Focus on Formative Feedback - ETS Home

Focus on Formative Feedback - ETS Home

55 Pages · 2007 · 513 KB · English

The definition of formative feedback may be further refined as multidimensional, nonevaluative, supportive, learner-controlled, timely, specific, credible,

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Focus on Formative Feedback March 2007 RR-07-11 Research Report V alerie J. Shute Research & Development Focus on Formative Feedback Valerie J. Shute ETS, Princeton, NJ March 2007 As part of its educational and social mission and in fulfilling the organization's nonprofit charter and bylaws, ETS has and continues to learn from and also to lead research that furthers educational and measurement research to advance quality and equity in education and assessment for all users of the organization's products and services. ETS Research Reports provide preliminary and limited dissemination of ETS research prior to publication. To obtain a PDF or a print copy of a report, please visit: Copyright © 2007 by Educational Testing Service. All rights reserved. ETS and the ETS logo are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service (ETS). Abstract This paper reviews the corpus of research on feedback, with a particular focus on formative feedback—defined as information communicated to the learner that is intended to modify the learner’s thinking or behavior for the purpose of improving learni ng. According to researchers in the area, formative feedback should be multidim ensional, nonevaluative, supportive, timely, specific, credible, infrequent, and genui ne (e.g., Brophy, 1981; Schwartz & White, 2000). Formative feedback is usually presented as information to a learner in response to some action on the learner’s part. It comes in a variety of types (e.g., verification of response accuracy, explanation of the correct answer, hints, worked examples) and can be administered at various times during the learning process (e.g., immediat ely following an answer, after some period of time has elapsed). Finally, there are a number of vari ables that have been shown to interact with formative feedback’s success at promoting learni ng (e.g., individual characteristics of the learner and aspects of the task). All of these issues will

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