287 Pages · 2012 · 39.15 MB · English Motorway traffic behaviour. ITE: Institute of Transportation Engineering. IVD: Individual Vehicles' raw Data. JND: Just Noticeable Difference. K-S: Kolmogorov-Smirnov. LC: Lane Changing h': Average headway of successive vehicles crossing the stop line during green (sec) hi: Headway of 


DEVELOPMENT OF TRAFFIC MICROSIMULATION MODEL FOR MOTORWAY MERGES WITH RAMP METERING Jalal Taqi Shaker ALOBAEDI School of Computing, Science and Engineering (CSE) University of Salford, Salford, UK Submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 2011 Table of contents Table of contentsii List of Tables vii List of Figures ix Acknowledgements xv Declaration xvi Dedication xvii Abbreviationsxviii Symbols xix Abstractxxi Chapter One : INTRODUCTION 1 11 Background! 12 Aim and objectives 2 13 Thesis outline2 Chapter Two : TRAFFIC SIMULATION MODELS4 21 Introduction4 22 Simulation approaches4 23 Microsimulation modelling process 5 231 Car following (CF) models5 232 Lane changing (LC) models 11 233 Merging models 13 234 Review of gap acceptance models16 24 Summary 18 Chapter Three : TRAFFIC CONGESTION AND MANAGEMENT CONTROLS 19 31 Introduction 19 32 Causes of traffic congestion 19 33 Effect of congestion on motorway capacity 20 34 Traffic congestion solutions21 35 Speed limit controls21 36 Ramp metering (RM) controls22 361 Evolution of RM22 362 RM components23 363 RM algorithms24 3631 DemandCapacity (DC) algoithm25 3632 Demand Capacity INRETS25 3633 RWS algorithm26 3634 Percent occupancy algorithm,26 3635 ALINEA algorithm26 3636 ALINEA extended algorithms26 3637 SpeedOccupancy algorithm29 3638 ANCONA algorithm29 3639 Ramp metering pilot scheme algorithm (RMPS) 30 36310 Other RM algorithms30 364 Summary of the RM algorithms 31 365 Queue override strategies (QOSs) 32 366 Evaluation studies for RM34 3661 Empirical studies34 3662 Simulation studies36 3663 Limitations in the RM evaluation studies38 37 Summary3 8 Chapter Four : DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS 40 41 Introduction40 42 Methods of data collection40 43 Site selection and description of the data obtained41 44 Effect of vehicle types on "close following" behaviour42 441 Background43 442 Description of the data44 443 Methodology45 444 Results and discussion 52 445 Comparison with other models59 45 Lane utilisation 60 451 Introduction and background60 452 Lane utilisation for motorway traffic at normal sections62 4521 Testing of previous models62 4522 Development of new regression models64 453 Lane utilisation for motorway traffic at merge sections68 454 Lane utilisation of slip road (merge) traffic70 4541 Lane utilisation before the merge section (Position 1) 70 4542 Lane utilisation at the start of merge section (Position 2) 71 455 Lane utilisation of heavy goods vehicles71 4551 Testing of previous HGVs' lane utilisation models72 4552 Development of new models 74 46 Headway distribution76 461 Simple headway models 76 462 Composite headway models 77 463 Testing headway models using real data 78 47 Lane changing82 471 Frequency of lane changes (FLC)82 472 Manoeuvring time for lane changing84 48 Merging behaviour85 481 Merging position85 482 Gap selection behaviour86 483 Merge ratio 87 484 Cooperative and yielding behaviour 88 485 Size of accepted gaps 89 49 Data related to RM90 491 Estimation of critical occupancy values for UK motorways 90 4911 Introduction and background90 4912 Application of occupancy in RM92 4913 Methodology92 4914 Results and discussions93 492 Compliance

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