Ecosystem Management and the Florida Everglades: The Role of

Ecosystem Management and the Florida Everglades: The Role of

10 Pages · 2002 · 795 KB · English

Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 29,1(July 1997):99–107 @ 1997 Southern Agricultural Economics Association Ecosystem Management and the Florida

Ecosystem Management and the Florida Everglades: The Role of free download


JournalofAgriculturalandAppliedEconomics,29,1(July1997):99–107 @1997SouthernAgriculturalEconomicsAssociation EcosystemManagementandtheFlorida Everglades:TheRoleofSocialScientists J.WalterMilon,ClydeF.Kiker,andDonnaJ.Lee ABSTRACT RecentlymanystateandfederalagenciesintheU.S.haveembracedanecosystemsman- agementapproachtoenvironmentalprotectionandregulation.Thisapproachrequiresa high degreeofcooperationbetweennaturalandsocialscientiststotranslatepolicyobjec- tivesintoresearchhypotheses,models,andevaluationprocedurestoguideimplementation decisions.Anadaptiveproceduretoguideinterdisciplinaryresearchisdescribedandil- lustratedwithhighlightsofrecentprogressandpitfallsfromtherestorationinitiativefor theEverglades/SouthFloridaecosystem. KeyWords:adaptivemanagement,ecosystemmanagement,FloridaEverglades,interdis- ciplinaryresearch,socialscience. Themostsignificantnewconceptinenviron- mentalpolicydebatesduringthepastfew yearsisecosystemmanagement.Whatbegan asaloosecollectionofideasandprinciples basedonbiologicalfieldstudies(Grumbine) hasbecomeacentralthemeforstateandfed- eralenvironmentalresourcemanagement.The ClintonAdministrationestablishedanInter- agencyEcosystemManagementTaskForcein 1993toexploretheimplicationsofecosystem managementin18federalagencies.Subse- quentreportsindicateahighleveloffederal commitmenttoimplementingtheecosystem approachdespitemanyobstacles(e.g.,Inter- agencyEcosystemManagementTaskForce; U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency;U.S. GeneralAccountingOffice).Arecentsurvey identifiedmorethan600ecosystemmanage- J.WalterMilonandClydeEKikerareprofessors,and DonnaJ.Leeisanassistantprofessor,allintheFood andResourceEconomicsDepartment,Universityof Florida. ThisisFloridaAgriculturalExperimentStation JournalSeriesNo.R-05605. mentprojectsunderwayaroundtheU.S.(Yaf- feeetal.). Onecenterpieceoffederalandstateeco- systemmanagementeffortsistheSouthFlor- ida/Evergladesecosystemrestorationinitia- tive.ThesouthernportionofFlorida(see figure1)isamosaicofinterrelatedterrestrial, freshwater,andmarinesystemsthatincludes severalnationalandstateparks,preserves,and specialmanagementareas.Theregionencom- passesmorethan18,000squaremilesandac- countsfornearly50%ofFlorida’s14million residentsandanequalpercentageofthemore than40millionannualvisitorstothestate. Sincethelate1800s,andespeciallyafter1948, thenaturalhydrologicalconditionsofthere- gionhavebeenfundamentallychangedtopro- videfloodprotectionandwatersupplyfordo- mestic,industrial,andagriculturalusers(Light andDineen).In1993,theSouthFloridaEco- systemRestorationTaskForce(andrelated WorkingGroup)wascreatedthroughanin- teragencyagreementamongsixfederalagen- cies;in1995,membershipoftheSouthFlor- idaTaskForcewasexpandedtoinclude 100 JournalofAgriculturalandAppliedEconomic ‘s,July1 997 ‘M)mF’”v’”I III AlllaattxAla\ 1..-—.—-.. q WA-CONS-A..”A-, q ymw.6#AM0wm,“, —S041THF1.OnlmAwATt!aMANAaEuINr DISTRICTlOuNDAmv .....EvemaubwNATIONAL.MF.,auNDAnv -.,- Figure1.TheSouthFlorida/EvergladesEcosystem relevantstateagenciesandtheMiccosukee andSeminoletribes.Thisgroupseekstoco- ordinatestateandfederaleffortsto“restore andmaintaintheintegrityoftheSouthFlorida Ecosystem”(U.S.DepartmentoftheInterior). ThispaperutilizestheSouthFloridacase studytodescribetheinterdisciplinaryresearch necessaryforecosystemmanagementand,in particular,theroleofsocialscientists.Webegin withabriefoverviewoftheecosystemman- agementconceptandthemeritsoftheapproach relativetoconventionalmanagement.Wethen describeageneralframeworkforinterdisciplin- aryresearchtosupportecosystemmanage-ment,withspecialemphasisontheinterrela- tionshipsbetweennaturalandsocialsciences inthedevelopmentandtestingofhypotheses toguidemanagementdecisions.Weillustrate thisframeworkthroughanalysesofasample ofimportantresearchissuesintheSouthFlor- idarestorationprocessandconcludewithsome observationsonthechangingroleforscientists inanecosystemmanagementframework. PrinciplesofEcosystemManagement Atpresent,thereareseveralwell-recognized principlesofecosystemmanagement,butrel- Milon,Kiker,andLee:EcosystemManagementandSocialScientists ativelylittleagreementonthedetailsofim- plementation.Themostciteddefinition,put forthbyGrumbine,ismanagementthat“in- tegratesscientificknowledgeofecologicalre- lationshipswithinacomplexsociopolitical andvaluesframeworktowardthegeneralgoal ofprotectingnativeecosystemintegrityover thelongterm”(p.31).Thisdefinitionembod- iesthreeprimarythemes:(a)ecosystems—in- teractingbiological(includinghuman)and physicalcomponents,(b)conservationbiolo- gy—sustainableareasofbiodiversitywithina nativehabitat,and(c)integratedorganiza- tion-coordinationofsocialinstitutionsto achievedesiredgoals.Dependinguponthe emphasisgiventoeachtheme,ecosystem managementcanbeviewedasapreservation- dominatedapproachtoresourcemanagement (Sedjo)orasanorganizationaltooltorecon- cilediverse,conflictingpoliticalinterests (Haeuber). Ambiguityinthefocusofecosystemman- agementisreflectedinthedifferingperspec- tivesonecosystemmanagementasexpressed byvariousfederalagencies.Forexample,the NationalParkService’shistoricalmandatefor preservationisreflectedinitsdescriptionof ecosystemmanagementas“aphilosophical approachthatrespectsalllivingthingsand seekstosustainnaturalprocessesandthedig- nityofallspeciesandtoensurethatcommon interestsflourish”(quotedinHaeuber,p.25). Ontheotherhand,theInteragencyEcosystem ManagementTaskForcestates,“Thegoalof theecosystemapproachistorestoreandsus- tainthehealth,productivity,andbiologicaldi- versityofecosystemsandtheoverallquality oflifethroughanaturalresourcemanagement approachthatisfullyintegratedwithsocial andeconomicgoals”(Vol.I,p.17).Thislatter interpretationemphasizestheinterrelation- shipsbetweenbiologicalandsocialsystems andtheneedforconsistencybetweenecolog- icalandsocialgoals. Proponentsofecosystemmanagementar- gueafundamentaladvantageisthattraditional resourcemanagementtendstobemyopicand failstorecognizethecomplexityanduncer- taintyinherenttoecologicalandsocialsys- tems(e.g.,AgeeandJohnson;Ludwig,Hil-born, andWalters; Therefore,anadaptive isanecessaryelement101 Helling;Stanley). managementapproach ofecosystemmanage- ment.Adaptivemanagementisbasedonthe premisethatinformationaboutecologicaland socialsystemsis(andwillalwaysbe)imper- fect.Managementdecisionsshouldbeviewed aspartofasequentialprocessdesignedtopro- videnewinformationwhichisthenusedto assessandmodify,ifnecessary,priordeci- sions(Walters).Newinformationabouteco- logicalandsocialsystemsisgeneratedfroma processthatviewseachnewmanagementde- cisionasanexperimentwithinaseriesofex- periments.Eachexperimentisbasedononeor morehypothesesaboutthebehaviorofcritical ecologicaland/orsocialsystemindicators (endpoints).Thus,adaptivemanagementre- quires:(a)closeintegrationbetweennatural andsocialscientistsandpolicymakersinthe formulationofgoalsandhypotheses,(b)clear- lydefinedresponseindicators(endpoints),’ and(c)monitoringandevaluationtoidentify andassesstheimplicationsofchangeinthe responseindicatorsrelativetogoalsandob- jectives.Inmanyrespects,adaptivemanage- mentisDeming’sbusinessstrategyof“total qualitymanagement”(LatzkoandSaunders) appliedtoenvironmentalmanagement.The InteragencyEcosystemManagementTask Forcecontendsthatwithoutthissequentialre- searchprocess,management“isreducedtolit- tlemorethanatrial-and-errorprocess”(Vol. H,p.56). Despitetheintegralroleofresearchineco- systemmanagement,littlehasbeenwritten abouttheprocessofscientistsworkingwith managersinanecosystemsetting,andthelit- eratureisequallysilentonwritingsaddressing interactionsbetweennaturalandsocialscien- tists.zThisissurprisingsincealargemajority ofongoingecosystemmanagementprojects 1Endpointsarequantitativeindicatorsofecosys- temattributesthatreflectbiologicalandsocialrele- vance,aredefinableandmeasurable,andchangein responsetoperturbations(SuterandBarnthouse,pp. 22–27). 2NotableexceptionsareworksbyAntteandWag- ene~I-Iarwelletal.;Miller;andtheNationalResearch Council. 102JournalofAgriculturalandAppliedEconomics,July1997 .-----~socIAL/POLICY L30ALs~---- IResearehObjectivesI —m— MonitoringandEvaluation of Physical,Biological, and b SocialSystemResponse Figure2.Naturalandsocialscienceresearch inanadaptivemanagementframework aroundtheU.S.citeresearchasaprimary componentoftheproject(Yaffeeetal.,pp. 17–19).Indeed,theInteragencyEcosystem ManagementTaskForceobserves,“Theneed forscientificinformationasafoundationfor resourcemanagementdecisionscontinuesto increasedramatically....Theinterfacebe- tweensocial,economic,physical-biological, andecologicalmodelsmustbeimproved” (Vol.II,p.65). Inthefollowingsections,wepresenta frameworkforintegratingnaturalandsocial scientistsinadaptivemanagementandde- scribehowthisframeworkcouldbeappliedto somecriticalecosystemmanagementissuesin theSouthFlorida/Evergladessetting. Scientists’RoleinAdaptiveManagement Thecontributionsofnaturalandsocialscien- tistsinanadaptivemanagementframework areillustratedinfigure2.Socialgoalsorpri- oritiesforthemanagementofanecosystem areexpressedthroughvariouspoliticalandgovernmentalentities.Thesegoalsreflectthe desiresofthepublicataspecifictimeandare oftenvagueandambiguousbecausefull knowledgeoftheecosystemislackingand publicdesiresreflectcomplexculturalbeliefs andvaluesthatarerarelyexpressedwithpre- cision(Caldwell;Jasanoff).Thesegoalscan beexpressedasresearchobjectivesbyscien- tistsandpolicymakers.Theresearchobjec- tivesareconditionedonscientists’understand- ingofecologicalandsocialrelationshipsand policymakers’interestsinachievingthese goals.Itgoeswithoutsayingthatpolicymak- ers’interestsmaybeascomplexanddynamic astheecosystemstheymanage(Fortman). Agreementbetweenpolicymakersandsci- entistsonresearchobjectivesleadstoasetof ecologicalandsocialhypothesesaboutthe performanceoftheecosystemthataremutu- allyconsistentyetreflectdifferentdisciplinary perspectives.Naturalscientistsaddressaneco- system’sstructureandfunction(biological, chemical,etc.)andtheinteractionsofpopu- lations(includinghuman)withintheecosys- tem.Socialscientistsconsiderthestructural andfunctionalfeaturesofsocialsystems(eco- nomic,political,etc.)andhumanbehavioral interactionswithnonhumancomponentsof theecosystem.Thehypothesesformthebasis formodelsofthenaturalandhumansystems thatcanbeusedtoassesstheeffectsofpoten- tialand/oractualperturbationstotheecosys- tem.Eachdisciplinaryperspectivemayad- dressvariablesthathavesubstantiallydifferent responsetimesandspatialscales. Inanidealworld,theresearchhypotheses reflectdirectinteractionandexchangebe- tweennaturalandsocialscientistssothatcrit- icaldeterminantsofanecosystem’sperfor- manceandthemostimportantendpointsare simultaneouslyconsidered.Nevertheless,itis importanttorecognizethatmanydeterminants willbeimperfectlyunderstood,sothatthe processofdevelopingandtesting“working hypotheses”inanadaptivemanagement frameworkonlyseekstoreducetheambiguity inherenttonaturalandsocialsystems(Cagli- oti).Withinthisscientificallyinformedadap- tivemanagementprocess,theresearchhypoth- esesformthebasisforanarrayofpossible Milon,Kiker,andLee:EcosystemManagementandSocialScientists103 optionsandactionsfromwhichpolicymakers (ecosystemmanagers)selectaninitialpre- ferredcourseofaction.Followingimplemen- tation,monitoringandevaluationofthephys- ical,biological,andsocialsystemsresponses mustbeconductedtoassesstheinitialwork- inghypotheses,toreducescientificuncertain- ty,toinformthepublic,and,ifnecessary,to developalternativehypothesesandaction plans.Thisisthecritical“feedback”element ofadaptivemanagementthatrequiresinterdis- ciplinaryscientificdialogueandinteraction withpolicymakersandthepublic.Atthis stage,priorinvestmentsinthedevelopmentof compatiblenaturalandsocialsciencehypoth- eseswillbemostapparent.Alackofaccept- ableindicatorsofecosystemperformancewill greatlycomplicatedecisionsabouttheeffects ofprioractionsandwilljeopardizepublictrust inthemanagementprocess. InterdisciplinaryScienceforAdaptive ManagementoftheEverglades/South FloridaEcosystem Theecosystemmanagementapproachcanbe illustratedbyrestorationinitiativesfortheEv- erglades/SouthFloridaecosystem.Inaddition totheSouthFloridaEcosystemTaskForce, othergovernmentalentitieshavehelpedtode- finerestorationgoalsfortheecosystem.In 1994,theU.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineers,a memberoftheTaskForce,publishedathree- vohtmereportseriesdesignedtoidentifyprob- lemsandopportunities,solicitpublicinput, formulateconceptualrestorationplans,and recommendfurtherdetailedstudiesforthe CentralandSouthernFloridaProject(CSFP).3 3Since theFloodControlActof1948,federalac- tivitiestobuildawatercontrolinfrastructurethrough- outtheEverglades/SouthFloridaregionhavebeenre- ferredtoastheCentralandSouthernFloridaProject. This“plumbingsystem”isconsideredoneofthelarg- estwatermanagementprojectsintheworld.Itisin- terestingtonotethefollowingstatementfromtheini- tialauthorizinglegislation:“Thebasicproblemofthis areais,therefore,torestorethenaturalbalancebe- tweensoilandwater[emphasisadded]inthkareain- sofaraspossiblebyestabhshingprotectiveworks,con- trols,andproceduresforconservationanduseofwater andland”(U.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineers1994,Vol. 1,p.31). In1995,followingitsestablishmentbyGov- ernorLawtonChiles,theGovernor’sCommis- sionforaSustainableSouthFloridapublished its“InitialReport” thatoffered110recom- mendationsforthefutureoftheregion.These recommendationsaddresshydrologic,ecolog- ic,andsocioeconomicattributesoftheregion. Foremostamongtheserecommendationsis thattheexistingwatermanagementinfrastruc- tureshouldberedesignedto“restoreasus- tainableSouthFloridaecosystemthatpre- servesthevaluedpropertiesofSouthFlorida’s naturalsystemsandsupportsproductiveagri- culture,fishery,andtourist-basedeconomies andahighqualityoflife”(p.18). CongressandtheClintonAdministration stipulatedintheWaterResourcesDevelop- mentActof1996thatafeasibilityevaluation andrecommendedplanforrestorationofthe EvergladesmustbedevelopedbyJuly1, 1999.TheArmyCorpsofEngineerswhich,as theleadfederalagencyfortheCSFP,haspri- maryresponsibilityfordevelopingandimple- mentingtheplan,hasnoted:“Theapproach thatisnecessarytobeginrestorationimme- diatelywithminimumriskisadaptiveman- agement”(U.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineers 1996,p.2). RedesignoftheCSFPwillraisemany questionsthatwillrequireintegratedresearch bynaturalandsocialscientists.Inthefollow- ing,weconsidertwocomponentsofthisre- designanddiscusssomeoftheresearchissues thatscientistsshouldaddressinaninterdisci- plinarysetting. Agricultural LandUse,WaterQuality,and TerrestrialHabitat TheCSFPmadeitpossibletodevelopalarge areaontheformersouthernshoreofLake Okeechobeeintoagriculturalland.Thisarea, calledtheEvergladesAgriculturalArea (EAA)(figure1),isamajorproducerofsug- arcane,vegetables,andturfgrass.Italsohas beenasourceofnutrientloadingsinsurface waterrunofftootherareasoftheecosystem— notablythedownstreamWaterConservation Areas(WCAS),andhasalteredgroundwater 104 JournalofAgriculturalandAppliedEconomics,July1997 tablesandsubsidencelevelsduetodryingof themucksoils. Proposed(andinsomecasespartiallyim- plemented)strategiestodealwiththeseprob- lemsincludenewwaterconveyanceandstor- agestructuresto:(a)retainwaterusedinthe EAA,(b)raisegroundwatertables,and(c)pu- rifyrunoffwatersenteringotherareasofthe ecosystem.Also,alternativecroppingpatterns, bestmanagementpractices(BMPs),andalter- nativecropsarebeingconsideredtoreduce nutrientinputsandretainmorewaterinthe area. Cooperativeworkbetweennaturalandso- cialscientistsisnecessarytodevelopresearch hypotheses,models,andprefemedoptions fromthesestrategies.Importantquestionsto beaddressedconcerningnaturalsystemissues includethefollowing.Howdoestheselection ofwaterdelivery/storagestrategiesandBMPs influenceyieldsforexistingandalternative crops?Howeffectivearealternativenutrient reductiordtreatmentstrategiesinlimitingnu- trientdeliveriestootherareas?Whatarethe effectsofnutrientdeliverylevelstoareasout- sidetheEAAonwaterquality,nativevege- tation,andfishandwildlife?Whatistheex- pectedtimingforecosystemresponsesoutside theEAAgivenaselectedsetofstrategies withintheEAA? Closelyrelatedsocialscienceissuesbeg equallyimportantquestions.Givenexpected changesinyieldsforalternativenutrientre- ductionhreatmentstrategies,whatarethecor- respondingchangesinfarm-levelandregional profitabilityandincomes?Howarerelated businesses,suchasrefinedsugarproductionin theEAA,affectedbycropandyieldchanges? Asidefromyieldchanges,whatarethedirect andindirectcostsorbenefitsassociatedwith alternativewaterdelivery/storagestrategies, especiallyforcommunitiessurroundingthe EAA?Whatisthetiminganddistributionof costsandbenefitsacrossprivateinterestswith- intheEAAandthepublic? Hydroperiods,TerrestrialandMarine Habitats,andWildlfe ThehighlyvariablecycleofrainfallinSouth Florida“resultsinaspatiallyvaryingannualhydropatternthatinfluencesthefloristicand faunalcommunitiesacrosstheEverglades” (DeAngelis,p.314).TheCSFPfundamentally alteredthenaturallyoccurringsheetflowfrom LakeOkeechobeetoFloridaBay(figure1) throughthecreationofdrainagecanals,water storageareas,andpumpstationsthroughout theregion.Themodifiedhydroperiodhas greatlyreducedwadingbirdpopulationsinthe region,reducedavailablehabitatformanyoth- erspecies,andincreasedsalinitylevelsin FloridaBay(TheWatercourse,pp.121–48). Thetaskofidentifyingchangesinwildlife populationsiscomplicatedbythesheermag- nitudeofregionalbiodiversity.Therearemore than350birdspecies(threeofwhichareen- dangered),50reptilespecies(oneisendan- gered),35mammalspecies(twoareendan- gered),morethan500fishspecies,and100 coralspecies.Duetothetropicalandsubtrop- icalclimateoftheregion,thereareplants,in- vertebrates,andotherorganismsthatexistno- whereelseinthecontinentalU.S.(Lodge). Acrosstheentireecosystem,thereare48en- dangeredspecies,14threatenedspecies,and 62candidatespecies(U.S.ArmyCorpsofEn- gineers1994,Vol.2,AppendixC). Proposalstoreestablishmorenaturalhy- droperiodsinsomepartsoftheregionwould providegreatercontinuityacrosswaterstorage areasandamongdifferentsubregionswithin theecosystem.Theseproposalswouldalsore- ducedependenceonthewaterstorageareas formunicipalwatersuppliesandfloodprotec- tion. Theseproposedchangesinthehydrologic systemraiseanumberofimportantnatural scienceissues.How,andtowhatextent,does reestablishinghistoricflowsintheremaining partsoftheoriginalEvergladesimpactthe spatialextentandheterogeneityofexisting terrestrialhabitatsandwildlifepopulations? Whatimpactswouldoccurforsalinitylevels, marinehabitats,andfishpopulationsinF1or- idaBayandothercoastalestuaries?Whatare thetemporalperiodsforvariousbiological systemresponsestomodifiedhydroperiods? Howdoesredesignofthewaterstorageareas affectwatersuppliesandfloodprotectionfor urbanareas—especiallyduringextreme Milon,Kiker,andLee:EcosystemManagementandSocialScientists105 droughtandrainfallevents?Whateffectswill modifiedhydroperiodshaveonthespatialdis- tribution,frequency,andintensityofwild- fires? Correspondingly,thereareimportantsocial scienceconcernsassociatedwiththehydrolog- icsystemmodifications.Howwillexistinghu- manactivitieswithintheecosystemchangein responsetomodifiedhydropatterns-especial- lychangesintheprobabilityoffloodingor severewatershortages?Dovarioususerand nonusergroupspreferchangesinspecifichab- itattypes(e.g.,wetprairiesandopensloughs versussawgrass)?Whatpopulationlevelsfor specificspeciesdovarioususerandnonuser groupsprefer,anddopreferencesforspecies withonesetofhabitatneedsdominateother specieswithdifferenthabitatneeds(e.g.,wad- ingbirdsversuspasserine)?Whateconomic (andnoneconomic)valuesdoindividualsliv- inginSouthFloridaandthoselivinginother areashaveforchangesintheEverglades/ SouthFloridaecosystem?Howlongdothese differentgroupsexpectitwilltakebeforede- siredchangesoccurintheecosystem?How willfutureeconomicandpopulationgrowth influence,andbeinfluencedby,alternative restorationplans? CanAdaptiveManagementofthe EvergladesSucceed? EcosystemmanagementoftheEverglades/ SouthFloridarestorationandtheadaptive managementprocessofferauniqueopportu- nistyforcoordinatedfederalandstateadmin- istrationandforcollaborativeresearchbe- tweennaturalandsocialscientists.Todate, therehavebeenmanypositivedevelopments. TheSouthFloridaEcosystemRestoration WorkingGrouphaspublishedannualreports definingprioritiesandtaskstofacilitateres- torationeffortsandidentifyingleadagencies toaccomplishthetasks.Acoordinatedbudget wasdevelopedin1996fornewmoniesavail- ablefromtheWaterResourcesDevelopment Actof1996.TheArmyCorpsofEngineers wasalsoauthorizedbytheacttocompletea finalplanfortherestorationbyJuly1,1999. Inaddition,theGovernor’sCommissionforaSustainableSouthFloridadevelopeda“Con- ceptualPlan”in1996whichincludedplan- ningobjectivesandpreferredoptionstobe evaluatedaspartoftheCorps’study. Theseactionscreatedaframeworkfor adaptivemanagement,butsubstantiveevi- denceofcollaborativeeffortsbetweennatural andsocialscientistshavebeenlimited.An April1996workshopfornaturalandsocial scientistswasconvenedbytheU.S.Army CorpsofEngineers,theEvergladesPartner- ship,4andtheUniversityofMiamitoevaluate successindicators(endpoints)fortherestora- tioneffortthathadbeenpreviouslydeveloped bytheScienceSubgroup5oftheInteragency WorkingGroup.Theworkshopsucceededin bringingthemostimportantscienceissuesbe- foreabroadcross-sectionofthesciencecom- munity,buttheensuingrecommendations stressedthat:(a)theroleofscienceintheres- torationprocesshadnotbeenclearlydefined, (b)specifichypotheseslinkingecologicaland socialinteractionshadnotbeendeveloped, and(c)socialpreferencesforendpointshad notbeenconsidered(Gentile,p.viii).Since the1996workshop,theInteragencyWorking GrouphascreatedaSocialScienceSteering Committeetoconveneasymposiumonsocial sciencesandecosystemmanagementin1997. Someintegrativeworkbetweennaturaland socialscientistsisoccurringsomewhatinde- pendentlyoftheInteragencyWorkingGroup, throughtheWashingtonofficeoftheEconom- icResearchServicewithcooperationfromthe U.S.FishandWildlifeService.Thislatter groupisimplementingaworkplantolink farm-levelproductionmodelsfortheEAA withanenvironmentalindicatorsmodeland anenvironmentalvaluationanalysis(Feather). Howtheseeffortswillintegratewiththeac- 4TheEvergladesPartnershipisanewlyestab- lished,not-for-profitconsortiumofpublicandprivate institutionsinvolvedinEvergladesrestorationactivi- ties.Itisintendedtoserveasaninformationresource fortheSouthFloridaEcosystemRestorationTask ForceandtheGovernor’sCommissionforaSustain- ableSouthFlorida. 5TheScienceSubgroupiscomposedofnaturalsci- entistsfromtheagenciesrepresentedintheInteragency WorkingGroup. 106JournalofAgriculturalandAppliedEconomics,July1997 tivitiesoftheInteragencyWorkingGroupre- mainstobedetermined. Thelackofsubstantiveinteractionbetween naturalandsocialscientistsintheEverglades/ SouthFloridaecosystemmanagementproject isnotsurprising.Theusualfactorsthathinder interactions—suchasdifferingdisciplinaryy perspectives,limitedsocialsciencestaffingin naturalresourcemanagementagencies,anda lackoftangiblepersonalincentivesfornon- agencyscientists(NationalResearchCouncil, pp.42–45)—areallpresentinthissetting,as they havebeenthroughoutmuchofthehistory ofwaterplanningintheU.S.(Reuss).But eventheArmyCorpsofEngineers,whichhas auniquemixtureofnaturalandsocialscien- tistsandhasanimportantstakeinthesuccess ofadaptivemanagement(Shabman),hasnot definedaplanorprotocoltoimplementan adaptivemanagementprocess.G Theappealofecosystemmanagementand theadaptivemanagementprocessisthatit providesarationalbasisforscientiststohelp managerscopewiththeinherentlackof knowledgeanduncertaintyinnaturalre- sourcemanagement,Somewouldarguethat adaptivemanagementisaninevitabletransi- tion.Thescientificmanagementprinciples thathavedominatedenvironmentalpolicy andmanagementintheU.S.“lackthecross- disciplinaryintegrationandinformedspecu- lationneededtobeusefultoapolicymaker” (Tarlock,p.1133).Indeed,fortheSouthFlor- idaecosystem,theU.S.ArmyCorpsofEn- gineershasrecognizedthat“thefutureKis- simmeeRiver,LakeOkeechobee,Everglades, BigCypress,andFloridaBayecosystemscan be’,tosomeextent,whatwewantthemtobe, basedonourvaluesystems,andourdecisions aboutwhatconditionsandcomponentscon- stitutearestoredecosystem”(1994,Vol.1, p.109).Asthisexperimentinecosystem managementunfolds,theextenttowhichthe SouthFloridaEcosystemRestorationTask c PreviousreportsfromtheCorpsindicatethatde- tailsofanadaptivemanagementstrategywouldnotbe developeduntilthefeasibilityphasewhenspecificres- torationplansareevaluated(U.S.ArmyCorpsofEn- gineers1994,Vol.1,pp.B1O–B12).Forcesuccessfullyintegratesnaturalandso- cialscientistsintothedecision-makingand evaluationprocesswillhelptodetermine whetheradaptivemanagementistrulyasys- tematic,anticipatoryapproachorsimplyan- othernamefortrial-and-error. References Agee,J.K.,andD.R.Johnson.EcosystemManage- mentforParksandWilderness.Seattle:Uni- versityofWashingtonPress,1988. Ande,J.M.,andR.J.Wagenet.“WhyScientists ShouldTalktoEconomists:TheRoleofEco- nomicsinEnhancingtheValueofPublicly FundedAgriculturalResearch.”AAEAOccas. Pap.,jointlycommissionedbytheAAEAand theUSDA/EconomicResearchService,March 1995. Caglioti,G.TheDynamicsofAmbiguity.Berlin: Springer-Verlag,1992. Caldwell,L.BetweenTwoWorlds:Science,theEn- vironmentalMovement,andPolicyChoice. NewYork:CambridgeUniversityPress,1990. DeAngelis,D.“Synthesis:SpatialandTemporal CharacteristicsoftheEnvironment.”InEver- glades:TheEcosystemandItsRestoration,eds., S.M.DavisandJ.C.Ogden.DelrayBeachFL: St.LuciePress,1994. Feather,P.“EcosystemEconomicsResearchPro- gram.” USDA/EconomicResearchService, WashingtonDC,11September1996. Fortman,L.“TheRoleofProfessionalNormsand BeliefsintheAgency-ClientRelationsofNat- uralScienceBureaucracies.”Nat.Resour.J. 30(1990):361-80. Gentile,J.,ed,ProceedingsoftheWorkshopon SouthFloridaEcologicalSustainabilityCrite- ria.MiamiFL:CenterforMarineandEnviron- mentalAnalyses,UniversityofMiami,1996. Governor’sCommissionforaSustainableSouth Florida.“AConceptualPlanfortheCentraland SouthFlorida(C&SF)ProjectRestudy.”Coral GablesFL,28August1996. —.“InitialReport.”CoralGablesFL,1Oc- tober1995, Grumbine,R.E.“WhatIsEcosystemManage- ment?”ConservationBiology8(1995):27–38. Haeuber,R.“SettingtheEnvironmentalPolicy Agenda:TheCaseofEcosystemManagement.” Nat.Resour.J.36(1996):1–28. Harwell,M.A.,J.ELong,A.Bartuska,J.H.Gentile, C.C.Harwell,V.Myers,andJ.C.Ogden. “EcosystemManagementtoAchieveEcolog- Milon,Kiker,andLee:EcosystemManagementandSocialScientists10’7 icalSustainability:TheCaseofSouthFlori- da.”EnvironmentalManagement20(1996): 497–521. Helling,C.S.AdaptiveEnvironmentalAssessment andManagement.NewYork:JohnWileyand Sons,1978, InteragencyEcosystemManagementTaskForce. TheEcosystemApproach:HealthyEcosystems andSustainableEconomies,Vol.I:Overview; Vol.II:ImplementationIssues.WashingtonDC, 1995. Jasanoff,S.TheFzj?hBranch:ScienceAdvisorsas Policy-Makers.CambridgeMA:HarvardUni- versityPress,1990, Latzko,W.J.,andD.M.Saunders.FourDayswith Dr.Deming:AStrategyforModernMethodsof Management.ReadingMA:Addison-Wesley Publishing,1995. Light,S.S.,andJ.W.Dineen.“WaterControlinthe Everglades:AHistoricalPerspective.”InEv- erglades:TheEcosystemandItsRestoration, eds.,S.M.DavisandJ.C.Ogden.DelrayBeach FL:St.LuciePress,1994. Lodge,T.E.TheEvergladesHandbook:Under- standingtheEcosystem.DelrayBeachFL:St. LuciePress,1994. Ludwig,D.,R.Hilborn,andC.Walters.“Uncer- tainty,ResourceExploitation,andConserva- tion:LessonsfromHistory.”Science 260(1993):17,36. Miller,R.B.“InteractionsandCollaborationin GlobalChangeAcrosstheSocialandNatural Sciences.”AA4BZ018(1994):19–24. NationalResearchCouncil.Science,Policy,andthe Coast.WashingtonDC:NationalAcademy Press,1995. Reuss,M.“CopingwithUncertainty:SocialSci- entists,Engineers,andFederalWaterResources Planning.”Nat.Resour.J.32(1992):101–35. Sedjo,R.A.“EcosystemManagement:AnUn- chartedPathforPublicForests.”Resources (Fall1995):10-20. Shabman,L.“EnvironmentalActivitiesinCorps ofEngineersWaterResourcesPrograms: ChartingaNewDirection.”Rep.No.93-PS-1, U.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineers/InstituteforWaterResources,AlexandriaVA,November 1993. Stanley,T.R.“EcosystemManagementandtheAr- roganceofHumanism.”ConservationBiology 9(1995):255–62. Suter,G.,andL.Barnthouse.“AssessmentCon- cepts.”InEcologicalRiskAssessment,ed.,G. Suter,pp.21–47.ChelseaMI:LewisPublishers, 1993. Tarlock,D.“TheNonequilibriumParadigmin EcologyandthePartialUnravelingofEnviron- mentalLaw.”LoyolaofLosAngelesLawRe- view27(1994):1121–44. U.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineers.CentralandSouth FloridaProject;ComprehensiveReviewStudy; ReconnaissanceReport,Vols.1–3.U.S.ACE, JacksonvilleFL,November1994. —.“MovingTowardEcosystemRestoration: CentralandSouthFloridaProject.”U.S.ACE, JacksonvilleFL,February1996. U.S.DepartmentoftheInterior.“Interagency AgreementonSouthFloridaEcosystemRes- toration.”AgreementauthoredbyUSDIand signedbyrepresentativesofsixfederalagen- cies.WashingtonDC,23September1993. U.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.“APhase IInventoryofCurrentEPAEffortstoProtect Ecosystems.”Pub.No.EPA841-S-95-001, WashingtonDC,1995. U.S.GeneralAccountingOffice.“Ecosystem Management:AdditionalActionsNeededto AdequatelyTestaPromisingApproach.” Pub.No.GAO/RCED-94-111,Washington DC,1994. Walters,C.J.AdaptiveManagementofRenewable Resources.New York McGraw-Hill,1986. TheWatercourse.DiscoveraWatershed:TheEv- erglades.PreparedfortheSouthFloridaWater ManagementDistrict.BozemanMTTheWa- tercourse,1996. Yaffee,S.L.,A.EPhillips,I.C.Frentz,l?W.Hardy, S.M.Maleki,andB.E.Thorpe.EcosystemMan- agementintheUnitedStates:AnAssessmentof CurrentExperience.WashingtonDC:Island Press,1996.

------------- Read More -------------

Download ecosystem-management-and-the-florida-everglades-the-role-of.pdf

Ecosystem Management and the Florida Everglades: The Role of related documents

DEPARTMENT of HEALTH and HUMAN - Centers for Disease Control and

507 Pages · 2008 · 6.61 MB · English

influenza, natural disasters, and terrorism, while remaining focused on the threats to health and local, tribal and territorial health network.

A Typology of Victim Characterization in Television Crime Dramas

33 Pages · 2010 · 278 KB · English

her analysis of one season of Law & Order, NYPD Blue, and The Practice. She found that only

Immigration and Economy in the Globalization Process

236 Pages · 2002 · 1.63 MB · English

will need employees with the right skills and motivation. Switching to an active im- Finland by analyzing the development of the volume of foreign-born and foreign na- tionals and direct foreign . In the globalization trend of corporations, competition has shifted from natural re- source and expen

Interpreting sloppy stick figures by graph rectification and

14 Pages · 2001 · 822 KB · English

1 Interpreting sloppy stick figures by graph rectification and constraint-based matching. James V. Mahoney and Markus P. J. Fromherz Xerox Palo Alto Research Center

International Student Guide for Employment in the US

19 Pages · 2012 · 741 KB · English

Problem- If you do not speak English as a native language, you are at a distinct disadvantage communicating with recruiters. Solution- Consciously make an effort to talk with Americans: • Make presentations, take English courses, and work tirelessly at improving your English skills. • Ask a fel

Assistance and Accountability in Externally Managed Schools

37 Pages · 2008 · 263 KB · English

Edison Schools, Inc., is the largest and most visible among a growing number of. Education Management profit EMOs were managing 521 public schools serving nearly 240,000 students across the United . educational services; and management consulting under the “Edison Alliance” flag, through 

List of Developing Nations Afghanistan Albania Algeria Angola

2 Pages · 2011 · 538 KB ·

Algeria. Angola. Antigua and Barbuda. Argentina. Armenia. Azerbaijan Hungary. India. Indonesia. Iran, Islamic Republic of. Iraq. Jamaica. Jordan.

22 NAVAJO NATION COUNCIL | Office of the Speaker

2 Pages · 2013 · 295 KB · English

Law and Order Committee receives update regarding and an additional amount of $1.4 million to ensure operation through operations through the winter season.

The European Car Parking Sector Sees M&A Flurry, But Will It Be An Easy Ride For Investors?

11 Pages · 2017 · 813 KB · English

The European Car Parking Sector Sees M&A Flurry, But Will It Be An Easy Ride For Investors? spglobal.com/ratingsdirect. Dec. 6, 2017. 2. Despite lots of M&A activity in the. European car parking sector, the future is somewhat uncertain. Acquisitions are the major growth catalyst for operators, but

Building Permits Granted Development Services Department City of San Antonio

84 Pages · 2012 · 272 KB · English

438 RICHLAND HILLS DR BLDG 10. DL CAMBRIDGE DEV GROUP, INC. (713)961-1336 x. 2251200. NEW 2-STORY MULTI-FAMILY APARTMEN. $947,363.00 2284202. 20x4=80 sq ft at csw, 171 sq ft at approach. $0.00. 3106 PIEDRA DE RIO. PRESIDIO CONST LLC. (210)679-8837 x. 2284203.