Immigration and Economy in the Globalization Process

Immigration and Economy in the Globalization Process

236 Pages · 2002 · 1.63 MB · English

will need employees with the right skills and motivation. Switching to an active im- Finland by analyzing the development of the volume of foreign-born and foreign na- tionals and direct foreign . In the globalization trend of corporations, competition has shifted from natural re- source and expen

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Annika Forsander (ed) Immigration and Economy in the Globalization Process The Case of Finland Sitra Reports series 20 2 Sitra Report series 20 Copyright: the authors and Sitra Graphic design: Leena Seppänen ISBN 9515634156 (print) ISSN 1457571X (print) ISBN 9515634164 (URL: http://wwwsitrafi/) ISSN 14575728 (URL: http://wwwsitrafi/) The Sitra Reports series consists of research publications, reports and evaluation studies especially for the use of experts To order copies of publications in the Sitra Reports series, please contact Sitra at tel +358 9 618 991 or email [email protected] Tummavuoren Kirjapaino Oy Vantaa 2002 3 Contents Introduction: The migration of people and the flow of capital 4 Annika Forsander and MarjaLiisa Trux 1 The two faces of globalization: migration and globalization of cultures 10 Maaria Ylänkö 2 From Hanseatic trade to hamburger chains – a historical survey 48 Tuula Joronen and Mika Pajarinen and Pekka YläAnttila 3 Finland in the world economy – the era of liberalization 66 Jyrki AliYrkkö and Tuula Joronen and Pekka YläAnttila 4 Glocalizing capital and labor – old structures, new challenges 81 Annika Forsander 5 Immigrant entrepreneurship in Finland in the 1990s 119 Tuula Joronen 6 Diversity under the Northern Star 175 MarjaLiisa Trux Conclusion: Toward new immigration strategies? 226 Annika Forsander and MarjaLiisa Trux Notes on the contributors 235 4 Introduction: The migration of people and the flow of capital Annika Forsander & MarjaLiisa Trux 5 A NNIKA FORSANDER & M ARJA LIISA TRUX The world is shrinking The rapid rate of economic globalization is diluting the diver sity of local cultures and spreading an Americanstyle business model, and a model of consumption that springs from the same origins People all over the world are mix ing and matching components according to their own interpretations, depending on their values and origins There is an illusion of being the same, part of a common world, which will persist as long as the economy is in an upswing English is the com mon language, people use the same concepts, move about in the same global business circles, and cultural differences usually only emerge when collaboration presents se rious challenges, or when the trust between employer and employee is broken Sud denly there is the realization that although people us the same concepts, they have understood them in entirely different ways, and that this may have been going on for years, in fact perhaps from the very start We inhabit a world that each of us looks at through his or her own, highly culturally tinged spectacles While a globalizing economy blends cultural influences, local cultures are assum ing an important role in the general awareness The postCold War world is charac terized by politicized ethnicity in where demands of minorities and indigenous pop ulations, separatist movements, and the new selfimage of nationstates test the ten ability of these states On the flipside of the coin, ‘ethnicity’ and local color have been rediscovered as resources by the business economy Paradoxically, the globalizing economy sorely needs local knowledge Being successful requires being familiar with local markets and national consumption habits The traditions and knowhow of local cultures must be utilized One must also be careful not to aggravate local minority issues or to cause misunderstandings between differently identified employees In terms of immigration policy, Europe is in transition The zero immigration era of recent decades is drawing to a close and European countries are once more recruiting new workforce Many countries are opening up legal channels for finding employ ment in Europe One central question is where to find the skilled professionals to re place those ageing employees who will soon retire More and more countries are al ready looking for qualified professionals to remain competitive As the population ag es, the issue will not only affect the IT industry’s top professionals – other sectors too will need employees with the right skills and motivation Switching to an active im migration policy would provide the preconditions for acquiring the needed expertise In the labor market, immigration is

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