header Length Type of Service Total Length Options Flags Header Checksum Fragmentation Fields Unique per (source, dest, protocol) per maximum

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