Cell Biology - Nicholls State University

Cell Biology - Nicholls State University

35 Pages · 2007 · 6.26 MB · English

1 Cell Biology A cell is chemical system that is able to maintain its structure and reproduce. Cells are the fundamental unit of life. All living things are cells or

Cell Biology - Nicholls State University free download

1 Cell Biology A cell is chemical system that is able to maintain its structure and reproduce. Cells are the fundamental unit of life. All living things are cells or composed of cells. 2 The interior contents of cells is the cytoplasm . The cytoplasm is isolated from the surrounding environment by the ______ ______ . There are two fundamentally different forms of cells. __________ cells - relatively simple cells - lack nuclear membrane and many organelles - bacteria and their relatives are all prokaryotic ___________ cells - more complex cells - have a nucleus and many organelles - all cells of plants, animals, fungi, and protists 3 Most cells are small Prokaryotic: 1-10 µm Eukaryotic: 10 - 100 µm (1 µm = .001 mm) Cells and organelles 4 Organelles, Macromolecules, & Atoms 5 As cell size increases the volume increases much faster than the surface area. Cells obtain nutrients, gain information and rid waste through their plasma membrane. As cell size increases, a cell’s ability to exchange with its environment becomes limited by the amount of membrane area that is available for exchange. Why are cells small? 6 Robert Hooke - 1665 - using an early microscope viewed cork and saw many repeating box-like structures and called them “cells.” What he saw were spaces surrounded by walls that once contained living cells.Since Hooke’s first observations what is known about cells has increased greatly. 7 Cell Theory • Cells are the fundamental unit of life - nothing less than a cell is alive. • All organisms are constructed of and by cells. • All cells arise from preexisting cells. Cells contain the information necessary for their own reproduction. No new cells are originating spontaneously on earth today. • Cells are the functional units of life. All biochemical processes are carried out by cells. • Groups of cells can be organized and function as multicellular organisms • Cells of multicellular organisms can become specialized in form and function

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