Baseline Testing of the EV Global E-Bike With Ultracapacitors

Baseline Testing of the EV Global E-Bike With Ultracapacitors

36 Pages · 2015 · 1.51 MB · English

The E-Bike provides an inexpensive approach to advance the state of the art in hybrid technology in a practical application. The project transfers 

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NASA/TM2001211077 BaselineTestingoftheEVGlobal EBikeWithUltracapacitors DennisJEichenberg,JohnSKolacz,andPaulFTavernelli GlennResearchCenter,Cleveland,Ohio NationalAeronauticsand SpaceAdministration GlennResearchCenter July2001 https://ntrsnasagov/searchjsp?R=20010069673 20190826T23:39:03+00:00Z Tradenamesormanufacturers'namesareusedinthisreportfor identificationonlyThisusagedoesnotconstituteanofficial endorsement,eitherexpressedorimplied,bytheNational AeronauticsandSpaceAdministration NASACenterforAerospaceInformation 7121StandardDrive Hanover,MD21076 Availablefrom NationalTechnicalInformationService 5285PortRoyalRoad Springfield,VA22100 Availableelectronicallyathttp://gltrsgrcnasagov/GLTRS BASELINETESTINGOFTHEEVGLOBALEBIKEWITHULTRACAPACITORS DennisJEichenberg,JohnSKolacz,andPaulFTavernelli NationalAeronauticsandSpaceAdministration GlennResearchCenter Cleveland,Ohio44135 SUMMARY TheNASAJohnHGlennResearchCenterinitiatedbaselinetestingoftheEVGlobal EBikewithultracapacitorsasawaytoreducepollutioninurbanareas,reducefossilfuel consumptionandreduceoperatingcostsfortransportationsystemsTheEBike providesaninexpensiveapproachtoadvancethestateoftheartinhybridtechnologyin apracticalapplicationTheprojecttransfersspacetechnologytoterrestrialusevianon traditionalpartners,andprovidespowersystemdatavaluableforfuturespace applicationsTheworkwasdoneundertheHybridPowerManagement(HPM)Program, whichincludestheHybridElectricTransitBus(HETB)TheEBikeisastateoftheart, groundup,hybridelectricbicycleUniquefeaturesofthevehicle'spowersysteminclude theuseofanefficient,400watt,electrichubmotor,anda7speedderailleursystemthat permitsoperationasfullyelectric,fullypedal,oracombinationofthetwoOther innovativefeatures,suchasregenerativebrakingthroughultracapacitorenergystorage, areplannedRegenerativebrakingrecoversmuchofthekineticenergyofthevehicle duringdecelerationTheEbikehasbeentestedwiththestandardbatteryenergy storagesystem,anultracapacitorenergystoragesystem,andacombinationbatteryand ultracapacitorenergystoragesystemAdescriptionoftheEbike,theresultsof performancetestingandfuturevehicledevelopmentplansisthesubjectofthisreport ThereportconcludesthattheEBikeprovidesexcellentperformance,andthatthe implementationofultracapacitorsinthepowersystemcanprovidesignificant performanceimprovements INTRODUCTION TheNASAGlennResearchCenterinitiatedbaselinetestingoftheEVGlobalEBikeas anexcellentopportunitytotransfertechnologyfromtheaerospaceandmilitary industriestoacommercialventureTheprojectisseenasawaytoreducepollutionin urbanareas,reducefossilfuelconsumptionandreduceoperatingcostsfor transportationsystemsTheEBikeprovidesaninexpensiveapproachtoadvancethe stateoftheartinhybridtechnologyinapracticalapplicationTheprojecttransfers spacetechnologytoterrestrialusevianontraditionalpartners,andprovidespower systemdatavaluableforfuturespaceapplications TheNASAGlennResearchCenterprovidesoverallprojectcoordinationandis responsiblefortestingthevehicleThisincludesinstrumentingthevehicleand developinginstrumentationandcontrolprogramsWhereverpractical,offtheshelf componentshavebeenintegratedintothetestconfiguration NASA/TM20012110771 TESTOBJECTIVES TestingofthevehiclewasperformedattheNASAGlennResearchCenterOfparticular interestarethefollowingcharacteristics:range,vehiclespeed,accelerationtime,and performanceoverstopandgodrivingschedulesTheperformanceofthevarious vehiclecomponents,especiallythemotor,controller,energystoragesystem,and chargerarealsoofinterest TESTVEHICLEDESCRIPTION TheEBikeisastateoftheart,groundup,hybridelectricbicycleThevehicleisshown inFig1anddescribedindetailinAppendixATheEBikeisaparallelhybridvehicleas showninFig2Asaparallelhybridvehicle,powerisprovidedtothedrivewheelfrom aninternalelectrichubmotor,orthroughthepedalsviaa7speedderailleur,ora combinationofthetwo Thestandardenergystoragesystemconsistsoftwo12volt,12amphoursealedlead acid,deepdischargebatteriestostoreelectricalenergyThebatterychargerisbuiltinto thebatterypackThechargerisratedat24volts,3ampsDCThecompletebattery packincludingthechargerisshowninFig3Thebatterypackisquicklyremovedfrom thevehicleifsodesiredThispermitsthequickinstallationofanotherbatterypack,as wellaschargingofthebatterypackoutsideofthevehicle Theultracapacitorenergystoragesystemtestedisratedat400FaradsOneofthe ultracapacitorsisshowninFig4Thisstateofthearttechnologynotonlyhasmuch longerlifethanconventionalbatteries,butalsoprovidesmuchhighercurrentcapacity thanbatteriesUltracapacitorsaremaintenancefree,andhaveexcellentlow temperaturecharacteristics TheelectrictractionmotorshowninFig5isa400WattDCbrushedelectrichubmotor ThisisadirectdrivesystemwithnodrivetrainlossesApulsewidthmodulatedmotor controllerallowsforefficientspeedcontroloverawidespeedrangeThemotor controllerincludescruisecontroltomaintainconstantspeed ThevehicleincorporatesDepartmentofTransportationspecifiedsafetyfeatures includinglights,mirror,andhorn NASA/TM20012110772 Fig1EVGlobalEBike NASA/TM20012110773 Fig2EBikeSchematicDiagram RIDER INPUT ENERGYFLOW CHARGERl IPLHEVE 0 MOTOROTOR CONTROL t ENERGY_VEHICLE STORAGEACCESSORIES SYSTEM PARALLELHYBRIDSCHEMATICDIAGRAM DRIVE WHEEL Fig3BatteryPack NASA/TM200t21i0774 Fig4Ultracapacitor Fig5HubMotor NASA/TM20012110775 INSTRUMENTATION TheEBikewasinstrumentedtomeasurevehiclespeed,distance,andloadThesedata weresenttoanoffboarddigitaldataacquisitionsystem,sampledcontinuouslyand storedonadesktopPCAdditionalchannelsmeasuredthebatteryvoltageandcurrent, aswellasthefollowingtemperatures:tractionmotor,motorcontroller,energystorage, andtheambienttemperatureThesedataweresenttoanoffboarddigitaldata acquisitionsystemandstoredonalaptopPCPowerforthedataacquisitionsystem, wasderivedfromtheBuilding86utilitysystemTheinstrumentationconfigurationis describedinAppendixB TESTPROCEDURES ThetestsdescribedinthisreportwereconductedonadynamometerattheNASAGlenn ResearchCenterinCleveland,OhioAdescriptionofthedynamometerisgivenin AppendixCThetestswereconductedinaccordancewiththetestmatrixprovidedin AppendixD NASA/TM20012110776 TESTRESULTS VehiclePerformance Tentestswereconductedtodeterminevehicleperformance,perTable1: Table1PerformanceTestsConductedontheEBike Test Number Grade (%) +0 Vehicle Mode Normal TopVehicle Speed Maximum 2+4NormalMaximum 3+8NormalMaximum 4+0NormalMaximum 5+4NormalMaximum 6+8NormalMaximum +0 +0 +4 7 10 Economy Normal Normal Normal +8 5mph Maximum Maximum Maximum Energy Source Battery Battery Battery Capacitor Capacitor Capacitor Capacitor Bat&Cap Bat&Cap Bat&Cap TestMode Accelerationtest Accelerationtest Accelerationtest Acceleration/rangetest Acceleration/rangetest Acceleration/rangetest Rangetest Accelerationtest Accelerationtest Accelerationtest AsimilarsetofplotshavebeenincludedinAppendixEforeachofthevehicletests: aVehiclespeedandvehiclepowervselapsedtime bVehiclebatteryvoltage,current,andpowervselapsedtime cComponenttemperaturesvselapsedtime AsummaryofthetestresultsisshowninTable2attheendofthissection NASA/TM20012110777 MaximumSpeed Themaximumspeedofthevehiclewasmeasuredtobe1194mphwithnogradeunder fullpowerwithbatteryenergystorageThemaximumspeedwasmeasuredtobe1256 mphwithnogradeunderfullpowerwithultracapacitorenergystorageThemaximum speedwasmeasuredtobe1276mphwithnogradeunderfullpowerwithacombination ofbatteryandultracapacitorenergystorageFigure6indicatesthemaximumspeeds achievedwiththevariousenergystoragesystems,aswellasthevariouspowersthat wereobtained Fig6MaximumSpeedforVariousGrades AccelerationTestingMaxSpeed SpeedMPH 8 Battery&Capacitors Battery Capacitors TestDate3113/01 AccelerationTestingMaxWatts Watts 250 200 150 100 5O 0 0 %Grade 8 Battery&Capacitors Battery Capacitors TeatDate3/13/01 NASA/TM20012110778 Acceleration Theaverageacceleration,an,ofthevehicleiscomputedasachangeinvehiclespeed asafunctionoftime an VnVn1 tntn_ AccelerationtimesaregiveninTable2 Range Therangeofthevehiclewasdeterminedfromthedynamometertestsunderfullelectric operationwithultracapacitorenergystorageThisyieldsarangeof089milesforno gradeintheeconomymodewithaninitialspeedof5mph Fig7RangewithVariousSpeedsandGrades RangeTestingwithCapacitors Miles /8%GradeMaxSpeed J4%GradeMaxSpeed 0%GradeMaxSpeed 0%Grade5MPH TestDate3113101 NASA/TM20012110779 Summary AnoverallsummaryofthevehicletestingisshowninTable2 Table2SummaryofTestResultsfortheEVGlobalEBikewith Ultracapacitors Parameter AccelerationTimes 5mph 10mph 12mph 5mph 724mph 5mph TopSpeed Range 5mph MaximumSpeed Configuration Battery Capacitor Battery&Capacitor Battery Capacitor Battery&Capacitor Battery Capacitor Battery&Capacitor Battery Capacitor Battery&Capacitor Battery Capacitor Battery&Capacitor Battery Capacitor Battery&Capacitor Battery Capacitor Battery&Capacitor Test Conditions Test Results 110sec 097sec 097sec 0%Grade, NormalMode 750sec 0%Grade,638sec NormalMode607sec 0%Grade, NormalMode 116sec 4%Grade,116sec NormalMode058sec 1812sec 1150sec 1042sec 4%Grade, NormalMode 129sec 8%Grade,043sec NormalMode071sec 0%Grade, NormalMode 1203sec 987sec 1060sec 1194mph 1256mph 1276mph Remarks Capacitor Capacitor 0%Grade, EconomyMode 0%Grade, NormalMode 089miles 1377min 071miles 411min 1256mphmaximumspeed NASA/TM200121107710 CONCLUDINGREMARKS TheEVGlobalEBikeastestedanddescribedinthisreportwiththestandardbattery packisacommerciallyavailablevehiclethatisfullypreparedforthemassmarketThe EBikewasalsotestedsuccessfullywithultracapacitorenergystorage,anda combinationofbatteryandultracapacitorenergystorageThevehicle,northeenergy storagesystems,exhibitedanyproblemsundertherigoroustestconditionsthatitwas exposedtoTheperformanceofthevehicleprovedtobeexcellent ThevehicleaccelerationtestswereveryrevealingTheaccelerationtestswere performedwithbatteryenergystorage,ultracapacitorenergystorage,andacombination ofbatteryandultracapacitorenergystorageTheaccelerationperformanceto5mph and10mphinthethreemodesofoperationwasroughlythesamewithnogradeThe accelerationperformanceto12mphwasgreatlyimprovedwiththeultracapacitoralone orthecombinationbatteryandultracapacitorTheaccelerationperformanceofthe vehiclewitha4%gradeandan8%gradewithultracapacitorenergystorage,eitherby itselforincombinationwiththebattery,wasfarsuperiortothatofthebatteryaloneThe ultracapacitoriscapableofsupplyingthehighpowerrequiredtoacceleratethevehicle morequicklyTheadditionoftheultracapacitortothebatteryconservesthebattery sinceitdoesnotneedtoprovidethehighcurrentrequiredforacceleration,thus extendingitslife Thetopspeedofthevehiclewithnogradeandfullthrottlewiththestandardbattery packwas1194mphThetopspeedwiththeultracapacitoraloneimprovedto1256 mphThehighesttopspeedwasachievedwithacombinationofbatteryand ultracapacitorat1276mph Therangeperformanceofthevehiclewiththestandardbatteryenergystorageis extraordinaryTherangeof348milesachievedataninitialspeedof5mphwithno gradeisalmosttwicetheadvertisedrangeof20milesThevehicleoperatedfor57 hoursundertheseconditionsTherangeachievedwithultracapacitorenergystorage aloneatthesameconditionswas089milesThevehicleoperatedfor1377minutes undertheseconditions Thetestresultswithacombinationofbatteryandcapacitorenergystoragewerevery impressiveTheultracapacitorprovidesthehighcurrentsrequiredforhighacceleration, whileconservingthebatteryThetopspeedisthegreatestwiththebatteryand ultracapacitorcombination ThebaselinetestingoftheEBikewiththestandardbatterypackwasthefirststepinthe testingprocessThebaselinetestingoftheEBikewithultracapacitorenergystorage wasthesecondstepFutureplansfortheEBikecallsforthetestingofthevehiclewith regenerativebrakingUltracapacitorswillbeusedforregenerativebraking,becauseof theirsuperioritytobatteriesinacceptinghighbrakingcurrents,allowingforlessusageof themechanicalbrakesAphotovoltaicchargingstationwillbeassembledandtested,to permittheeffectiveuseoftheEBikeinremotelocationswithnodependenceuponthe utilities TheEBikeprovidesaninexpensiveapproachtoadvancethestateoftheartinhybrid technologyinapracticalapplicationTheprojecttransfersspacetechnologyto terrestrialusevianontraditionalpartners,andprovidespowersystemdatavaluablefor futurespaceapplications NASA/TM200121107711 , REFERENCES "BaselineTestingoftheEVGlobalEBike",NASATechnicalMemorandum2001 210569,January2001 NASA/TM200121107712 APPENDIXA VEHICLESUMMARYDATASHEET 10VehicleManufacturer 20Vehicle 30VehicleConfiguration 40TractionMotor 41TractionMotorConfiguration 42TractionMotorPower 43TractionMotorCooling 50 Drivetrain 51TractionMotorDrivetrain 52PedalDrivetrain 511TransmissionType 512FrontChainRing 513RearCluster 514GearRatio 515Crankarm 516Chain 60 Vehicle 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 Dimensions WheelBase FrameSize(centertotop) HeadTube HeadsetStackHeight HeadsetDimensions ForkSteererTube ForkTravel Stem1 Stem2 HandlebarWidth HandlebarRise HandlebarHandle SeatPost SeatPostSpacer Tires Rims Spokes 6171Front 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 6172Rear 618BottomBracket EVGlobalMotorsCompany LosAngeles,CA EBikeTouringModel ParallelHybrid DCbrushed 400watts Aircooled DirectDrive 7speedShimanoderailleur 33teeth 14,16,18,20,22,24,28teeth 042,048,055,061,067,073, 085 67in(170mm) Y2x3/32x110L 418in(10623mm) 165in(419cm) 64in(163mm) 130in(33mm) 254mmx34mmx30mmw/seal 11/8in 65mm 40degrees,110mmextension 286mmx254mmx150mm withquill 620mm 30mm,10degrees 200mm 350mmx272mmOD 100mmx273IDx349mmOD 26x195in 26x15in,14Gx36H,doublewall 266mm,14Gstainless withbrassnipples 219mm,14Gstainless withbrassnipples 127mmcartridge NASAfrM200121107713 619BaseCurbWeight 620TotalWeight(astested) 70EnergyStorage 71BatteryPack 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 Configuration BatteryType BatteryEnergyRating BatteryVoltageRating ChargerInput ChargerOutput Dimensions Weight 72Capacitors 721Configuration 722Capacitance 723EnergyRating 724VoltageRating 725Dimensions 726Weight 67Ib 267Ib Twoinserieswithintegralcharger Deepdischarge,sealedleadacid 12amphourseach 12voltseach 115voltsac,60Hz,2amps 24voltsdc,3amps 15inx4inx4in 223Ib Bankof8ultracapacitors(4legsof 2ultracapacitorsinseries) 50Feach,400Ftotal 81kJeach,648kJtotal 18Veach,36Vforeachseriesleg 325inx6inx7in 108Ibeach,80Ibtotal NASA/TM200121107714 APPENDIXB DESCRIPTIONOFTHEINSTRUMENTATIONSYSTEM AblockdiagramoftheinstrumentationsystemisshowninFigBI Thevehicledynamometerhasanintegralinstrumentationsystemthatmonitorsvehicle speed,distance,andpowerThesedataaresampledat3Hzandtransmittedtothe desktopPCviaaserialinterfaceThePClogsthedynamometerdata AllothermeasurementswereobtainedwithaHewlettPackarddataacquisitionsystem, samplingat100HzTypeKthermocoupleswereusedforalltemperature measurementsHalleffecttransducerswereusedforallcurrentmeasurementsThese dataaretransmittedtothelaptopPCviaaserialinterfaceThePClogsthedata FigB1 DYNAMOMETER INTERFACE DESKTOP PC LAPTOP PC IMOTORTEMP_' IBATTERYTEMP_' ICONTROLTEMP_'_ IAMBIENTTEMP_'_ IBATTERYVOLT_' ICHARGERVOLT ICHARGERCUR_'_ SIGNAL CONDITIONER VEHICLEINSTRUMENTATIONSYSTEM VEHICLE DYNAMOMETER DIGITAL DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM NASA/TM200121107715 APPENDIXC DESCRIPTIONOFVEHICLEDYNAMOMETER Thevehicledynamometerusedtoconductthetestsdescribedinthisreportisthe CompuTrainerProChallengePC1Model8001Itisahighperformance, microprocessorcontrolled,indoordynamometerdesignedforbicycleuseThe electronicloadgeneratoriscapableofcreatingresistanceloadsfrom50to1500wattsto simulateroadgradesto15%ThedynamometerisshowninFig5 Testsdocumentedinthisreportwereconductedwiththedynamometerprogrammedto meetthetestmatrixrequirements APPENDIXD DESCRIPTIONOFTESTCYCLES TestingofthevehiclewasbasedonthetestmatrixshownintableDI TableD1EVGlobalEBikeTestMatrix PARAMETERCONDITIONS Acceleration Range TopSpeed Tomaximumspeedat0%,4%and8%gradesinthenormalmodewithbatteryenergystorage ultracapacitorenergystorage,andcombinationbatter,/andultracapacitorener_:storage Tomaximumspeedat0%gradeinthenormalmodeofoperationwithultracapacitorenergystorage To5mphintheecononwmodeofoperationwithultracapacitorener_storase Tomaximumspeedat0%gradeinthenormalmodeofoperationwithbatteryenergystorage, ultracapacitorener_¢storase,andcombinationbatter_,andultracapacitorene%,_storase APPENDIXE VEHICLEPERFORMANCETESTRESULTS AcompletesetofplotsofthetestresultsareincludedhereTable1identifiesthetests thatwereconducted NASAJTM200121107716 Acceleration&RangewithCapacitors0Grade =3 _o30 _'_20 Q ¢n0 012345 MaxDistance071Miles MaxSpeed1256MPH MaxWatts243 TimeMin ISpeedMPHWatts/10i TestDate3/13/01 Acceleration&RangewithCapacitors4Grade =3 _30i 20 ,= 0, 0204060 MaxDistance011Miles MaxSpeed796MPH MaxWatts231

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