Glossary of Wireless Acronyms - 4G Americas

Glossary of Wireless Acronyms - 4G Americas

13 Pages · 2012 · 546 KB · English

Glossary of Wireless Acronyms . 1x Short for 1xRTT . 1xCS 1x Circuit Switched . 1xCSFB 1x Circuit Switched Fallback . 1xEV-DO CDMA20001xEV-DO or 1 times Evolution

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Journal of MethodsMicrobiological Journal of Microbiological Methods 35 (1999) 187 ± 199 Review Applications of the green ¯uorescent protein as a molecular marker in environmental microorganisms ab b b bb D Errampalli , K Leung , MB Cassidy , M Kostrzynska , M Blears , H Lee , b,* JT Trevors aAgriculture and AgriFood Canada ,POBox 1210, Charlottetown ,PEI ,Canada C 1A7M8 bDepartment of Environmental Biology ,University of Guelph ,Guelph ,ON ,Canada N 1G2W1 Received 23 November 1998; accepted 18 January 1999 Abstract In this review, we examine numerous applications of the green ¯uorescent protein (GFP) marker gene in environmental microbiology research The GFP and its variants are reviewed and applications in plant ± microbe interactions, bio®lms, biodegradation, bacterial ± protozoan interactions, gene transfer, and biosensors are discussed Methods for detecting GFPmarked cells are also examined The GFP is a useful marker in environmental microorganisms, allowing new research that will increase our understanding of microorganisms in the environmentÓ1999 Elsevier Science BV All rights reserved Keywords :Bacteria; Biotechnology; Environmental; Green ¯uorescent protein; Marker; Microorganisms; Soil 1 Introductionnatural ecosystems and possible effects that may result from dissemination of novel genetic infor Genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) mation to indigenous microbial populations is essen are being developed and assessed for their bene®cial tial to understand the fate of GEMs in the open uses in agricultural pest control and bioremediation environment of toxic chemicals in the environment Bioremedia Detection methods are required to monitor surviv tion of soils and sediments contaminated with chemi al of GEMs in a background of large numbers of cal pollutants by naturally occurring microorganisms heterogenous microbial populations In the past, and GEMs may provide a cost effective alternative to researchers depended on conventional microbiologi physical and chemical remediation procedures Cur cal methods, such as activity measurements and the rent interest in the possible release of GEMs into the isolation and cultivation of pure cultures on selective open environment has raised concerns over issues of media However, many microorganisms present in human and environmental health Knowledge about soil and water are dif®cult to cultivate and only the survival and expression of traits in GEMs in about 01 ± 10% of the microorganisms present in the soil are culturable (Brock, 1987) Recently, molecu lar detection methods including gene probing, DNA *Corresponding author Tel:115198244120 (extn 3367); fax: hybridization, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and 115198370442 Email address :[email protected] (JT Trevors) reporter genes have been used in addition to tradi 01677012 / 99 / $ ± see front matterÓ1999 Elsevier Science BV All rights reserved PII: S01677012(99)00024X 188D Errampalli et al /Journal of Microbiological Methods 35 (1999) 187 ±199 tional detection methods These molecular detectionvictoriahas attracted considerable attention as a methods assist in the identi®cation of genetically marker / reporter system The objective of this manu marked microorganisms in environmental samples script is to review applications of the GFP as a Molecular markers, genes conferring speci®c molecular marker in environmental microbiology phenotypes, are used to detect and enumerate micro research organisms after their introduction into the environ ment (Masson et al, 1993) Monitoring GEMs in speci®c and diverse environments requires unique and easily identi®able markers The marker should2 Green ¯uorescent protein (GFP) facilitate detection of the introduced microorganisms from diverse indigenous microbial populations The green ¯uorescent protein (GFP) is a 27 kDa Moreover, genes such as thegfpintroduced into the polypeptide, which converts the blue chemilumines 21 bacterial chromosome are more stable than plasmid cence of the Ca sensitive photoprotein, aequorin, borne genes and minimize the potential transfer of into green light (Chal®e, 1994; Cody et al, 1993) marker DNA to indigenous environmental micro Inouye and Tsuji (1994a) showed the active chromo organisms phore is a tripeptide and is dependent on the Considerable research has been conducted on the presence of oxygen to maturate Wildtype GFP use of molecular markers for detection of GEMs in absorbs blue light at 395 nm and emits green light at the environment and the literature has been reviewed 510 nm in bioluminescent organisms and when up to 1994 (Akkermans et al, 1994; Greer et al, puri®ed in solution (Ward et al, 1980) 1993; Prosser, 1994)

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